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7. REFERENCES


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Åsgård, T., Austreng, E., Holmefjord, I. & Hillestad, M. 1999. Resource efficiency in the production of various species. In N. Svennevig, H. Reinertsen & M. New (eds), Sustainable aquaculture: food for the future? pp. 171-183. Rotterdam, Netherlands, A.A. Balkema.

Barlow, S. 2000. Fishmeal and fish oil: sustainable feed ingredients for aquafeeds. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 3(2):85-88.

Brandsen, M.P., Carter, C.G. & Nowak, B.F. 2001. Alternative protein sources for farmed salmon. Feed Mix, 9(4/5):18-21.

Cailliez, B. 2001. The use of plant-based feed in fish farming. INFOFISH International, 6/2001:31-33.

Chamberlain, G.W. 1993. Aquaculture trends and feed projections. World Aquaculture, 24(1):19-29.

Chamberlain, G.W. 2000. Aquaculture projections for use of fishmeal and oil. Oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of IFOMA, Lima, Peru, 30 October - 3 November 2000. (MS)

Crawford, M.A., Bloom, M., Broadhurst, C.L., Schmidt, W.F., Cunnane, S.C., Galli, C., Gehbremeskel, K., Linseisen, F., Lloyd-Smith, J. & Parkington, J. 1999. Evidence for the unique function of DHA during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids, 34:S39-S47.

Cremer, M., Baoxin, Z., Schmittou, H. & Jian, Z. 1998. Status and forecast for the freshwater aquaculture production and feed industries in China. Paper presented at Aquaculture ‘98, 16-19 February 1998, Las Vegas, Nevada. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, World Aquaculture Society,.

De Silva, S.S. 1999. Feed resources, usage and sustainability. pp. 221-242 In N. Svennevig, H. Reinertsen & M. New (eds), Sustainable aquaculture: food for the future? Rotterdam, Netherlands, A.A. Balkema.

Dowden, A. 2001a. Salmon; so just what are the alternatives? Daily Mail, 16 January 2001:53. London, United Kingdom, ANL.

Dowden, A. 2001b. Muddy waters. Sunday Times Style Magazine, 4 March, 2001:41. London, United Kingdom, Times Newspapers Ltd.

FAO. 1980. A review of the world resources of mesopelagic fish, by J. Gjosaeter & K. Kawaguchi. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 193. Rome. 149 pp.

FAO. 1987. Feeds and feeding of fish and shrimp: a manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for fish and shrimp in aquaculture, by M.B. New. FAO Report No. ADCP/REP/87/26. Rome.

FAO. 1993a. Farm-made aquafeeds, by M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon & I. Csavas (eds). FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 343. Rome. 434 pp.

FAO. 1993b. Feed ingredients for warmwater fish: fishmeal and other processed feedstuffs, by A.G.J. Tacon. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 856. Rome. 68 pp.

FAO. 1994. Feed ingredients for carnivorous fish species: alternatives to fishmeal and other fishery resources, by A.G.J. Tacon. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 881. Rome,. 39 pp.

FAO. 1995. Code of conduct for responsible fisheries. Rome. 41 pp.

FAO. 2000. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome. 160 pp.

FAO. 2001a. Fishery statistics Vol. 88/2: aquaculture production. FAO Fisheries Series No. 58/FAO Statistics Series No. 160. Rome. 178 pp.

FAO. 2001b. Options for utilization of lantern fish (Benthosema pterotum, Myctophidae) in the Gulf of Oman by F. Teutscher. Rome. 8 pp. (mimeo)

FAO. 2001c. Efficient capture and handling of lantern fish, by W. Thiele & J.W. Valdemarsen. Rome,. 10 pp. (mimeo)

FAO. In press. Promotion of sustainable commercial aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 2: Investment and economic feasibility, by N. Hishamunda & P. Manning. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 408/2. Rome.

FAO/ESN. 1999. Animal Feeding and Food Safety. In International Aquafeed Directory and Buyers’ Guide 1999. pp. 12-18. Uxbridge, United Kingdom, Turret RAI, plc.

FAO Fishstat. 2001. Fishstat Plus (v.2.30). Rome.

FIN. 2001. The fight for fishmeal goes on (press release 22 June 2001). Fishmeal Information Network (Grain and Feed Trade Association, UK). [info@fin.org.uk]

Fiskeridirektoratet. 2001. Preliminary results from the profitability survey on Norwegian fish farms in 2000. Fiskeridirektoratet, Oslo, Norway. [www.fiskeridir.no]

Forster, J. & Hardy, R. 2001. Measuring efficiency in intensive aquaculture. World Aquaculture, 32(2):41-42,44-45.

Gérin, M. 1999. Feed additives and biotechnologies in aquafeeds: moving towards sustainable development. In International Aquafeed Directory and Buyers’ Guide 1999. pp. 32-40. plc. Uxbridge, United Kingdom. Turret RAI.

Gill, C. 1998. Curtain falling on Asia’s ‘feed decade’? Feed International, January 1998:4-6.

Gill, C. 1999. First, Asian feed slump... Now, global stagnation? Feed International, January 1999:4-10.

Gill, C. 2000. Growth recovering, slowly. Feed International, January 2000:4-6.

Girling, R. 2001. Is this fish or is it foul? The Sunday Times Magazine, 30 September, 2001:40-43, 45-46, 49. Times Newspapers Ltd., London, United Kingdom.

Global Aquaculture Advocate. 2001. Aquaculture associations compare codes at international summit., 4(4):3-4.

Globefish. 2001a. One page (internet) presentations: fishmeal. www.globefish.org

Globefish. 2001b. Commodity update. Fishmeal, Fishoil. FAO, Rome, Italy. 76 pp.

Klinkhard, M. 2001. How contaminated are fish and fish products? EUROFISH Magazine, 4/2001:102-104.

Leake, J. 2001. Fish farms turn salmon into fatty food. The Sunday Times, 8 July, 2001:14. Times Newspapers Ltd., London, United Kingdom.

Little, D.C. & Edwards, P. 1997. Contrasting strategies for inland fish and livestock production in Asia. pp. 75-87 In J.L. Corbett, M. Choct, J.V. Nolan & J.B. Rowe (eds), Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia ‘97, 30 June - 2 July 1997. Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, University of Armidale at New England.

Martín, A. 1998. Current status of the aquafeed industry in Europe. International Aquafeed, 1(3):5-9.

Martín, A. 2000. Developments in the European aquafeed industry. International Aquafeed, 3/2000.

Millar, G. 2001. IFFO must focus on EU and China. Fish Farming International, 28(10):37.

MAFF. 2001. Facts on the Industrial Fisheries. Note to the Council of the European Union. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Copenhagen, Denmark. 8 pp. (mimeo)

NACA/FAO. 2000. Aquaculture development beyond 2000: the Bangkok Declaration and Strategy. Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, 20-25 February 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. NACA, Bangkok, Thailand and FAO, Rome, Italy. 27 pp.

Naylor, R.L., Goldburg, R.J., Primavera, J.H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M.C.M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H. & Troell, M. 2000. Effects of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405:1017-1024.

New, M.B. 1991. Turn of the millennium aquaculture: navigating troubled waters or riding crest of the wave? World Aquaculture, 22(3):28-49.

New, M.B. 1997. Aquaculture and the capture fisheries - balancing the scales. World Aquaculture, 28(2):11-30.

New, M.B. 1999. Global aquaculture: current trends and challenges for the 21st century. World Aquaculture, 30(1):8-13, 63-79.

New, M.B. 2001. The European aquafeed industry, Part II. Fish Farmer, 24(5):46-48.

New, M.B. & Csavas, I. 1995. The use of marine resources in aquafeeds. pp. 43-78 In: H. Reinertsen & H. Haaland (eds), Sustainable fish farming. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

New, M.B. & Valenti, W.C. (eds). 2000. Freshwater Prawn Culture. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom. 443 pp.

New, M.B. & Wijkstrom, U.N. 1990. Feed for thought: some observations on aquaculture feed production in Asia. World Aquaculture, 21(1):17-19, 22-23.

New, M.B., Shehadeh, Z. & Pedini, M. 1995. Status and trends in food production through aquaculture. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), 9:12-18.

Noguchi, F.S. 2001. Utilization of the resources of Myctophiformes as fisheries products. p. 8 In: Abstracts of the International Symposium on More Efficient Utilization of Fish and Fisheries Products, 7-10 October, 2001, Kyoto, Japan. Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan.

Pedini, M. 1999. Bridging the gap: can aquaculture meet the additional demand for fishery products? FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (FAN), 24:4-9.

Pike, I. 1998. Future supplies of fishmeal and fish oil: quality requirements for aquaculture with particular reference to shrimp. In International Aquafeed Directory & Buyers’ Guide 1998. pp. 39-49. Uxbridge, United Kingdom, Turret RAI plc.

Ridmontri, C. 2001. Ambitious period for Charoen Pokphand Food: an interview with Dr. Chingchai Lohawatanakul. Asian Aquaculture Magazine, May/June 2001:30-32.

Rosenlund, G., Obach, A., Sandberg, M.G., Standal, H. & Tveit, K. 2001. Effect of alternative lipid sources on long-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture Research, 32 (Suppl. 1):323-328.

SCAN. 2000. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on the dioxin contamination of feedingstuffs and their contribution to the contamination of food of animal origin. Adopted 6 November, 2000. Brussels, Belgium, European Commission. 105 pp.

Sorgeloos, P. 2000. Technologies for sustainable aquaculture development. Plenary lecture presented at the International Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, 20-25 February 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. NACA, Bangkok, Thailand. (MS)

Stirling. 1999-2000. Annual report of the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling 1999-2000. University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom. 27 pp.

Svennevig, N., Reinertsen, H. & New, M.B. (eds). 1999. Sustainable aquaculture: food for the future? A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 348 pp.

Tacon, A.G.J. 1995. Feed ingredients for carnivorous species: alternatives to fishmeal and other fishery resources. In H. Reinertsen & H. Haaland (eds), Sustainable fish farming. pp. 89-114. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Tacon, A.G.J. 1998. Global trends in aquaculture and aquafeed production 1984-1995. In International Aquafeed Directory & Buyers’ Guide 1998. pp. 5-37. Uxbridge, United Kingdom, Turret RAI plc.

Wijkström, U.N. & New, M.B. 1989. Fish for feed: a help or a hindrance to aquaculture in 2000? INFOFISH International, 6/89:48-52.

Yoshitomi, B. 2001. Utilization of Antarctic krill for food and feed. p. 6 In: Abstracts of the International Symposium on More Efficient Utilization of Fish and Fisheries Products, 7-10 October, 2001, Kyoto, Japan. Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan.

Table 1. Species selected as being or likely to be fed commercial feeds containing products from marine resources (fishmeal[11] and fish oil[12])

ISSCAAP Code[13]

Species included, with systematic codes[14]

Name used in this study

Species excluded

1

FRESHWATER FISH

11

Common carp

COMMON CARP

All other cyprinids

12

All tilapias and other cichlids

TILAPIA

None

13

All types of catfish

CATFISH

All others in group 13

13

Gobies, largemouth black bass, mandarin fish, pikes, perches and snakeheads

SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH

All others in group 13

2

DIADROMOUS FISH

22

River eels

EELS

None

21 and 23

All trouts (except sea trout), sturgeons and paddlefishes

TROUTS AND STURGEONS

All others in group 23

23

All salmon, sea trout and chars

SALMON

All others in group 23

25

Milkfish

MILKFISH

All others in group 25

25

Asian seabass (= giant seaperch = barramundi) and hybrid striped bass

OTHER DIADROMOUS

All others in group 25

3

MARINE FISH

31, 32, 36 and 39

Halibuts, soles, turbots and other flatfish, cod, tunas and miscellaneous marine fishes

SELECTED MARINE FISH

None

33

Groupers, seabasses, seabreams, snappers and drums.

REDFISH

None

34

Cobia, jacks and horse mackerels and amberjacks (yellowtails)

JACKS AND YELLOWTAILS

All others in group 34

4

CRUSTACEANS

41

Giant river prawn[15] and freshwater prawns, shrimps nei (Palaemonidae)

FRESHWATER PRAWNS

All others in group 41[16]

41, 42 and 43

All freshwater and marine crabs, and lobsters

CRABS AND LOBSTERS

All others in group 41

45

All marine shrimp

MARINE SHRIMP

None

Table 2. Future aquaculture expansion rates used in this study[17]

SPECIES GROUP

GLOBAL

WORLD WITHOUT CHINA

APR APPLIED (%)

SOURCE AND COMMENTS

APR APPLIED (%)

SOURCE AND COMMENTS

COMMON CARP

7.2

1997-1999

Nil

Lowest rate minus

TILAPIA

9.1

1997-1999

7.6

1990-1999

CATFISH

1.0

1997-1999

1.0

China production nil

SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH

10.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest actual rate was ~22%)

5.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest actual rate was ~12%)

EELS

Nil

Lowest rate (1997-1999) was minus

Nil

Rates for all periods minus

TROUTS AND STURGEONS

0.4

1997-1999

0.4

China production nil

SALMON

10.4

1997-1999

10.4

China production nil

MILKFISH

Nil

Lowest rate (1990-1999) was minus

Nil

China production nil

OTHER DIADROMOUS

2.1

1995-1999

2.1

China production nil

SELECTED MARINE FISH

10.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest actual rate was ~12%)

5.0

Artificial rate (lowest, in 1997-1999, minus but all others were >18%)

REDFISH

12.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest actual rate was ~13%

12.0

China production nil

JACKS AND YELLOWTAILS

Nil

Actual rates for 3 of the 4 periods were minus

Nil

China production nil

FRESHWATER PRAWNS

10.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest rate was >16%)

5.0

Artificial rate (lowest was 1.1% but it was nearly 13% in 1997-1999). The 98-99 increase was higher

CRABS AND LOBSTERS

10.0

Artificially capped rate (lowest was >26%)

Nil

Lowest rate minus

MARINE SHRIMP

4.4

1995-1999

2.4

1995-1999

Table 3. Parameters used in this study

SPECIES GROUP

YEAR

AFCR[18]

% FED ON AQUAFEEDS

INCLUSION RATE IN FEEDS (%)

FISHMEAL

FISH OIL

COMMON CARP

1999

2.0

25

5

1

2015

1.5

50

2

1

2030

1.3

80

0

1

TILAPIA

1999

2.0

40

7

1

2015

1.5

60

3

1

2030

1.3

90

0

1

CATFISH

1999

1.6

85

3

1

2015

1.4

90

0

1

2030

1.2

95

0

1

SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH

1999

2.5

50

50

10

2015

1.8

80

25

15

2030

1.5

100

15

15

EELS

1999

2.0

80

50

10

2015

1.5

90

40

8

2030

1.2

95

20

8

SALMON

1999

1.2

100

40

25

2015

1.0

100

25

15

2030

0.8

100

15

15

TROUTS AND STURGEONS

1999

1.2

100

30

15

2015

1.0

100

20

15

2030

0.8

100

15

15

MILKFISH

1999

2.0

40

12

3

2015

1.5

60

5

2

2030

1.3

80

5

2

OTHER DIADROMOUS FISH

1999

1.8

60

40

10

2015

1.5

80

20

10

2030

1.2

95

20

10

SELECTED MARINE FISH

1999

2.0

60

45

10

2015

1.8

80

35

10

2030

1.4

90

25

10

REDFISH

1999

2.0

80

45

20

2015

1.8

100

35

15

2030

1.4

100

25

10

JACKS AND YELLOW TAILS

1999

2.0

80

45

20

2015

1.8

100

35

15

2030

1.4

100

25

10

FRESHWATER PRAWNS

1999

2.0

85

20

1

2015

1.6

95

15

2

2030

1.4

100

15

2

CRABS AND LOBSTERS

1999

1.8

80

25

2

2015

1.6

90

15

3

2030

1.4

90

15

3

MARINE SHRIMP

1999

1.8

80

25

2

2015

1.6

90

15

3

2030

1.2

95

15

3

Table 4. Estimated fishmeal and fish usage by aquaculture in 1999 and projections for 2015 and 2030[19]

SPECIES GROUP

YEAR

FISHMEAL REQUIREMENTS (‘000 tonnes)

FISH OIL REQUIREMENTS (‘000 tonnes)

WORLD

CHINA

WORLD

CHINA

COMMON CARP

1999

64

51

13

10

2015

117

109

58

54

2030

-

-

230

225

TILAPIA

1999

61

31

9

5

2015

120

73

40

24

2030

-

-

191

130

CATFISH

1999

18

-

6

-

2015

-

-

7

-

2030

-

-

7

-

SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH

1999

78

56

15

11

2015

206

178

124

107

2030

537

502

537

502

EELS

1999

182

132

36

26

2015

123

89

25

18

2030

52

38

21

15

SALMON

1999

437

-

273

-

2015

1 107

-

664

-

2030

2 345

-

2 345

-

TROUTS AND STURGEONS

1999

170

-

85

-

2015

101

-

75

-

2030

64

-

64

-

MILKFISH

1999

37

-

9

-

2015

17

-

7

-

2030

20

-

8

-

OTHER DIADROMOUS FISH

1999

11

-

3

-

2015

8

-

4

-

2030

11

-

5

-

SELECTED MARINE FISH

1999

218

183

49

41

2015

936

864

268

247

2030

2 444

2 351

978

940

REDFISH

1999

167

-

74

-

2015

896

-

384

-

2030

2 725

-

1 090

-

JACKS AND YELLOWTAILS

1999

107

-

47

-

2015

94

-

40

-

1999

35

27

2

1

2015

107

96

14

13

2030

412

390

55

52

CRABS AND LOBSTERS

1999

99

96

8

8

2015

274

272

55

54

2030

1 000

998

200

200

MARINE SHRIMP

1999

407

62

33

5

2015

486

183

97

37

2030

735

392

147

78

TOTALS

1999

2 091

638
(30%)

662

107
(16%)

2015

4 592

1 864
(41%)

1 862

554
(30%)

2030

10 397

4 671
(45%)

5 899

2 142
(36%)

Table 5. Global supplies[20] of fishmeal and oil and their estimated and potential usage by aquaculture

FISHMEAL

FISH OIL

YEAR

GLOBAL SUPPLY (‘000 tonnes)

USAGE BY AQUACULTURE (%)

GLOBAL SUPPLY (‘000 tonnes)

USAGE BY AQUACULTURE (%)

GLOBAL

CHINA

GLOBAL

CHINA

1999

6 548

32

10

1 360

49

8

2015

6 526

70

29

1 283

145

43

2030

6 526

159

72

1 283

460

167

Table 6. Chile: dispositions of landings for species, of which part or all has been converted into fishmeal and/or fish oil in 1997, 1998 and 1999 (tonnes)

 

1997

1998

1999

FISHMEAL

OTHER USES

FISHMEAL

OTHER USES

FISHMEAL

OTHER USES

ANCHOVY

1 753 355

3 416

516 301

5 521

1 968 472

7 059

MACKEREL

206 390

4 525

59 699

9 984

114 335

4 260

JACK MACKEREL

2 529 663

374 993

1 128 683

478 702

876 199

339 624

HAKE

57 702

1 845

331 951

1 851

282 570

4 749

SARDINE

26 989

10 366

21 900

3 083

239 803

3 383

COMMON SARDINE

439 011

1 494

315 848

140

775 754

366

OTHER SPECIES

20 514

71 845

644

69 509

5 660

85 641

 

TOTALS

5 033 624

468 484

2 375 026

568 790

4 262 793

445 082

Source: F. Pereira, pers. comm., 2001.

Table 7: Estimated catches (tonnes) from the Danish industrial fisheries in the North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat in 1999[21]

TARGET SPECIES

NORTH SEA

SKAGERRAK

KATTEGAT

TOTAL


SAND EEL

500 105

11 081

569

511 755

SPRAT

162 713

6 812

10 438

179 963

NORWAY

40 969

6 822

675

48 466

BLUE WHITING

41 117

3 623

273

45 013

HORSE MACKEREL

4 432

73

78

4 583


BY-CATCH

HERRING

15 232

3 211

5 867

24 310

COD

101

60

52

213

HADDOCK

1 056

334

90

1 480

WHITING

3 826

503

694

5 023

MACKEREL

1 196

81

0

1 277

SAITHE

40

37

0

77

GREY GURNARDS

2 396

100

5

2 501

OTHERS

16 985

3 689

271

20 945


TOTALS

790 68

36 426

19 012

845 606

Source: MAFF (2001).

Table 8: Average yearly ex-vessel price for species supplied to fishmeal plants

COUNTRY

MAIN SPECIES

US$/TON

YEAR

NOTES

DENMARK

Sand eel

81

2000

Industry source

DENMARK

Sand eel

92

2001


CHILE

Horse mackerel (Jurel)

80

2001

Price for fish purchased from independent vessels (F. Pereira, pers. comm., 2001)

CHILE

Common sardine and anchoveta

45

2001


ICELAND

Herring

183

1998

Average yearly prices; market determined (R. Arnason, pers. comm. 2001)

ICELAND

Herring

112

1999


ICELAND

Herring


2000


ICELAND

Capelin

100

1998


ICELAND

Capelin

61

1999


ICELAND

Capelin


2000


USA

Atlantic menhaden

133

1998-2000

www.st.nmfs.gov

Table 9. International market price of fishmeal and fish oil; yearly average, CIF Hamburg (US$/tonnes)[22]


1970

1980

1985

1990

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

FISHMEAL

202

504

280

412

497

606

662

393

413

FISH OIL

249

450

303

250

457

547

727

314

262

Source: Globefish (2001b).

Figure 1. Global fishmeal production 1976-1999 (mt)

Source: FAO Fishstat (2001).

Figure 2. Global fish oil production 1976-1999 (mt)

Source: FAO Fishstat (2001).

Figure 3. Estimated proportion of available fishmeal supplies used by global aquaculture and by China alone in 1999, with projections for 2015 and 2030 (%)[23]

Figure 4. Estimated proportion of available fish oil supplies used by global aquaculture and by China alone in 1999, with projections for 2015 and 2030 (%)[24]

Figure 5. Illustration of the time when the demands from aquaculture for fishmeal and fish oil would exceed supplies, assuming that supplies remain static at 1990-1999 average annual levels


[11] FAO major fishery commodity group: meals, solubles, etc.
[12] FAO major fishery commodity group: oils and fats.
[13] International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants.
[14] Taxonomic code descriptors (taken from FAO’s Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System) or scientific names have been specified where there is any doubt about the species named.
[15] This excludes those reared in Viet Nam; see the following footnote.
[16] This category should include giant river prawns reared in Viet Nam but the amount, although substantial, is not yet separately recorded in FAO data.
[17] The rate applied is the lowest from the four historical periods 1984-1999, 1990-1999, 1995-1999, and 1997-1999, except where otherwise stated (some rates have been artificially set for the reasons stated in the table).
[18] Apparent Feed Conversion Ratio (see section 3.3).
[19] All usage figures have been rounded to the nearest thousand tons; in the totals columns, the proportion of resources utilized by Chinese aquaculture has also been shown as a percentage of the global total.
[20] Global supplies of fishmeal and fish oil in 2015 and 2030 have been assumed to be the same as the 1990-1999 average annual supply.
[21] Estimates from test samples.
[22] Fishmeal: CIF Hamburg; Fish oil: CIF North West Europe.
[23] Global supplies of fish meal in 2015 and 2030 have been assumed to be the same as the 1990-1999 annual average supply.
[24] Global supplies of fish oil in 2015 and 2030 have been assumed to be the same as the 1990-1999 annual average supply.

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