|Operation||Importance rating||Operational priority rating||Remarks|
|Species||Wood Production||Other Purposes||Botanical||Genecological||Collection for Testing||Testing|
|In Situ||Collection for Conservation||Storage as Seed etc.||Ex Situ in Artificial Stands||Use of Bulk Supplies||Individual Selection and Breeding|
|9. Australia (contd.)|
|3||3||3||2||shelter in arid zones|
|3||3||3||3||3||ornamental in cool temperate areas|
E. globulus ssp. bicostata=E. bicostata
E. globulus ssp. globulus=
E. globulus ssp. maidenii=E. maidenii
E. globulus ssp. pseudoglobulus = = E. pseudoglobulus
|3||1||1||1||shelter in very arid zones|
|1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||selection and breeding in Australia, Africa and South America|
|2||2||2||2||3||1||ornamental in cool temperate areas|
|1||1||1||1||formerly included in E. maculata|
|2||2||2||2||3||tolerates calcareous soils|
|1||3||1||2||2||3||2||salt tolerant species|
|2||3||3||3||tolerates sites with high pH|
|1||3||3||3||2||ornamental in cool temperate areas|
|2||2||2||2||2||tree form E. oleosa|
|2||3||2||2||Shelter in arid zones|
|2||2||2||2||2||oil production in high altitude tropics|
|2||2||2||shelter in arid zones|
|3||3||3||3||3||ornamental in tropical areas|
|3||2||3||3||3||3||3||ornamental in cool temperate areas|
|1||2||1||1||1||2||shelter in arid zones, salt tolerant|
|3||2||3||2||3||3||shelter in arid zones|
|1||2||2||2||2||potential pulp species|
|2||2||2||1||cold resistant, hybrids with E. viminalis|
|3||2||3||3||ornamental and protection in cool temperate areas|
|3||2||2||3||2||ornamental and protection in arid zones|
|1||1||2||1||formerly E. pilularis var. pyriformis|
E. radiata spp radiata = E.radiata var. australiana
|1||3||2||2||1||oil production (cineole)|
|1||1||1||1||1||1||selection and breeding in Australia|
|1||2||3||1||1||1||2||shelter in semi-arid areas|
|1||3||1||1||1||1||2||1||very salt tolerant|
|1||1||1||1||1||2||tolerates high pH in semi arid areas|
|1||2||1||2||potential pulp species, temperate areas|
|2||2||2||very salt tolerant|
|2||2||2||new species, subtropical|
|2||3||2||2||2||oil production in tropical areas|
|3||2||3||2||2||2||shelter in arid zones|
|2||1||1||2||2||3||shelter in arid zones|
|3||2||3||3||ornamental in warm temperate areas|
|3||2||shelter in arid zones|
|3||3||3||tropical dry country species|
|2||2||2||shelter on calcareous sites in arid areas|
Forests Commission, Victoria
The availability and accessibility of information on the distribution and natural variation of native species is of basic importance for soundly-based conservation planning. It is pleasing to see an increase in the number of papers on genetic variation recently published (see other working paper - New initiatives in euc. genetics, by Pederick). The CSIRO Division of Forest Research is now preparing detailed distribution maps of eucalypt species. The eucalypt bibliographies being prepared by the Division are being extended to include references from outside Australia. The CSIRO journal “Australian Forest Research” has a stated editorial policy of encouraging the publication of results of research on eucalypts. The FAO publication “Forest Genetic Resources Information” has carried some articles on exploration and conservation of eucalypts.
Since the last meeting of this Research Working Group, in May 1974, an important document on the conservation of plant species in Australia was prepared by the “Specht Committee”, formed as part of Australia's participation to the International Biological Programme, and published as a special supplement to Australian Journal of Botany (No. 7 1974). This paper contains a systematic list of plant species by States, with notes on abundance or rarity and need for protection.
Two papers on conservation of forest gene resources have been published (Shepherd 1974, Pederick 1974 and 1976a), as well as a booklet on genetic resources of eucalypts in one State (Victoria) (Pederick 1976b). Turnbull (1974) prepared a data sheet on E. globulus ssp globulus as a contribution of the IUFRO Working Group on Gene Resource Conservation.
It is considered that foresters (and some of the public) are becoming more aware of the concept of genetic variability as a resource and the advisability of conserving that resource. The more that can be done to add to this momentum, the better.
The following notes relate to recent developments in some States.
New South Wales
In 1965, the Forestry Commission of N.S.W. introduced a Native Forest Preservation Programme with a view to reorganising its previous system of Flora Reserves on a more comprehensive and rational basis. The aim of this programme was to set aside within State Forests samples of the native forest vegetation of N.S.W. in an undisturbed, or little disturbed state, in order to:
preserve areas of outstanding scientific interest in an undisturbed condition.
provide areas for future scientific study.
maintain reference stands with which to compare the effects of subsequent land utilization and management.
Up to 1973, 108 areas, with a total area of 12.000 ha (average 110 ha per area) have been accepted as Forest Preserves and 20 of these have been gazetted as Flora Reserves, so as to receive full protection under the law.
These Forest Preserves have the following size class range:
|8 – 20 ha||31 Preserves|
|21 – 50 ha||26 Preserves|
|51 – 100 ha||24 Preserves|
|101 – 500 ha||23 Preserves|
|over 500 ha||4 Preserves|
In most cases the Forest Preserves are buffered by surrounding forest managed for timber production, though some are islands of vegetation in agricultural or pastoral areas. The Preserves comprise samples of the many and varied forest plant communities of N.S.W. They are individually described in Forest and Timber, Volume 10.
The Preserves undoubtedly contribute to gene conservation but the following aspects need consideration:
Is an adequate range of provenances of the more important species represented in Preserves?
Are the small Preserves large enough to contain breeding populations of sufficient size to maintain genetic variability? (Some of the small Preserves contain all that is left of the plant community being protected).
Will populations of the desired species be maintained in the long term in the undisturbed condition?
In July 1974, officers of the Forestry Commission met with Dr. L.A.S. Johnson of the National Herbarium to discuss conservation of gene resources. It was decided to prepare a list of rare or endangered species as a basis for further discussions.
A list of tree species of the north coast forests was prepared, which included a large number of rainforest species. However, a satisfactory way to conserve their gene pools was not apparent and it was felt that there is a need to formulate some practical guide lines for forest services to operate within.
A system of Scientific Reference Areas is now in the process of implementation (Taylor 1975). This is one outcome of the current examination of public lands in Victoria conducted by the Land Conservation Council. There will probably be 40 or more of these areas, of size 100 – 300 ha, selected to represent different soil types and plant communities on areas that have been disturbed to a minimal extent. Each Reference Area is located within a much larger forest area and will be protected by the authority controlling the land around it, though a special committee has been constituted to plan and manage the Areas. The Reference Areas appear similar to the Forest Preserves of N.S.W. but the minimum size is much larger.
Gene conservation will be provided for by the Reference Areas, National Parks and some new State Parks. Coverage of the State has not yet been completed so no attempt has been made yet to determine the extent to which the various species have been represented in Reference Areas. Also, the situation could change dramatically for some species if proposals for an alpine national park are implemented.
There will undoubtedly be some species, which will not be adequately conserved in existing reserves, for which Genetic Reserves as described by Yeatman would be suitable (both in situ and ex situ). Several cases are proposed for examination by officers of the Forests Commission.
A.P.M. Forests has selected four stands of E. globulus on its property in South Gippsland and established them as genetic reserves. The size of the four areas ranges from 9.5 to 35 ha.
The Forests Commission's Gene Resources Advisory Committee, in addition to recommending on the subject of genetic reserves, recommended that a forest gene resources survey should be undertaken, seeking information in two ways - by systematic departmental collection of information by species, and by invitation to the public to report on the location of trees of scientific interest. A letter and questionnaire was recently distributed to a large number of field naturalists clubs and conservation oriented groups.
In response to another Advisory Committee recommendation the Commission has also examined the possibility of implementing “tree preservation orders” to protect trees of genetic value on private property. The Committee has had difficulty however in providing examples of trees of particular genetic merit as test cases. Direct purchase of land appears to be the most satisfactory means of protecting plants on private property, as is currently being arranged for the natural stand of E. crenulata.
Within the Forests Department a policy group is systematically recommending the creation of special purpose management of representative areas of all forest types as “Biological Preservation Areas”. Selection of areas favours samples covering the range of species distribution rather than a single large reserve central to each species.
In addition to these conservation areas, six large areas (2.200 to 16.350 ha) of special significance within the Eastern Goldfields forest have been placed under Forests Department protection for biological preservation. Other areas are being considered.
Separate recommendations to the W.A. Government by the “Conservation Through Reserves” Committee of the Department of Conservation and Environment promise to reserve samples of most species seen as significant.
These reserves are concentrated in the south. Forests in the Pilbara and Kimberlies have not yet been covered.
The Woods and Forests Department has decided that, on account of the very limited extent and nature of native forest reserves in the State, no initiative was required for “conservation of gene resources of eucalypt species of potential economic importance”. The forest reserves and national parks were regarded as providing a basis for conservation.
A new committee of the Forestry Commission has been organised to re-examine the subject of gene conservation.
Anon. 1974. Forest preserves of New South Wales. Forest and Timber (publ. by F.C. of N.S.W.) Vol.10 (1) : 7 – 15.
Pederick, L.A. 1974, 1976(a). Conservation of gene resources for the improvement of native species in Australia. Proc. 7th Conference I.F.A. Caloundra, Q., 1974, Vol.1 : 422–432. Subsequently published in Aust. For. 39: 113–120, 1976.
Pederick, L.A. 1976(b). The genetic resources of the Victorian eucalypts. Forests Comm. Vic. Bull. 22. 31 p.
Shepherd, K.R. 1974. Conservation of forest gene resources - Australia's responsbilities. Aust. For. 37 : 70–76.
Specht, R.L., Roe, E.M. and Boughton, V.H. (Editors). 1974. Conservation of major plant communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Aust. J. Bot. Supp. Series No.7. 660 p.
Taylor, J.H. 1975. Planning the future use of public land in Victoria. Aust. For. 37: 208–214.
Turnbull, J.W. 1974. Gene resources conservation : Data sheet on Eucalyptus globulus. Forest Genetic Resources Information No.3. FAO.
1 L.A. Pederick (1976). Current Status of Gene Conservation in Australia - Native Species. In: Proc. 5th Meeting of Forest Genetic Research Working Group of Australian Forestry Council. Canberra and Tumut August 1976. pp. 87–91.
The following table shows the quantities of seed collected and distributed in Nigeria in the first six months of 1977 (data supplied after the Panel meeting):-
|Species||Seed weight (Kg)|
|Collected||Distributed in Nigeria||Distributed overseas|
|Gmelina arborea||1 134||255||251|
Among the other species collected are Chlorophora excelsa, Entandrophragma angolense, Guarea cedrata, Guarea thompsonii, Khaya grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, K. senegalensis, Lovoa klaineana, Nauclea diderrichii and Pycnanthus angolense.
The main imports of seed in the same period have been 700 Kg Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, 140 Kg P. oocarpa and 1 Kg Agathis macrophylla.
The Forestry Research Institute has 4 cold rooms with a total storage capacity of 220 m3. Seeds are stored in polythene bags in air-tight tins at 4 – 5°C. Routine testing is done on all seed batches. Research on seed treatment for Ricinodendron, Caesalpinia, Discrophyllum and Terminalia ivorensis is being conducted.