PART III
Statistical annex

# Notes on the annex tables

## Symbols

The following symbols are used in the tables:

 ... = not available ha = hectare hg/ha = hectogram per hectare hg = hectogram GDP = gross domestic product GNP = gross national product kcal/person/day = calories per person per day kg = kilogram US\$ = US dollar

To divide decimals from whole number a full point (.) is used.

## Technical notes

The tables do not include countries for which there were insufficient data.

Numbers displayed in the tables might be slightly different from those obtained from FAOSTAT and the World Development Indicators because of rounding.

1. Food security and nutrition (Table A2)
Source: FAO

Undernourishment

FAO's estimates of the prevalence of undernourishment are based on calculations of the amount of food available in each country (national dietary energy supply or DES) and a measure of inequality in distribution derived from household income or expenditure surveys.

The figures on undernourishment in China, Mainland, include Taiwan Province of China.

For Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia, the estimates of the proportion of undernourished for 1999-2001 are not available; estimates for 1998-2000 were used instead.

Symbols used

To denote a proportion of less than 2.5 percent undernourished a dash (-) is used.

Dietary energy supply

Per capita supplies in terms of product weight are derived from the total supplies available for human consumption (i.e. food) by dividing the quantities of food by the total population actually partaking of the food supplies during the reference period. Dietary energy supply is weighted by the total population.

Probability of actual consumption falling below 95 percent of trend for 1980-2001

Following Sadoulet and de Janvry (1995), the probability that national consumption falls below a certain percentage a (in these tables a = 95%) of its long-term trend is: Pr(C < aCt, where Ct is the estimated trend consumption. This probability can be estimated by historical data assuming that the error term ut is normally distributed around the regression line.

Under this hypothesis:

where  and F(.) is the standard normal distribution.

Specifically, the apparent consumption is regressed on a non-linear time trend:

We bootstrapped both the coefficients a0 and a1. Then we worked on the estimated residuals:

 if both the estimated coefficients were statistically different from zero at 5 percent level otherwise

where represents mean apparent consumption over the time horizon. The assumption of normal distribution for residuals implies an assumption of symmetry. Thus, a 10 percent probability of shortfall on one side is accompanied by a 10 percent probability of consumption in excess of 105 percent of trend.

Coefficient of variation of food consumption

This coefficient is derived from the standard deviation of the variable 100 x ( trend)/Ct trend.

2. Agricultural production and productivity (Table A3)
Source: FAO

Agricultural and per capita food production annual growth rates

The growth rates refer to the level of change of the aggregate volume of production. Production quantities of each commodity are weighted by 1989-91 average international commodity prices and summed for each year.

3. Population and labour force indicators (Table A4)
Source: FAO

Total population

The total population usually refers to the present-in-area (de facto) population, which includes all persons physically present within the current geographical boundaries of countries at the mid-point of the reference period.

Rural population

Usually the urban area is defined and the residual from the total population is taken as rural. In practice, the criteria adopted for distinguishing between urban and rural areas vary among countries.

Agricultural population

The agricultural population is defined as all persons depending for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. This estimate comprises all persons actively engaged in agriculture and their non-working dependants.

Economically active population

This refers to the number of all employed and unemployed persons (including those seeking work for the first time).

Economically active population in agriculture

The economically active population in agriculture is that part of the economically active population engaged in or seeking work in agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry.

4. Land-use indicators (Table A5)
Source: FAO

Total land area

Total area excluding area under inland water bodies.

Forest and wood area

Land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.

Agricultural area

The sum of area under arable land, permanent crops and permanent pastures.

Arable land

Land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market- and kitchen-gardens and land temporarily fallow (less than five years).

Permanent crops area

Land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest.

Permanent pasture area

Land used permanently (five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Irrigated area

Data on irrigation relate to areas equipped to provide water to the crops.

• China: data on irrigated area cover farmland only (areas under orchard and pastures are excluded).
• Cuba: data refer to state sector only.
• Japan; Republic of Korea; Sri Lanka: data refer to irrigated rice only.

Fertilizer consumption (use)

Data refer to total fertilizer use. The total estimates are obtained by adding the volumes of nitrogenous, phosphate and potash fertilizers expressed in terms of plant nutrients (N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively).

Source: FAO and World Bank (World Development Indicators 2003, CD-ROM and online dataset)

Data refer to the total merchandise trade. In general, export values are f.o.b. (free on board) and import values are c.i.f. (cost, insurance and freight).

Data refer to agriculture in the narrow sense, excluding fishery and forestry products.

Data refer to food and animals.

Agricultural GDP

The agriculture, value added (percentage of GDP), is derived from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Account data files. Agriculture includes forestry, fishing and hunting, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production.

Agricultural exports relative to agricultural GDP

Agricultural exports relative to agricultural GDP was weighted by agriculture, value added.

6. Economic indicators (Table A7)
Source: World Bank (World Development Indicators 2003, CD-ROM and online dataset)

Weighting: GNP per capita (current US\$), GDP per capita (annual percentage growth) and GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$) were weighted by the total population. GDP (annual percentage growth) and agriculture, value added (percentage of GDP) were weighted by GDP (constant 1995 US\$). Agriculture, value added (annual percentage growth) was weighted by agriculture, value added (constant 1995 US\$). Agriculture, value added per worker was weighted by economic active population in agriculture.

National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

GNP per capita (current US\$)

GNP per capita is the gross national income, converted to US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the mid-year population.

GDP (annual percentage growth)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 1995 US dollars.

GDP per capita (annual percentage growth)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is the GDP divided by mid-year population.

GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the US dollar has in the United States.

Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agriculture sector less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production.

GDP, constant 1995 US\$

Data are in constant 1995 US dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates.

7. Total factor productivity (Table A8)
Source: FAO

Total factor productivity (TFP) measures the quantity of output divided by a measure of the quantity of inputs used. The approach taken here is to apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods to output and input data obtained from FAOSTAT to estimate a Malmquist index of TFP (Malmquist, 1953). The data cover the periods 1961-80 and 1981-2000. The resulting change in total productivity index can be disaggregated into a technology component and a technical efficiency component. A distinct advantage of the Malmquist DEA method is that no information on input prices is required. The data used are as follows: Output is net agricultural production, i.e. excluding seed and feed, in constant (1989-91) 'international dollars'; Inputs are: Land: arable and land under permanent crops; Labour: total population economically active in agriculture; Fertilizer: total consumption (in nutrient-equivalent terms) of nitrogen, potash and phosphates; Livestock: the weighted sum of camels, buffalo, horses, cattle, asses, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry (using the weights suggested by Hayami and Ruttan, 1985); Physical capita: number of tractors in use. We also included the proportion of arable and permanent cropland that is irrigated as well as the ratio of land that is arable and under permanent crops to agricultural area (which also includes permanent pastures).

## Country and regional notes

Data for China do not include data for Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Macao, or Taiwan Province of China, unless otherwise noted.

Data are shown for Belgium and Luxembourg separately whenever possible, but in most cases the data are aggregated in Belgium/Luxembourg.

Data are shown whenever possible for the individual countries formed from the former Czechoslovakia - the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Data before 1993 are shown under Czechoslovakia.

Data are shown for Eritrea and Ethiopia separately whenever possible, but in most cases before 1992 data on Eritrea and Ethiopia are aggregated in the data for Ethiopia PDR.

In 1991 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (“USSR” in the table listings) was dissolved into 15 countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Whenever possible, data are shown for the individual countries. Data before 1992 are shown under USSR.

Data for the Republic of Yemen refer to that country from 1990 onward; data for previous years refer to aggregated data of the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the former Yemen Arab Republic unless otherwise noted.

Whenever possible, data are shown for the individual countries formed from the former Yugoslavia (“Yugoslavia SFR” in the table listings) - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. All references to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the tables are to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia-Montenegro). Data for the years prior to 1992 are shown under Yugoslavia SFR.