SCR 986 OSRO/IRQ/607/DHA
Oil-for-Food Programme

TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
IN IRAQ

The Transition from Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction to Development

 
Contents

Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division
Special Emergency Programmes Service

by

Fahmi. K. Bishay
Consultant, Senior Adviser
Special Emergency Programmes Service

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2003

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© FAO 2003

"Among the multitude of animals which scamper, fly, burrow and swim around us, man is the only one who is not locked into his environment. His imagination, his reason, his emotional subtlety and toughness, make it possible for him not to accept the environment but to change it. And that series of inventions, by which man from age to age has remade his environment, is a different kind of evolution - not biological but cultural evolution. I call that brilliant sequence of cultural peaks The Ascent of Man."

J. Bronowski, "The Ascent of Man",
1973; p. 19.


Table of Contents


ACRONYMS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I. INTRODUCTION

PART I: TOWARDS A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS

II. THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS: A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

III. THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE

Land resources
Land ownership
Climate
Water resources
Agro-ecological zones

IV. AGRICULTURAL INCOME AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: AN OVERVIEW

Population and agricultural labour force
Agricultural income
Food supply, nutritional intake and health
The oil-for-food programme: a bird's eye view
The development fund for Iraq: growth, equity and sustainability

V. TOWARDS A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DIMENSIONS

Objectives

i. Supporting efficient and sustainable increase in food and agriculture production
ii. Improving food security and nutritional intake
iii. Reducing rural poverty
iv. Enhancing environmental protection and conservation of the natural resource base

Temporal dimension of the strategy: short, medium and longer-term actions
Short-term actions

i. FAO and the UN humanitarian appeal
ii. FAO's contingency plan

Medium to longer term-actions: sustainable livelihoods

i. Maximisation of agricultural productivity
ii. Reconstruction and improved access to agricultural services
iii. Diversification of the farming systems: Increasing households access to food and income

Supporting rural poverty alleviation
Enhancing enabling environment

i. Supporting participatory approaches
ii. Improving basic rural infrastructure
iii. Supporting local capacity building
iv. Encouraging the role of the private sector

Spatial dimension of the strategy
Guidelines for spatial agricultural development in Iraq

VI. AGRICULTURAL POLICY, FOOD SECURITY AND PARTICIPATORY RURAL DEVELOPMENT

FAO Anti-hunger Programme
Agricultural price policy issues: Revisiting the highly subsidized "food basket"
Policy formulation
Producer policy
Consumer programmes
Market intervention
Key aspects of price policy implementation in Iraq
Suggested guidelines for agricultural price policy: Formulation and implementation in Iraq

PART II: THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW

VII. CROP PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION

Field crops

i. Dry land field crops
ii. Irrigated field crops

Fruits and vegetables
Soil fertility and crop yields
Seeds
Fertiliser supply
Sustainability of farm production and conservation agriculture
Plant protection
Integrated plant pest management (IPPM)
Bee-keeping
Institutions and services
Main constraints to crop production
Natural advantages of Iraqi agriculture
Potential for increasing agricultural production
Crop production and protection in the Northern Governorates

Climate
Crop production
Soil fertility and crop yields
Seed supply
Plant protection
Development potential
Conservation farming in the region
Constraints to conservation farming in the region

VIII. WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION

Surface water resources
Ground water resources
Irrigation
Developmental potential
Institutions and services
Constraints and potential for the development of water resources and irrigation

Constraints
Potential

Vulnerability of irrigation infrastructure and impact on agricultural production

IX. FARM MECHANISATION

Centre and southern regions: mechanisation policy

Private sector agricultural machinery ownership - tractor/combine fleet
Age profile of tractor and combine fleet (1994/95)
Implement fleet
Mechanization services - contracting
Spare parts provision

Northern Governorates: mechanization policy

Private sector agricultural machinery ownership - tractor fleet
Private sector agricultural machinery ownership - combine fleet
Private sector agricultural machinery ownership - implement fleet
Mechanization services - contracting
Mechanization services - workshops and manufacturing
Public sector workshops
Private sector workshop
Spare parts provision

X. ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH

Animal production
Animal production and farming systems
Animal health
Selected disease control programmes
Poultry production
Animal production in the Northern Governorates

Ruminant
Cattle
Local cattle
Crossbred and exotic breeds
Small ruminants
Dairy production
Meat production
Small scale poultry production

Constraints and opportunities for animal production and health
Constraints
Opportunities

XI. FISHERIES

Fisheries in the Northern Governorates: lessons of experience
Recommendations for fisheries development in Iraq

XII. FORESTRY LAND RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

An Overview
National forestry report of 1998
Recent developments
Key activities under the oil-for-food programme
Outstanding issues
Priorities for intervention

XIII. FOOD PROCESSING

Food market information
Food processing training
Cottage industries
Constraints and opportunities for food processing
Constraints

Lack of market information
Commercial constraints
Lack of management and technical know-how
Major constraints to dairy processing

Opportunities
Opportunities for fruits and vegetable lines
Recommendations for the establishment and management of grain chains

XIV. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION AND TRAINING

(i) Research

Historical background
The agricultural research institutions
Research activities
Other scientific institutions of the national agricultural research system
Other NARS technical institutions
Resources for agricultural research
Agricultural research activities
National and international linkages in agricultural research
Impact of wars, civil conflicts and the sanctions on agricultural research
Assessment of research needs by sub-sectors
Technology development and transfer
The linkages between research, extension and among sub-sectors
Potential for agricultural research support and technology transfer
Proposals for strengthening agricultural research
Agricultural research: some concluding remarks

(ii) Extension and training

Constraints to agricultural extension and training
Rehabilitation of extension and training facilities
Extension methodology
Training of technical staff
Farmers training

XV. ASSISTING THE VULNERABLE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION

Definition of vulnerability
Characteristics of vulnerable rural households
Classification of vulnerable rural households
Classification of vulnerable household in urban areas and collective towns
Activities for vulnerable groups under the oil-for-food programme in the Northern Governorates
Institutional setting: organizations dealing with specific vulnerable groups
Lessons of experience in assisting vulnerable groups
Gender mainstreaming and women's empowerment in agricultural production and household food security in Iraq
Towards a gender mainstreaming

PART III: INVESTMENT PLANS AND PROJECT PROFILES: TOWARDS A ROAD MAP FOR THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS

XVI. AN OVERVIEW OF THE THREE-YEAR PROGRAMME FOR THE NORTHERN GOVERNORATES

Common programme framework of UNOHCI
From emergency relief to a medium-term three-year programme
The three-year programme: an overview

XVII. TOWARDS AN AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PLAN IN IRAQ: A ROAD MAP FOR THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS

Agricultural development and post-war realities in Iraq: a forward looking approach
Principles for incorporation in the road map
Main categories of agricultural investment
Follow-up: a multi-disciplinary team and field work

XVIII. SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS

XIX. BIBLIOGRAPHY

XX. ANNEXES

Annex I. People and Land

Table 1. Population estimates, Structure and Trends in Iraq, 1989 - 2001
Table 2. Population Projections: 1995-2030
Table 3. Land Use in Iraq, 1989-2000

Annex II. Crop Production: Outputs 1989-2002

Table 4. Wheat Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 5. Barley Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 6. Rice paddy Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 7. Maize Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 8. Lentils Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 9. Broad Beans, Dry Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 10. Broad Beans, Green Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 11. Tobacco Leaves Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 12. Dates Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 13. Grapes Production in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 14. Average Area, Yield and Production of Major Crops in Iraq (14 Years Average)

Annex III. Crop Production: Inputs

Table 15. Seed Requirements of some major crops in Iraq (metric tons)
Table 16. Imported Vegetable Seeds by GOI for Centre and South under Oil-for-Food Programme (Value in US $ and Quantity in MT)
Table 17. Pesticides Imported from 1998 to 2002 by GOI through Oil-for-Food Programme for Centre/South of Iraq
Table 18. Fertilizers Imported under Oil-for-Food Programme for Centre and South

Annex IV. Imports of Wheat, Barley, Maize, Rice and Lentils 1989-2001

Table 19. Wheat Imports in Iraq, 1989-2001
Table 20. Barley Imports in Iraq, 1989-2001
Table 21. Maize Imports in Iraq, 1989-2001
Table 22. Rice Imports in Iraq, 1989-2001
Table 23. Lentils Imports in Iraq, 1989-2001

Annex V. Livestock Production 1989-2002

Table 24. Cattle, Buffaloes and Sheep Stocks in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 25. Goats, Chickens and Horses Stocks in Iraq, 1989-2002
Table 26. Asses, Mules and Camels Stocks in Iraq, 1989-2002

Annex VI. Meteorological Information

Table 27. Meteorological Information of Iraq: Rainfall in millimetre-Normal Average of 50 years (before 1995)
Table 28. Meteorological Information of Iraq: Temperature and Humidity- 30 years average (1994 and before)
Table 29. Meteorological Information of Iraq: Weather Phenomena in Iraq-1996
Table 30. Meteorological Information of Iraq: Sunshine Duration and Evaporation (Daily Incoming Average)
Table 31. Food Balance Sheet: Average 1989-2000
Table 32. Food Balance Sheet in Iraq: Year 2000

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