Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Training material


The Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ) 2001

F. Padovani[9]

Introduction

The importance of timely and reliable information for strengthening SFM and forestry sector planning and policy formulation is well recognized. All of the global, national and local initiatives to promote SFM indicate the need to strengthen the information system. But collection, processing and analysis of information are very resource demanding and there is an urgent need for rationalization of these processes. With several agencies involved in the collection of diverse data, there is multiple duplication of information and often national resources are stretched beyond their capacities. This sometimes leads to poor responses.

Since its establishment, FAO has been at the forefront of developing inter-institutional collaboration in data collection and other related activities. FAO and the UN/ECE have been collaborating in data collection and dissemination for nearly five decades, benefiting both the member countries and the organizations. In the mid-1990s, the EUROSTAT (of the European Union) became a collaborator and in 1998 the ITTO Council agreed to join the system. Representatives from the four organizations convened in September 1998 and January 1999; this led to greater efforts for collaboration and the development of the JFSQ, merging the ongoing work of FAO, ECE, EUROSTAT and ITTO.

The JFSQ now includes the FAO Forest Products Questionnaire, the FAO UN/ECE EUROSTAT Timber Bulletin Questionnaire and the ITTO Forest Products Enquiry that many countries received from individual organizations until 1998.

This joint questionnaire responds to requests from member countries of all four partner organizations to rationalize the data collection process and data dissemination. More particularly, it aims to reduce multiple requests for information from member countries. The JFSQ is accessible at ftp://ftp.fao.org/fo/fon/fons/jq/jfsq.htm.

The basic principles and methods of cooperation include:

The information received through the joint questionnaire is distributed to all four organizations. In this way, the supply of information to international organizations is streamlined and avoids duplication of efforts.

The structure and contents of the JFSQ

The contents of the JFSQ are as follows:

JQ1, JQ2

Basic questionnaire for all countries on removal, production and trade

SP1

All countries, for secondary wood and paper products and trade values

EU1, EU2

For EU and EFTA countries, requesting data on removal by species and intra-EU and extra-EU trade

DT1, DT2

Direction of trade, for non-ECE countries (for ECE countries, this information is derived from general trade data sets, notably COMTRADE)

ITTO1, ITTO2, ITTO3

For ITTO members, requesting data on trade in tropical species, and on market conditions and forecasts

ECE1, EU1, EU2

For ECE members; requests more detailed information on trade of temperate species

The four secretariats distribute the JFSQ to all countries (Table 1). The corresponding languages (English/French/Spanish) are indicated under the FAO logo.

Coverage

JQ and DOT and SP1:

All countries

ECE:

All ECE countries

ITTO:

All ECE members of ITTO

EU:

All EU and EFTA members (candidates to the EU will also be requested to complete this questionnaire)

FAO:

All non-EFTA, non-ECE and non-ITTO countries

The data structure

The statistical data collection categories for core forest products are structured hierarchically and are mutually exclusive, covering production or trade (quantity and value). The product categories are given in the forms (JQ1, JQ2, DOT1, DOT2), which are the basic forms for the Yearbook of forest products, the flagship FAO statistical publication on forest products.

The FAO coding (country codes and product codes) is embedded within the JQ1&2 and DOT1&2 and SP1.

The national correspondent’s address

A clear and complete address is required and is essential for any clarification or follow-up that is required.

Table 1. Geographical distribution of the JFSQ and returns

FOREST SECTOR QUESTIONNAIRE


Status of Returns

2001 Reply

updated

2000 Reply

updated

Distribution by

Media Print Electronic

Last Return

JQ1

JQ2

DOT1

DOT2

ITTO

SP1

JQ1

JQ2

DOT1

DOT2

ITTO

SP1

Countries











Australia

FAO

E

21/11/2002

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

China

FAO

E

25/10/2002

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

X

X





U

Cooks Is

FAO

E

4/09/2002


X




X

U

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

Fiji

ITTO

E

5/09/2001








X

X

X

X

X

X

U

Maldives

FAO

P

1997















Mongolia

FAO

P

1993















Myanmar

ITTO

E

27/09/2002

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

Papua New Guinea

ITTO

P

1999















Samoa

FAO

P

1983















Solomon Is

FAO

P

25/06/2002

X

X

X




U








Tonga

FAO

P

1983















Vanuatu

ITTO

E

13/09/2002

X

X



X

X

U

X

X

X

X

X

X

U

as of 27/11/2002

Definitions

All terms and definitions have been harmonized and cross-referenced with the Customs Cooperation Council Harmonised System 1996 (HS96) and the UN Standard International Trade Classification Revision 3 (SITC rev.3 January 1988).

It became necessary during the revision of the questionnaire to agree on certain terms and definitions, as well as a system of cross-references to international multisector classifications. Participants are invited to review the joint questionnaire paying particular attention to this point because the questionnaire, through its concepts and use of terms is setting the framework for all international analysis of developments in the sector. It is of the utmost importance that the framework is coherent and realistic.

Timetable

“It is requested that the 2001 JFSQ be completed with all of the details for the calendar year 2001 and that one copy is sent in time to reach the different organizations by 20 August 2002 or earlier if possible.” This is a common sentence employed by all organizations.

Some work still needs to be done in harmonizing the different dates for despatching the questionnaires and the deadline for returning them. This is very important if a more accurate annual picture of the forestry sector is to be obtained. Obviously, this depends on the timetable priorities within each organization. The statistical information cycle for the FAO Yearbook of forest products is reported in Annexe 1.

The fact that a country receives the JFSQ (containing the data for the four organizations) only once is a major improvement in organizing data collection and ensuring consistency in reporting. In my opinion, this is one of the main reasons why the data quality of all four organizations has been criticized heavily in the past. Previously, the same information was requested from the national correspondent at four separate intervals by the four different organizations during the year. Naturally the national correspondent provided only the most recent data available (at different periods in the year), with the ensuing consequences of inconsistency in subsequent documentation.

Data validation

Data dialogue with correspondents will be carried out by EUROSTAT for EU/(EFTA) countries, by ECE/FAO for all other ECE members, ITTO for its member countries and by FAO for all remaining countries. When sectoral or regional analysis or data revision is carried out, each organization can request clarification from national correspondents.

EUROSTAT, FAO and ITTO will receive all the JFSQ returns for their respective members in the ECE region from ECE/FAO Geneva for inclusion in their respective systems/publications. In the same way ITTO will send the JFSQ to FAO, ECE/FAO and EUROSTAT for their respective members.

It is assumed that the country returns are always comprehensive. But on occasion they are incomplete for very different reasons.

Some basic data validation approaches are used to monitor the quality of the data received and to decide whether to accept them or to find an alternative data source. Frequently, when necessary confirmation cannot be obtained, estimates based on the previous year’s data are provided by flagging the information with an “F” or an “*”.

The basic validation routines for the possible items/aggregates are:

In relation to the JFSQ in MS Excel, as in the past, the equivalence approach is used. This is possible because an empty questionnaire is provided where all the elements or aggregates have to be entered; a section within the spreadsheet was developed for the validation of the data entered. The equivalence was: 0 = aggregate (item1+item2+item3+...).

In the inputs there are unassociated automatic calculations, which in the past created problems for the national correspondents. Now the national correspondent can enter data available on hand and insert personal calculations, estimations, conversions, etc. In particular, the national correspondent can verify and identify any discrepancies and correct the data accordingly.

The aggregates are not calculated automatically or left unprotected on purpose. This is because if for some reason the national correspondent does not have the items or there is the risk of a confidentiality breach the correspondent can still allocate the aggregate. This exception is becoming more and more frequent in the pulp and paper production sector.

International organizations depend on national institutions to make the data available. The quality of international data depends first on the quality of data collected by national institutions and secondly on success in capturing that data for international use.

Availability of the JFSQ

The JFSQ is provided in MS Excel and is available in various media. On hard copy, it can be sent via ordinary mail. But essentially the JFSQ is sent as a file attachment to the e-mail addresses of the national correspondents who request it. Notes on the JFSQ are provided by FAO (Annexe 2). In order to streamline the work of national correspondents and secretariats it can be downloaded also from ftp://ftp.fao.org/fo/fon/fons/jq/jfsq.htm

The electronic spreadsheet version of the questionnaires in MS Excel comes in three languages (English/French/Spanish) and can be customized according to the language of the member country. This spreadsheet has a number of features that will help with data entry and transmission. Other languages such as Russian, Chinese and Arabic are available.

The Virtual Questionnaire (http://apps2.fao.org:8000/VirtualQuestionnaires), an online data entry component of the JFSQ is under development. When it is ready, a country will be able to enter country data directly into the FAOSTAT working system on real time. At present all ECE country data are uploaded via the Geneva office. Within this year we will conduct a trial with selected countries.

JFSQ returns

The JFSQ Returns are reported in Table 1.

Data dissemination

Each organization will consolidate and disseminate the country data collected according to its mandate.

As usual FAO will disseminate the data through the Yearbook of forest products and FAOSTAT/CD annually and on the Internet in July and December.

Action to be taken

Participants’ views on these matters should be reported to the appropriate bodies of the organizations who will be invited to review the joint questionnaire. In February 2003, a revised version will be prepared for use in 2003 and subsequent years, taking into account all of the comments received.

Conclusion

This general enhancement has been made possible for several reasons, but the key element has been the general availability of information technology and the World Wide Web within the administrations of most institutions/governments.

National correspondents at this workshop are invited to review the JFSQ and to provide inputs/suggestions with regard to data collection and analysis, specifically focusing on national and global needs for sector policy and planning and sustainable forest and forest product management.

Annex 1. FAO Yearbook of forest products statistical information cycle (2001-2002)

Detailed plan:

1. IWGFS meeting

Date: 15-16/2/2001

Finalization of the JFSQ 2001

2. Dispatch of the Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire (JFSQ)

Date: 30/4/2001

The JFSQ in English, French and Spanish will be distributed to FAO correspondents in printed form. A note is included, which describes the objectives of the annual enquiry and expected returns of the JFSQ and the availability of a customized MS Excel Workbook at FTP ready for downloading via the WWW or a copy of it can be obtained via e-mail or by pouch.

Selected countries will use the online Virtual Questionnaire.

3. JFSQ/returns and sharing

Date: 15/6/2001 to 31/10/2001

Each country data returns is processed, validated and loaded within 10 days in the working system.

The JFSQ is shared between:

A reminder to FAO correspondents is sent in early September. If required the country data are enriched with unofficial data sources. The country data are available to our partners in a WRITE or READ mode for validation and usage. Basic validation: ECE-EUROSTAT to June 20; FAO-ITTO to Sept 30. Analytical validation: ECE-EUROSTAT (21-25 June); FAO-ITTO (1-15) October.

Internet quarterly updates for WWW dissemination

Date: 30/06/2001; 31/10/2001

Preliminary data available for selected countries and products in June and final data by November.

4. Yearbook of forest products publication

Date: 1/6/2001-30/9/2001 (prototype); 1/11/2001-30/11/2001 (final)

Revisions: multilingual text (5 languages); report writing and FTP procedures.

Data validations: regional, country, products, aggregates, data level over time.

5. Production and release of statistical products

Date: 30/01/2002

Yearbook of forest products publication,

FAOSTAT/CD,

Yearbook of forest products publication is in PDF on the WWW.

6. Dissemination/promotion of the statistical products

Date: 1/3/2002 onwards

Distribution of the Yearbook of forest products and the FAOSTAT/CD.

7. Ongoing activities

Date: ongoing over the year

Historical data revision, processing, validation, feedback, research, e-mail, revisions of classifications, revision of geographical and product aggregations, support to data user, etc.

Annex 2. Notes to National Correspondents

Notes to National Correspondents

Dear colleagues

Enclosed please find the 2001 Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire. The participating agencies include United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), European Union (Eurostat), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). This joint questionnaire is in response to requests from member states of all four-partner organizations to rationalize our approaches to forest sector data collection and dissemination.

The information received through the joint questionnaire is distributed to all the four organizations. In this way, the supply of information to international organizations is concentrated, streamlined and no duplication of efforts is envisaged.

Please fill in all the questionnaires attached to this letter: we will pass on, the data you supply, to the other organizations of which your country is a member.

All the terms and definitions have been harmonized and cross-referenced to Customs Cooperation Council Harmonised System 1996 (HS96) and the UN Standard International Trade Classification revision 3 (SITC rev.3 January 1988).

It is requested that the 2001 Questionnaire be completed with all details for the calendar year 2001 and that one copy sent in time to reach

FAO,
R. Michael Martin, Chief
Forestry Information and Liaison Unit
Forestry Department, Policy and Planning Division,
Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy,
Facsimile No:(+39 06) 5705-5137 or 5705-5514
E-mail: FO-Registry@FAO.ORG

by 20 August 2002 or earlier if possible.

We have available an electronic spreadsheet version of the questionnaires in Excel. This spreadsheet has a number of features that will help in your data entry and transmission. It is available at:

ftp://ftp.fao.org/fo/fon/fons/jq/jfsq.htm

or can be obtained from felice.padovani@fao.org or ma.qiang@fao.org.

Thank you for working with us to improve global forest sector statistics.

Yours sincerely

The basic role and responsibilities of a forestry statistical office

F. Padovani

Introduction

The aims of this workshop were to: (1) establish and reinforce the network/working group of statistical correspondents in the 16 member countries of FAO and ITTO; (2) provide training on standardized international definitions and tabular formats for completing the JFSQ; (3) review current forest product statistics at national and regional levels; (4) identify the main weaknesses and constraints concerning forest statistics and to develop a set of alternative frameworks for improving national statistical processes; (5) encourage information sharing among countries and with international organizations.

This paper describes the role and the responsibilities of a national correspondent within and outside the correspondent’s country as well as some daily aspects of a forestry statistical office and its contribution to encouraging SFM.

The objective of a forestry statistical office

The main objective of a forestry statistical office is to provide statistics that improve the effectiveness of decision-making. This can be achieved by (1) collecting data of the highest quality and of the most use; (2) collecting data in a timely and cost-effective manner; (3) producing the most appropriate and accessible data products; (4) teaching the benefits and methods of using statistical information to potential data users to create more effective decision-makers.

A statistical information cycle

The key component of a forestry statistical office is the organization of the statistical information cycle, which can be structured in the following steps:

As soon as the need for a decision, action, policy, or programme is perceived:

¯

any constraints and the information needed to implement it are defined

¯

the information collection operation is designed, promoted, conducted and the data are collected

¯

the information gathered is processed

¯

the information products are produced and released

¯

the information products are promoted and disseminated to the user

¯

using the knowledge gained from the information products, the user makes the decision or initiates the action, policy or programme

¯

based on information-use experience, new information needs are identified or feedback is supplied on how to improve the existing information.

For our type of data, we have annual cycles. This approach has to be repeated every time in order to keep statistical applications up to date and to respond to the needs of data consumers.

Building support for a statistical office

There is a need to build understanding and support for statistical work. Some suggestions are:

1) To take the initiative by actively promoting the value of your products and not waiting for the policy-maker or potential data user to make an approach.

2) Begin with motivation. Show the rewards of using the data. Demonstrate why your audience should heed your advice and talk about statistics.

3) Keep it simple at the beginning. Discuss only what the audience is likely to use. Avoid too much detail.

4) Build support vertically. Explain the value of your work to your superiors and subordinates within the government.

5) Build support horizontally. Visit other government agencies at your level and explain how you may help them.

6) Build external support among private businesses, organizations and individuals outside the government.

7) Recognize that you produce a valuable product. To succeed you must prove the value of your product to validate the value of your organization and your work.

8) Consult all types of data users and allow them to suggest improvements to what you collect and how the products are designed and delivered.

Despite the data being in the form the consumer expects and wants, and being in close proximity to the consumer’s required location, a conflict of interests between the data producer and data consumer will always occur.

These dynamics generate constraints that sometimes provide good opportunities to move forward. The solutions to constraints can be integrated in the statistical information cycle with the support of the forestry information centre, with appropriate hardware, software and human resources.

The cost of statistics

As reported earlier, one of the main objectives of a forestry statistical office is collecting data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Figure 1. The relation between uncertainty and the cost of statistics

The relation between uncertainty and the cost of statistics (Figure 1) is reciprocal, but not linked linearly. Costs grow linearly, but uncertainty decreases linearly; however zero is never reached. For national correspondents, this leads to the issue of where the ideal point in the uncertainty curve is found.

Supplying and marketing statistical data products

We should assume that in the individual decision-making process, facts and statistics are not the only ingredients that are necessary to reach an effective decision. In addition, other resources and skills are required such as knowledge of the problems and specific experience, analysis and judgement to reach decisions, possibly based on a consensus at local, national, regional and global levels.

The kinds of products that a forestry statistical office should deliver are statistical, methodological, analytical and geographic. These should be disseminated to different users using different media such as publications, microfiche, computer files, CD-ROMs, online databases, video tapes and the Internet.

Each has advantages and disadvantages according to the type of user (general public, libraries, universities, government agencies, private companies, local agencies, and freelance consultants). In addition a demand for the “goods” produced has to be created by promoting and explaining the benefits of using statistics and the benefits of planning. These benefits are:

Confidence and priority for sector statistics comes when leaders demand accurate information and use it. The rewards of data dissemination are diverse. There is a variety of improvements, which are difficult to quantify; however statistics definitely create a form of culture that improves:

The heart of any institution is data. Elaborated, this means:

How can these challenges be met?

With an integrated applications system, complete control is achieved for data access, management, analysis and presentation (see Figure 2). This is applicable to any user (new or old) and any environment (from the data centre to the desktop).

These four fundamental data-driven tasks, common to all applications, are the foundation of an integrated information system.

Figure 2. The fundamental data-driven tasks

Conclusion

The work of FAO on forestry statistics is an important contribution to international approaches for improving the information on forests and the contribution of the forestry sector to national and rural economies. Adequate information is essential for a clear understanding of the problems and the formulation of sound policies and programmes, which will ensure the conservation of forests and secure the benefits of their products and services for people internationally.

The measurement of forest products

F. Padovani

Fuelwood may come in many forms - stacks, bundles, baskets and headloads. Industrial roundwood is measured in the log (overbark or underbark); different measurement conventions and various rounding conventions are used. When measured by weight, moisture content is assessed. The measurement of sawnwood and wood-based panels is simpler because the products are regular in shape, but some measurement and rounding conventions may apply. Pulp is measured by weight and moisture content is calculated. Paper is measured by weight.

Standard conversions to metric measures are attached (Table 1), together with some approximate equivalents to forest measures and weight (Tables 2, 3 and 4). Because of the particular importance of wood as an energy source in Asian countries, approximate conversions from volume and weight to units of energy content are given in Table 5.

Table 1. Standard conversion factors for preparing production and trade tables

Units

Metric equivalent

1 inch/pouce/puigada

= 25.4 millimetres/millimetres/milimetros

1 square foot/pied carré/pie cuadrado

= 0.0929 square metre/mètre carré/metro cuadrado

1 cubic foot/pied cube/pie cubico

= 0.02832 cubic metre/mètre cube/metro cubico

1 short ton/tonne courte/tonelada corta

= 0.9072 metric tonne/tonne métrique/tonelada metrica

1 long ton/tonne longue/tonelada larga

= 1.016 metric tonne/tonne métrique/tonelada metrica

Table 2. Approximate equivalents for forest measures

Products and units

Solid volume without bark


Cubic metres

Cubic feet

Sawlogs - veneer logs/grumes, sciages + placage/ trozas, aserrada + chapas



1 000 board super feet
1 000 pieds planches superficiels
1 000 pies madereros/superficiales

4.53

160.0

Pulpwood/bois de trituration/madera para pulpa



1 stere/1 stère/1 estereo

0.72

25.4

1 cord/1 corde/1 cuerda

2.55

90.0

Pitprops/bois de mine/madera para minas



1 piles cubic fathom/1 fathom (pied cube empilé)/1 fathom (pie cubico hacinado)

4.28

151.1

1 cord/1 corde/1 cuerda

2.42

85.3

Fuelwood/bois de chauffage/leña



1 stere/1 stère/1 estereo

0.65

23.0

1 corde/1 corde/1 cuerda

2.12

74.9

1 000 stacked cubic feet/1 000 pieds empilés/1 000 pies cubicos hacinados

18.41

650.0

Table 3. Forest product measures

Product and unit

Cubic metres

Cubic feet

1 000 board feet

Standard (Petrograd)

Roundwood/bois rond/madera en rollo





1 hoppus cubic foot/1 pied cube hoppus/1 pie cubico hoppus

0.03605

1.273



1 ton of 5 hoppus cubic feet/1 tonne de 50 pieds cubes hoppus/1 tonelada de 50 pies cubicos hoppus

1.8027

63.66



1 cunit

283.16

100



1 cord1/1corde1/1cuerda1

3.625

128



1 stere1/1stère1/1estero1

1

35.315



1 fathom1

6.1164

216



Sawnwood/sciages/madera aserrada





1 standard (Petrograd)

4.672

165

1.98

1

1 000 board super feet2/1 000 pieds planches superficiels2/1 000 pies madereros superficiales2

236

83.33

1

0.505

1 ton of 50 cubic feet/1 tonne de 50 pieds cubes/1 tonelada de 50 pies cubicos

1.416

50

0.6

0.303

Panels/panneaux/tableros





1 000 square metres (1 millimetre thickness)
1 000 mètres carrés (1 millimètre d’épaisseur)
1 000 metros cuadrados (1 milimetro de espesor)

1

35.315

0.4238


1 000 square feet (1.8 inch thickness)
1 000 pieds carrés (1.8 de pouce d’épaisseur)
1 000 pies cuadrados (1.8 de pulpaca de espesor)

0.295

10.417

0.125


1 Stacked volume. 2 See “Notes on the Tables” in the Yearbook of forest products.

Table 4. Weight and volume

Products

G

C

NC

G

C

NC


kg/CUM

CUM/MT

Fuelwood/bois de chauffage/leña

725

625

750

1.38

1.60

1.33

Charcoal/charbon de bois/carbon veg

167






Sawlogs - veneer logs/grumes, sciages + placage/trozas, aserrada + chapas







Tropical/tropicale/tropicales



730



1.37

Others/autres/otras


700

800


1.43

1.25

Pitprops/bois de mine/madera para minas

725

700

800

1.38

1.43

1.25

Pulpwood/bois de trituration/madera para pulpa

675

650

750

1.48

1.54

1.33

Other industrial roundwood/autre bois rond industrial/otras maderas en rollo industrial

750

700

800

1.33

1.43

1.25

Sawnwood/sciages/madera aserrada


550

700


1.82

1.48

Sleepers/traverses/traviesas

780



1.28



Veneer sheets/feuilles de placage/hojas de chapa

750



1.33



Plywood/contreplaque/madera terciada

650



1.54



Particle board/panneaux de particules/tableros de particulas

650



1.64



Fibreboard compressed/panneaux fibres durs/tableros fibra, prensados

950



1.053



MDF (medium density fibreboard)




2



Insulating board/panneaux fibres isolants/tableros fibra aislantes

250



4



Note: G = general; C = coniferous; NC = non-coniferous

Table 5. Fuelwood and charcoal energy equivalents


MTCE

Giga-joules (10°)

Giga calories (10°)

MTOE

1 MT anthracite

1.00

31.4

7.0

0.70

1 MT coal

1.00

31.4

7.0

0.70

1 MT lignite

0.67

21.6

4.8

0.48

1 MT coke (BR)

0.81

28.5

7.0

0.70

1 MT gasoline

1.50

44.0

10.5

1.05

1 MT charcoal

0.99

28.9

6.9

0.69

1 MT wood (20-30% mc)

0.5

14.3

3.5

0.35

1 MT wood (green)

0.35

10.0

2.5

0.25

1 m3 fuelwood (solid 20-30% mc)

0.33

9.4

2.6

0.26

1 m3 fuelwood (solid 0% mc)

0.43

14.0

3.4

0.34

1 m3 fuelwood (solid green)


7.2

1.8

0.18

1 m3 fuelwood (piled)

0.18

5.0

1.2

0.12

1 MT bagasse (30% mc)

0.50

14.3

3.5

0.35

1 MT dung cakes

0.30

8.6

2.1

0.21

1 MT ethyl alcohol

0.94

27.6

6.6

0.66

1 MT sawdust

0.39

11.1

2.7

0.27

1 MT crude oil

1.46

42.7

10.2

1.00

Note: 1 MT crude oil = 7.30 bb (barrels); MTCE = metric tonne coal equivalent; 1 MTCE = 0.68 bb crude oil; MTOE = metric tonne oil equivalent; 1 MTOE= 5 bb crude oil; mc = moisture content; 1 m3 fuelwood = 1.6 bb crude oil

Collecting trade statistics

F. Padovani

Statistics on forest product exports are collected by the producing enterprises, by forest authorities and by customs offices. Usually, the assembly of formal statistics on trade is carried out by the customs office in relation to the trade ministry’s central statistics office or central bank.

Trade statistics are arranged according to internationally agreed trade classifications. Most countries use either (1) the UN Standard International Trade Classification - SITC (the latest version is Revision 3, introduced in 1988 - SITC Rev. 3), or (2) the Customs Cooperation Council trade classification (CCCN or BTN), up to 1988. Since 1988, many countries have shifted to the new Harmonised System (HS) classification.

FAO collects international trade data on forest products according to a standard format, which follows the SITC and HS systems of classification as well.

More information about the World Customs Organization, the Harmonised System, all the commodities traded internationally and their six-digit HS code numbers, can be found at http://www.wcoomd.org/

The HS classification can also be viewed at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/ramon/. Click on “english”, then “classifications” and it can be read under “H”. More information about the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification is available at: http://esa.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/default.asp; access SITC Rev.3. The SITC classification is also located at: http://esa.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=14&Lg=1

International trade classification systems

Steve Johnson[10]

Background

Forest product trade is extremely important to many countries. Market and sector studies rely on information on trade and trade flows at the international level. Two main systems exist for categorizing products to ensure consistency of reporting between countries.

Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS)

Over 170 countries use the HS for reporting trade flows. The HS is administered by the World Customs Organization (WCO), located in Brussels. The latest revision of the HS was in 1996 (HS96). Revisions require a lengthy process of consultation between all members of the WCO. Trade data reported by countries are compiled by the UN Statistics Division (UNSD) in the COMTRADE database.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)

The SITC is administered directly by the UNSD. The latest major revision of the SITC was in 1986 (SITC Rev. 3).

The JFSQ contains a complete cross-reference between the two systems.

Table 1. Cross-reference between HS96 and SITC Rev. 3

Product

HS 96 Chapter

SITC Rev.3 Chapter

Logs, sawn

44

24

Panels

44

63

Pulp

47

25

Paper

48

64

Furniture

94

82

Problems with international trade classification systems

Units

Partial reporting

Coding errors

Missing reports

Data updating

Tropical timber

Conclusion

International trade statistics are very useful but require careful analysis to ensure accuracy.

Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2000

Country

Fuelwood (1 000 m3)

Industrial roundwood (1 000 m3)

Sawnwood (1 000 m3)


Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Australia

6 333

0

0

6 333

24 160

3

969

23 194

3 977

1 025

86

4 916

China

191 051

108

42

191 117

96 421

15 532

781

111 172

7 202

5 715

812

12 105

Cook Is.

0

0

0

0

5

0

4

1

0

2

0

2

Fiji

37

0

0

37

449

0

1

448

72

0

17

55

Maldives

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Mongolia

186

0

0

186

445

7

1

451

300

2

3

299

Myanmar

19 226

0

0

19 226

3 574

0

949

2 625

343

0

155

188

PNG

5 533

0

0

5 533

3 064

0

1 902

1 163

218

0

20

198

Samoa

70

0

0

70

61

0

6

55

21

8

1

27

Sol Is.

138

0

0

138

734

0

424

310

12

0

4

8

Tonga

0

2

0

2

2

0

0

2

2

7

0

9

Vanuatu

91

0

1

90

40

0

0

40

18

1

10

9

Total

222 665

110

43

222 732

128 955

15 542

5 037

139 461

12 165

6 760

1 108

17 816

World

1 778 686

1 984

3 591

1 777 069

1 574 634

124 338

114 222

1 584 751

424 488

128 827

126 683

426 632

Share (%)

13

6

1

13

8

12

4

9

3

5

1

4


Country

Wood-based panels (1 000 m3)

Pulp for paper (1 000 tonnes)

Paper and paperboard (1 000 tonnes)


Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

Australia

1 801

250

255

1 796

2 590

303

0

2 893

2 844

1 399

455

3 788

China

18 647

7 499

2 120

24 026

17 961

3 818

47

21 732

35 529

10 448

3 621

42 356

Cook Is.

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Fiji

12

3

7

8

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

18

Maldives

0

4

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

Mongolia

2

4

1

5

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

5

Myanmar

15

2

13

4

42

0

0

42

40

31

0

71

PNG

15

2

12

5

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

18

Samoa

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sol. Is.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tonga

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Vanuatu

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

20 492

7 770

2 408

25 854

20 593

4 121

47

24 667

38 413

11 920

4 076

46 257

World

181 631

61 775

56 602

186 804

187 472

36 704

36 562

187 614

323 569

97 884

96 925

324 527

Share (%)

11

13

4

14

11

11

0

13

12

12

4

14

Dissemination and use of forestry sector information for decision-making at national and international levels

F. Padovani

Much has been said about the importance of statistics in decision-making. The two graphs provided hereunder are evidence that realistic forest product statistics have contributed to several outlook studies, over the past 50 years, to make objective analyses of the sector to support policy formulation and investments for FAO’s member countries.

The FAO Forest Products Statistics database (FAOSTAT) displayed below is constructed as an objective collection of data that can be analysed and interpreted on a comparable base. It is available on FAOSTAT online, and via FTP on CD. Around 1 000 users access FAOSTAT online daily.


[9] Forestry Officer, Forestry Planning and Statistics Branch (FONS), FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome.
[10] International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), International Organizations Center - 5th floor, Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Japan 220-0012.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page