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Country presentations

Outline on the presentations of national forest product statistics

The national statistical correspondents/participants presented respective national forest product statistics in their countries at the workshop. The presentations were based mainly on the paper “Production and Trade of Forest Products”. The reports used the following format.

1. Review of the current statistical system for forest product production and trade

2. Assessment of the current statistical system for forest product production and trade

3. Improvement of the national forestry statistics process

Australia: National forest product statistics

Geoff Armitage[11]


Australia has two major levels of government, with federal and state administrations. The country has a sophisticated forestry statistical data collection, analysis and dissemination system centred on a federal department - the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (ABARE), an organization within the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (AFFA).

Current statistical system

ABARE publishes biannually the Australian forest wood & product statistics as well as the Australian commodity statistics with data sourced from various organizations using a number of methodologies, including direct surveys of companies, industry associations and state government agencies. Other key sources of data are the federal (Commonwealth) government agencies including the Customs Service (ACS), Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS).

Frequency of data collection depends on the data type. Trade statistics are collected monthly, forest production statistics quarterly and forest inventory statistics every three years by the BRS. Stakeholders for dissemination of statistics include government departments, industry, NGOs, policy-makers and analysts, private concerns and international organizations such as FAO.

Assessment of the current statistical system

Ongoing decreases in government department budgets have resulted in a reduction in the availability of data, and its reliability. The budget decreases directly impact on staff and institutional knowledge as well as the quantity and quality of data collection and analysis. Reduction in resources relates to state as well as federal levels of administration. Some data are no longer reported - for example certain area data - and the data quality is in some situations too poor to be worth collecting and reporting.

Confidentiality issues are a key concern, particularly where a forestry company may be involved in politically sensitive enterprises (such as export hardwood chipping), and few companies are involved in a region and therefore sensitive to reporting of data at a regional level. Where a lack of trust exists between some government and private companies, data collection and consequently reporting is restricted.

Export trade statistics collection has also declined due to the reduction in budgets and staff resources. Thus, there is currently less data available to analyse and report.

Opportunities for improvement

Improvement in resourcing is expected by 2004, which will have a positive effect on the quality and quantity of data collection, as well as the capacity for analysis and reporting. Staff knowledge, personal linkages and capabilities will take longer to develop.

China: National forest product statistics

Chen Jiawen[12]


China’s collection of forestry statistics uses over 50 000 forestry statistical professionals, with data collected at central and provincial levels, the latter data being checked continually as it moves up through the hierarchy (forestry department, county, province, central).

Current statistical system

Data collection utilizes computer tabulation enabling China to obtain timely, precise and comprehensive information on changes in national forest resources, demand and supply of forestry products, status on the use of forestry capital, as well as the benefits it generates. The tabular forms are standardized and use basic units.

The central level sets out annual requirements and programme action plans for each province, which are passed down to the forestry departments of each provincial government for implementation. Provincial forestry departments then disseminate the action plans to forestry departments of the prefectures/cities and counties in their provinces, which organize individual forestry units (forestry stations, etc.) to implement the plans.

Specific forestry statistical needs are met using censuses, focused surveys, etc. An example is the national census on forestry industry conducted in 1995.

Assessment of the current statistical system

Data accuracy is checked continually through amalgamation via the various administrative hierarchies, over what is a very large land area.

Forestry statistical data is analysed for comprehensive analysis on forest management, the forestry industry, construction and production, personnel, finance and materials. More focused analysis is undertaken for specific needs. Projections of data trends in production and markets are used to identify and assess issues, problems and preventive measures or solutions. These data projections are integral to the planning exercise.

Since 1987 the focus of analysis has been published statistics for home and abroad (e.g. the China forest year book and FAO data needs).

Opportunities for improvement

Forestry statistics are still insufficient to fully satisfy the needs of macro decision-making and various social sectors. The domestic system is not fully compatible with international indicators. For instance, pulp, paper products and furniture are not components of the forestry statistics. Timeliness is a problem given the vast land area and many fundamental units.

Other potential improvements relate to:

Cook Islands: National forest product statistics

William Wigmore[13]


The Cook Islands consist of 15 islands scattered over 2 million km2 of the South Pacific Ocean. Approximately 63 percent of the country is currently under some kind of forest, with indigenous forest being most prevalent (makatea, atoll, coastal and high forest). Greater variation in the species of forest trees occurs in the volcanic islands with much fewer species being found in the atoll islands. This is attributable mainly to a greater variation in soil types, from acidic to alkaline. The atolls are low-lying islands with some being only a few metres above sea level. Tree species that can tolerate alkaline soils, such as coconuts (Cocos nucifera), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and pandanus (Pandanus tectorius), are more common in these islands. A forestry programme, initiated in the mid-1980s, centred around the objectives of soil erosion control and timber management. Soil conservation plantings use Acacia mangium, A. grassicarpa, A. auriculiformis, Eucalyptus pellita and E. tereticornis. Timber plantings are mainly Pinus caribaea and sandalwood (Santalum newcaledonicum). The area under natural and planted forest is approximately 15 500 hectares (estimated for a Heads of Forestry meeting in 1996).

Current statistical system

Forest statistics are collected by the Statistics Department via Customs for timber imports. Timber imports are recorded in NZ$ (CIF), with no current provision for recording quantity. Most imports come from New Zealand with smaller amounts from Fiji and Asia. Statistics’ collection adheres to the Harmonised System and SITC rev.3.

No forest products are exported other than craft items, via the tourist trade, made from highly valued native hardwood species including tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum), miro (Thespesia populnea) and tou (Cordia subcordata).

Assessment of the current statistical system

Current statistical information on the importation of wood products into the country is expressed only in CIF values (NZ$). Quantitative data would be valuable for the forestry development programme. Non-wood forest products include exports of aromatic foliage. Data on these products are not collected.

Rapid staff turnover within the Forestry Division has been experienced since its inception within the Ministry of Agriculture. This has contributed to the inconsistency and unavailability of important information.

The lack of both reliable forest area data and any forest production data - especially the more economically important species of pine and sandalwood - are recognized as two deficiencies.

Opportunities for improvement

Data and information from local production of wood and timber tree products could be incorporated into the database of the Ministry of Agriculture. The ministry is responsible for the collection of other information on agricultural crop production, plant protection, import of chemicals and fertilizers. Forest production data would be valuable information for the Ministry of Agriculture to maintain.

Fiji: National forest product statistics

Osea Tuinivanua[14]


Fiji comprises a 300-island archipelago, with the two largest islands accounting for 87 percent of the land area and 90 percent of the population. About 50 percent of Fiji is forested. Most of the commercial forests, including the plantation forests, are located on the dry western sides of the main islands. Fiji has had the most aggressive plantation establishment policy of any of the Pacific Islands. The main softwood plantation species grown is Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), the main hardwood species are mahogany and teak. Much of Fiji’s natural forest is used primarily as watershed protection and preserved de facto, despite the absence of legally protected status. Most of Fiji’s natural forests is under communal ownership. The plantations are operated by the State.

Current statistical system

Forest statistics’ measurement differs between the commercial plantations, and the commercial natural forests. Logs of the more high value timbers from the natural forests are tagged individually using a barcode system while the logs are still in the bush. The logs are followed through to the processing point, and the sawn outturn is also in barcodes.

The system has two functions, (1) to assist in the administration of the license to cut this timber; and (2) to provide the basis for monitoring forest statistics for these products, including timber source, quantity, value and destination. This provides the basis for other government information services and policy analysis.

Thirty-five percent of Fiji’s forest output is from natural forests, with 63 percent coming from pine (government-owned Fiji Pine Commission) and 2 percent from plantation grown mahogany. Statistical data for these operations are provided directly by the organizations. Over 50 percent of the pine is chipped for export.

Fiji is self-sufficient in solid wood forest products, only importing its paper needs.

Assessment of the current statistical system

The system operates effectively because of the maintenance of good linkages between other departments to ensure the ready sharing of statistical data. The collection of the data - particularly for natural forest operations - relies heavily on the maintenance of trust with both sawmillers and landowners, who believe that government officials will continue to respect the confidentiality of their data.

Maldives: National forest product statistics

Hassan Rasheed[15]


The Maldives is an archipelago of nearly 1 200 coral islands in 26 natural atolls, most of them too small for human settlement. Two hundred islands support a total population of 270 000, with 25 percent of the population living in the capital city of Malé. All the islands are threatened by sea level rise. Species include coconut, iron wood, breadfruit, mangrove, red bean tree, tangion, sea trumpet and Alexander laurelwood, which are harvested for the construction of boats and buildings. Many timber and wood products are imported.

Current statistical system

The Maldives has adopted a decentralized statistical system where various agencies take responsibility in data collecting, processing and disseminating. The principal responsibility for fisheries, agriculture and forestry data collection and analysis lies with the Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources (MOFAMR). The Statistics and Database Management Services (SDMS) of MOFAMR collects, compiles, analyses and publishes agricultural, fisheries and forestry resource-use data, socio-economic data and other relevant information necessary for sustainable management and planning.

Data on forestry is collected by two methods, both focusing on tree numbers; neither collects volume data. The first method involves sending standardized forms to the 20 provincial atolls. The island office collects the number of trees planted and the number of trees cut down. These data are summarized quarterly and sent to SDMS.

The second method involves extracting data from the cutting permits issued by MOFAMR. These permits indicate only the numbers of trees to be cut down. No monitoring system checks the permit compliance. In recent years the permit requests have declined with the substitution of imported timber, which is both cheaper and more easily accessible, and the decrease in the availability of timber trees.

Customs collect export and import data in a variety of units (numbers of pieces, tonnes, square metres and kilograms). Data collection uses a mixture of manual and computer processing, with most analysis using electronic spreadsheets.

Assessment of the current statistical system

Major weaknesses in the data collection system include the lack of volume data, lack of sufficient human and financial resources and lack of comprehensive unit standards including volume and financial data. Without this data the importance of the primary industries in the Maldives economy is not fully appreciated. The lack of resources has meant that data is under-reported, especially at local levels, and that no capacity is available to measure volumes.

Opportunities for improvement

From 1999 the SDMS has been working on improving the statistical data collection system. A number of studies have identified constraints, and have recommended strengthening the SDMS through developing data collection and analysis capacity and information dissemination.

Mongolia: National forest product statistics

Avirmed Ayurzana[16]


Mongolia’s forest industry began in 1924 and currently has a total forest area of 18.3 million hectares (12.9 net stocked), mainly located in the wetter north. The net forest area represents 8.2 percent of Mongolia’s land area. The volume of the forest resource is over 1.4 billion m3 and its annual growth rate is 12.0 million m3. Commercial timber harvest has dropped since 1990 from 1.5 million m3 per annum to the current limit of 40 000 m3 per annum due to infrastructural limitations, the effects of illegal harvesting, forest fires and pests and increasing protection demands. These changes have resulted in an increase in timber imports.

Current statistical system

With the disestablishment of the Ministry of Forest and Wood Industry (MFWI) in 1987 (when a market economy was phased in to replace central planning) the new Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment controls matters of forest reproduction, protection and forest use, with wood-processing issues covered by the new Ministry of Light and Heavy Industry.

These changes also resulted in a near collapse of the system of information and statistics once the responsibility of the old MFWI. Currently only the main forest product types are available through the National Statistics Office (NSO). The NSO coordinates the provincial government statistics’ departments, requiring them to complete standardized monthly records for every timber manufacturer in their province. To prevent misreporting, an attempt at validation of production is provided by reference to the tax offices.

Assessment of the current statistical system

The current system has problems in both the quality and quantity of data collected compared with the pre-1987 situation. In addition, illegal harvesting continues. However, the Government of Mongolia adopted a National Forest Program in 2002, involving the establishment of a government agency staffed by professionals to implement the policies covering the environment, forests and water resources. Local divisions will be established, which should provide the capacity to implement the forest programme, influence state policy, improve planning and collect and analyse forest statistics.

Forest statistics’ collection has been further advanced with the inception in 2000 of the “Certificate on source of forest product raw material”, which provides the opportunity to improve the statistics on wood harvest, transportation and trade. This data must be provided to the local government office (wood harvest), the transferring point (transportation) and the posts of entrance to urban areas (trade).

Opportunities for improvement

While the improvements mentioned above are being made, further changes to improve the collection of statistics by the NSO are also proposed.

Myanmar: National forest product statistics

Sein Htoon Linn[17]


Myanmar has extensive hardwood forestry resources including highly valued natural and plantation forest teak, managed on a group selection system. All forests are publicly owned, with the private sector limited to subcontractors. Harvesting is done usually by draught animals, mainly elephants. Forests are compartmentalized, with individual trees selectively felled in accordance with the Myanmar Selection System of harvest management. The large border with neighbouring China, India, Lao PDR and Thailand, as well as the remote location of these areas, makes illegal logging and export smuggling a major problem for both sustainable forestry, and the accurate collection of forest statistics.

Current statistical system

Myanma Timber Enterprise (MTE) is a State-owned enterprise with the sole responsibility for timber (logs) extraction and production throughout Myanmar. All processes from felling, bucking, scaling, skidding, transportation and sawmilling are recorded and reconciled for individual logs. When logs are bucked to length they are given individual serial numbers and scaled for volume using standardized forms. The system records the number of felled trees, number of logs harvested and volume of harvest for each coupe or compartment.

Logs arriving at the sawmills are recorded and registered, as is sawntimber output. The system allows individual logs to be reconciled with the specific sawn outturn from that log. In addition, the system identifies the origin of the log, volume and dimensions.

All logs and processed timber (mostly plywood, flooring and furniture) whether exported or distributed locally, are recorded by the government agencies concerned, including MTE. Imports of timber products - mainly paper products - are negligible.

The other important NWFPs are bamboo and rattan and to a lesser extent tanning barks, fibres for rope-making, scented woods and barks, gums, resins, roofing materials, dyeing materials, birds’ nests, honey and beeswax, lac and medicinal plants. All data relating to these products are recorded by government agencies, including those used locally for personal use.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

The data for forest products is considered accurate and reliable. The system works well. However, some of the units used are British imperial, which are not always compatible with FAO.

The major constraint relating to forest product statistics relates to illegal harvesting and exporting across neighbouring borders. Developing relationships with neighbouring countries is seen as essential to the elimination of this constraint.

Papua New Guinea: National forest product statistics

Kini Karawa[18]


Almost 80 percent of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is under forest, with most forest (52 percent) being the closed broadleaved type. The most common subtypes are lowland and montane rainforests. The forests differ markedly to Southeast Asian forests with the canopy dominated by Pometia, Ficus and Terminalia species. At higher altitudes Nothofagus species predominate. Smaller areas of swamp, mangrove, deciduous and dry evergreen forests are also present, as well as savannah-type woodlands. Most forest land is under tribal ownership. The plantation estate is relatively small. The country has developed a reasonable network of protected parks and reserves covering about five percent of the total land area.

PNG is divided into 19 provinces each with its provisional government administering all activities in the province, including forestry and the timber industry with support from the National Forest Authority (NFA).

Current statistical system

The collection of production and trade forest product statistics is principally the responsibility of the NFA. Logs for export are the predominant forest product traded in PNG. Consequently, data collection for this forest product is more detailed. Data collection for other forest products and trade statistics is less detailed, and in need of upgrading, especially as log exports are decreasing with a commensurate rise in sawntimber and other processed timber exports.

In collaboration with the provincial governments, the NFA collects four types of forest product statistical data: a resource inventory, as well as production, trade, and industrial data (employment, investment, wages etc.). For export logs, the NFA uses standardized forms direct from the logging companies, via the Provincial Forest Offices where royalty payments are assessed. In contrast, the data of production and trade of other forest products such as chipwood, rattan cane, plywood, sandalwood and eaglewood are only available through the Export Permit applications, and are not standardized by the NFA.

Larger scale plants producing plywood and woodchip production provide data directly to the NFA, however sawntimber production is less reliable because of the number of small operators who keep poor records.

Import statistics are collected through the National Statistical Office. Major items include paper and panel products, with data mainly covering value and origin. Data on domestic timber consumption varies in quality, and is considered an estimate only, with fuelwood being the most important product by volume.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

Forestry statistics’ collection, tabulation and dissemination all require a more regular and consistent system to be put in place. To date, collected data are not tabulated and published on a regular basis, restricting their usefulness for international reporting and policy analysis. Data collection is also irregular, with many inconsistencies in method and delivery. The establishment of a forest statistics’ section within the NFA responsible for collecting, publishing and disseminating forest production and trade data could create the opportunity for improvement.

Samoa: National forest product statistics

Tolusina Pouli[19]


Samoa consists of two main islands with six other subsidiary islands. The total land area is approximately 283 000 hectares. The forest area comprises almost 40 percent of the total land area (approximately 106 000 hectares). The forests of Samoa are mainly humid tropical rain forests, differentiated by elevation into lowland, foothill and upland forests. Common species include Pometia spp. and Terminalia spp. in the lowland and foothill forests. Monocotyledonous species are characteristic of the upland forests. Substantial areas are under coconut, and smaller areas of mangroves are also present.

Deforestation is a serious problem in Samoa. Heavy exploitation of the indigenous forests did not really begin until 1974. In the subsequent period most of the commercially viable forest has been cleared or damaged by cyclones. Today, more than 80 percent of the forest is regarded as non-commercial.

Plantation establishment in Western Samoa also began around 1974 with the planting of mahogany and Australian red cedar. More than 90 percent of the plantation estate was destroyed by tropical cyclone Val in 1992.

Samoa has banned the export of unprocessed logs. Commercial logging in natural forests on the largest island, Upolu, has also been banned. Samoa produces sawnwood for its domestic market. Other wood and paper products are imported, mainly from New Zealand.

Current statistical system

Collection of forest product statistics is mainly the responsibility of the Forestry Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests, Fisheries & Meteorology. The main forest products are sawntimber, poles/posts, handicrafts and carvings, and fuelwood. Sawntimber volume data are collected directly from the four sawmilling companies, three of which are also logging companies. Import volume data are derived from the Customs department, but there are often problems in obtaining consistent and reliable information covering both standardized volumes and unit value. To date, data on NWFPs are not collected. Likewise, data on fuelwood can only be estimated.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

The major problems associated with inconsistent and unreliable data relate to:

Building relationships with other departments is seen as an opportunity to make the most gains with the limited resources available.

Solomon Islands: National forest product statistics

Tommy Tagili[20]


The Solomon Islands is one of the world’s most extensively forested countries. Ninety percent of the country is under high rain forest with a small proportion of mainly swamp forest, including mangroves, and upland forests. A very large proportion of the forests is presently non-commercial given their steepness and inaccessibility. The major species harvested are Pometia pinnata, Calophyllum spp. and a mixture of whitewoods. Much of the forest area available for wood supply has been logged already and forecasts suggest that the country’s harvest levels will need to be curtailed quite sharply in the near future to avoid exhausting the commercially available forest resource. The Solomon Islands has operated a small-scale plantation programme for around 30 years.

The Solomon Islands is divided into 11 provinces, with all but two exporting logs. Approximately 2.7 million m3 of logs are exported annually, providing a significant contribution to the national economy. Forest product statistics have been disrupted seriously over the last few years because of the political turmoil associated with ethnic and warlord violence against the government. No sawntimber statistics have been recorded for the last few years.

Current statistical system

The forestry department is responsible for the collection of forest product statistics, in association with the Customs department. The information for export logs is comprehensive including province, destination, species, log grade, volumes (m3), and value (US$). The data are tabulated within a computer database. The Solomon Islands produces a modest quantity of sawntimber, mainly for domestic consumption, and often using chainsaw mills. No data are available on the presence or significance of NWFPs. Fuelwood data are also unavailable.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

The major problem with the forest product statistical system is poor reliability and consistency, which is mainly attributable to the current political problems. There is also poor cooperation between the various departments. A good system exists for at least some aspects of forest statistics’ collection and reporting, but the political situation means that it is not performing optimally.

In July 2003, the political situation in the Solomon Islands took a turn for the better with intervention by police and military forces from a group of Pacific countries.

Tonga: National forest product statistics

Alipate Tavo[21]


Only a relatively small area of closed natural forest remains in Tonga, with some 4 000 hectares of hardwood forest, mainly on uninhabited islands, in very steep or inaccessible areas, in coastal littoral areas and swamps and in mangrove areas. Most of the remaining forest is on Eua Island in an area that has been proposed as a national park. Tonga’s major timber resource is currently coconut palms. Tonga is moving to establish a commercially viable plantation estate. Most of the plantings are Pinus caribaea.

Current timber volumes produced by Tonga are very small, with less than 700 m3 produced on the four main islands according to the statistics collected, and less than 125 tonnes being exported (measured as kilograms for statistical purposes) in 2001. Data collection is consequently a low priority for the government.

Fuelwood is the main source of energy. Tonga produces a small amount of sawntimber, mainly coconut, for the domestic market. Most of the production comes from the government-owned Mataliku Sawmilling Centre. All other wood products are imported.

Current statistical system

Forest production statistics are collected by direct assessment in the field, with other methods being used to attempt to validate the figures. Various departments are involved, including Quarantine, Customs, Tonga Timber Ltd, Statistics and the Forestry division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Production data are assumed to be under-reported because of the difficulty of assessing less formal trade such as roadside selling. Fuelwood is not assessed, and data on NWFPs are not available.

Timber product imports include sawntimber (recorded by volume) from the United States and Canada.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

The reliability of the data is limited by the small scale of forestry production, and the low resourcing that is a consequence of the low priority given to forest statistics in Tonga. However, the development of a plantation forestry resource will raise the importance of the forestry sector in the Tongan economy.

Vanuatu: National forest product statistics

William Bani[22]


Vanuatu is a country of more than 80 volcanic islands located to the northeast of New Caledonia. The total land area is 12 000 km2. The islands usually consist of a narrow coastal plain rising through broken foothills to a steep mountainous interior. Seventy-four percent of Vanuatu is covered in natural vegetation, with about one-third covered by forest. Much of the natural forest is on steep inaccessible slopes and the limited accessible sites contain few species of commercial use. In the island interior much of the natural forest has primarily a protective role. Some of these forests have been degraded by conversion to grazing and in places by burning. Vanuatu has operated two plantation development programmes over the past 25 years and has established small areas of Cordia alliodora and Pinus caribaea plantations.

Over the past decade Vanuatu has intermittently operated a log export ban. There are no large-scale forest industries in the country. However, there are several small sawmills and a number of chainsaw mills. In the past, sandalwood was an important export. Wood is a moderately important source of fuel in Vanuatu. Information on NWFPs is currently unavailable.

Virtually all land and forests are owned customarily (not by the government). Export earnings from forest products are usually ranked second or third of all export industries.

Current statistical system

The Forestry Development Office is responsible for the collection of forest product statistics, in coordination with other departments, notably Customs. The focus of data collection is on harvesting of timber products. Data collected include species, volume harvested, the resource owner and government dues, location and volume of sawntimber. No system exists for estimating forest area.

Data on imports are sourced from the Customs department. There is a lack of cooperation between some departments, with some information being of very poor quality.

Assessment of the current statistical system and opportunities for improvement

The collection of forest product statistics in Vanuatu is constrained particularly by a lack of cooperation between departments. Resource constraints also impact on forest statistics through inadequate staff resources, the poor commitment of staff and a lack of institutional and technical knowledge (for example understanding appropriate codes, etc.).

Many of these constraints can be overcome without significant increases in financial resources. In particular, improvements in the collection and reporting of export and import data would be improved should the Forestry Development Office take control of timber importing and exporting. Improvement would also result from a closer liaison between departments at the head of department level. The use of clearly understandable, standardized forms (with standard measurement units) would reduce the inaccuracies and improve the reliability of data collection and reporting.

[11] Data Manager, Data Management & Collection Section, ABARE, GPO Box 1563, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
[12] Senior Engineer, State Forest Administration, Beijing, 100714, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA.
[13] Director of Research, Ministry of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96, Rarotonga, COOK ISLANDS.
[14] Director Planning, Ministry of Fisheries & Forests, P.O. Box 2218, Suva, FIJI ISLANDS.
[15] Deputy Director, Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture & Marine Resources, Ghaazee Building, Malé, MALDIVES.
[16] Officer in charge of Forests, Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment, Government Building No.3, MNR & E, Baga Toiruu-44, Surhbaatar District, Ulaanbaatar-11, MONGOLIA.
[17] Assistant Director, Planning & Statistics Dept, Ministry of Forestry, Thirimingalar Avenue, Off-Kabaraye Road, Yankin, P.O. Yangon, MYANMAR.
[18] Marketing Officer, PNG Forest Authority, P.O. Box 5055, Boroko, NCD, PAPUA NEW GUINEA.
[19] Forestry Officer, Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Forests, Fisheries & Meteorology, P.O. Box 1874, Apia, SAMOA.
[20] Senior Forest Officer, Forestry Department, Ministry of Forests, Environment & Conservation, P.O. Box G24, Honiara, SOLOMON ISLANDS.
[21] Agriculture Officer, Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry (MAF), P.O. Box 14, Nuku'alofa, TONGA.
[22] Forest Utilization Officer, Private Mail Bag 064, Port Vila, VANUATU.

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