Watershed management field manual

Watershed survey and planning


T.C. Sheng



Rome, 1990




List of Examples


1. Introduction and concepts

1.1 The need for watershed survey and planning

1.2 Definitions

1.3 Four levels of survey and planning

1.4 A problem-solving approach

2.Identification of watershed problems, objectives and priorities

2.1 Collecting existing data

2.2 Quick identification of watershed problems

2.3 Considering management possibilities

2.4 Determining main objectives and priorities

3.Organization survey and planning mechanisms

3.1 Joint planning and decentralized implementation

3.2 Setting guidelines and criteria

3.3 Progress monitoring

4.Biophysical data collection and analysis

4.1 Basic approaches

4.2 General guidelines

4.3 Data requirements

4.4 Analysis of major biophysical problems

4.5 Results and products

5.Socio-Economic and infrastructure data

5.1 General

5.2 Collection of data

5.3 Analysis of problems

5.4 Result reporting and recommendations

6.Institutional and cultural information

6.1 Information on institutions and legislation

6.2 Cultural information and considerations

6.3 Analysis and reporting

7.Some survey techniques and examples

7.1 Land use, land capability and suitability surveys

7.2 Erosion surveys

7.3 Water and other natural resources surveys

7.4 Infrastructure surveys

7.5 Socio-economic surveys

8.Planning approaches and basics

8.1 Planning in general

8.2 Planning approaches

8.3 Land use and conservation need planning

8.4 Planning for watershed protection and rehabilitation

8.5 Planning for rural and integrated watershed development

9.Economic and other assessment

9.1 The concept

9.2 Economic characteristics of watershed projects

9.3 Functions and limits of economic assessment

9.4 Major techniques in economic assessment

9.5 Other assessment

10.Constraints, Alternatives and Strategies

10.1 Identification of constraints

10.2 Management altenatives

10.3 Strategies

11.Plan formulations, Recommendations, and monitoring and evaluation

11.1 Plan or project formulation

11.2 Recommendations on implementation

11.3 Monitoring, evaluation and follow-up


Appendix 1 Sample checklist for watershed survey

Appendix 2 New scheme of land capibility classification

Appendix 3 Use of microcomputers: an introduction



1. Various level of survey and planning

2. A hypothetic list of agencies involved in watershed survey and planning

3. A Hypothetic master scheme for survey and planning

4. A schedule of survey and planning activities

5. An example of coordination or division of labour between extension and soil conservation agencies

6. Diagram of mapping procedures for land capibility and land use maps

7. Structure of the suitability calssification

8. Some quantitative analysis of watershed morphology

9. Forms of road erosion and their control measures

10. Relationship between with and without project

11. Cost effectiveness diagram

12. Geographic Information System (GIS)


1.   Simple guidelines for new soil survey
2.   Procedures for supplemental soil survey
3.   Slope analysis and mapping
4.   Procedures for producing a land capability map
S.   Examples of qualitative land suitability maps
6.   Using aerial photographs for surveying present land use and mapping
7.   Procedures for producing a land use adjustment map
8.   Classification of sheet erosion by water
9.   Classification of gullies by depths
10.   Road erosion survey
11.   Example of landslide classification and investigation form
12.   Erosion classification for streams
13.   Recommended widths for stream protection belt
14.   Three methods for estimating average rainfall for a watershed
15.   Average monthly water budgets for two stations in Thailand
16.   Tolerable turbidity of water for various uses
17.   Sample check list for forest road and logging aspects
18.   Hydrologic soil groupings
19.   Chart for determining hydrologic condition of forest and woodland
20.   Elements of survey of agroforestry projects
21.   Six classes of recreation area: a summary
22.   Farm summary table
23.   Data needs for community development
24.   An example of estimating water supply benefits

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