Integrated Livestock-Fish Farming Systems


Integrated livestock-fish farming systems



INLAND WATER RESOURCES AND AQUACULTURE SERVICE ANIMAL PRODUCTION SERVICE

BY D.C. LITTLE and P. EDWARDS

 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
ROME 2003

Table of Contents


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-105055-4

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2003

Preparation of this document

This book was prepared by the authors under the overall coordination of Matthias Halwart, Fishery Resources Officer (Aquaculture) and with the collaboration of colleagues from Animal Production Service, particularly Manuel Sanchez and Simon Mack, who contributed comments. The printing of the publication was supported by the Interdepartmental Working Group on Integrated Production Systems. Graphic design by Joanne Morgante. All photos by D.C. Little.



CONTENTS


Preface

1. Introduction
1.1 Rationale of the Study
1.2 Definitions of Integrated Farming
1.3 Potential Linkages Between Livestock and Fish Production
1.4 Relevance of Integrated Farming
1.5 Sustainability Issues at Micro- and Macro-Levels

1.5.1 MICRO-LEVEL
1.5.2 MACRO-LEVEL

2. Evolutionary Development of Integrated Livestock-Fish Farming Systems in Asia
2.1 Systems and Scale
2.2 Environmental Effects
2.3 Crop Domination
2.4 Integrated Crop/Livestock
2.5 Industrial Monoculture

3. Major Types of Integrated Systems in Asia
3.1 Current Status

3.1.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
3.1.2 MONOGASTRICS
3.1.3 RUMINANTS
3.1.4 NON-CONVENTIONAL LIVESTOCK

3.2 Upgrading Traditional Livestock Systems for Aquaculture

3.2.1 UPGRADING LIVESTOCK DIETS AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
3.2.2 COLLECTION OF MONOGASTRIC WASTES IN SMALL-HOLDER SYSTEMS
3.2.3 RUMINANT SYSTEMS
3.2.4 MIXED INPUT SYSTEMS

3.3 Integration with Agro-Industry

3.3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

4. Environmental Aspects
4.1 Nutrients

4.1.1 NUTRIENT RECYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS
4.1.2 NUTRIENT EFFICIENCY IN LIVESTOCK
4.1.3 NUTRIENT EFFICIENCY IN AQUACULTURE
4.1.4 NUTRIENT RELATIONSHIPS IN LIVESTOCK- FISH SYSTEMS

4.2 Significance of Livestock and Fish Production in the Global Environment

4.2.1 GLOBAL WARMING
4.2.2 WATER USE
4.2.3 BIODIVERSITY
4.2.4 USE OF FISHERIES TO SUPPORT LIVESTOCK AND FISH PRODUCTION
4.2.5 IMPACTS OF LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS ON FISH PRODUCTION

5. Design Criteria for Livestock Manured Ponds
5.1 Manured Pond Dynamics

5.1.1 OVERVIEW
5.1.2 PRINCIPLES OF FERTILIZATION
5.1.3 PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

5.2 Waste Characteristics

5.2.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
5.2.2 SPECIES, SIZE AND SEX
5.2.3 FEED AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
5.2.4 NUTRIENT RELEASE FROM MANURES
5.2.5 WASTE COLLECTION AND STORAGE

5.3 Waste Addition

6. Public Health and Livestock-Fish
6.1 General Considerations

6.1.1 PATHOGENS
6.1.2 BACTERIA AND VIRUSES
6.1.3 PARASITES
6.1.4 INSECT-VECTOR BORNE DISEASES
6.1.5 INFLUENZA PANDEMICS

6.2 Chemical Hazards and Associated Risks
6.3 Biological Hazards
6.4 Summary

7. Social and Economic Considerations
7.1 Demand
7.2 Nutritional Benefits
7.3 Gender and Age
7.4 Resource issues

7.4.1 INTRODUCTION
7.4.2 MICRO-LEVEL
7.4.3 MACRO-LEVEL
7.4.4 BENEFITS
7.4.5 RISK
7.4.6 LABOUR

7.5 Promotion of Integrated Livestock-Fish

7.5.1 FRAMEWORK
7.5.2 DEVELOPING HUMAN CAPACITY
7.5.3 SYSTEMS APPROACH
7.5.4 FARMER-FIRST
7.5.5 CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES
7.5.6 ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
7.5.7 EXTERNAL FACTORS

8. Transferability of Asian Experiences to Africa and Latin America
8.1 General Considerations
8.2 Information Needs
8.3 Institutional Constraints
8.4 Seed Supply
8.5 Theft and Predation
8.6 Demand
8.7 Multi-purpose Use and Benefits
8.8 Beneficiaries
8.9 Comparing the Regions

9. Future Directions in Livestock-Fish Integration
9.1 Demand and Globalization
9.2 Feed Resources
9.3 Intensification not Concentration
9.4 Peri-Urban Integration
9.5 Rural Integration
9.6 Potential

Acknowledgements
References
Back Cover


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