Diverses études ont été faites concernant les plantations à réaliser pour satisfaire les besoins à des horizons différents. Une étude de la FAO de 1976 (“Etude prospective pour le développement agricole des pays de la zone sahélienne 1975–1990”) indique, qu'au Mali il faudrait planter entre 108 000 ha et 324 000 ha - ces deux surfaces correspondant aux rendements limites de 4 m3/ha/an (sols pauvres) et 12 m3/ha/an (bons sols) - pour satisfaires les besoins urbains en 1990. L'étude conadienne déjà citée sur l'énergie donne respectivement 210 800 et 500 000 ha pour la satisfaction des besoins urbains à la même époque (1990).
Les réalisations suivantes sont envisagées pour les prochaines années (6) (8):
plantations de 3 500 ha dans les deux forêts classées de la Faya et des Monts Mandingue près de Bamako avec Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus camaldulensis et E. tereticornis;
plantations de 500 ha dans les réserves forestières de la région de Ségou avec Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea et Eucalyptus camaldulensis;
plantations irriguées de 315 hectares principalement d'Eucalyptus camaldulensis dans la région de Mopti.
On a estimé d'une manière prudente qu'il se planterait dans la période 1981–85 1 500 ha de Gmelina et 1 000 hectares des autres essences.
Surfaces estimées des plantations industrielles réalisées à la fin de 1985
(en milliers d'ha)
|P..1=PH.1=PHL 1||Gmelina arborea||1,5||0,2||1,7|
Surfaces estimées des plantations non-industrielles réalisées à la fin de 1985
(en milliers d'ha)
|P..2=PH.2=PHL 2||Tectona grandifolia|
Surfaces estimées des plantations réalisées à la fin de 1985
(en milliers d'ha)
Centre Technique Forestier Tropical 1972 “Etude préalable à l'inventaire des ressources ligneuses du Mali” - Nogent-sur-Marne (France)
Commission Nationale de Planification de l'Economie Rurale 1974 “Rapport final” (Chapitre 2: Programme forestier et perspectives à long terme) - Bamako
FAO 1975 “Rapport au gouvernement du Mali - Aménagement de la faune” - Rapport No. AT 3321 - Rome
Direction des Eaux et Forêts 1976 “Les problèmes forestiers en République du Mali” - Rapport présenté à la Consultation sur le rôle de la forêt dans un programme de réhabilitation du Sahel (Dakar, 26 Avril – 1er Mai 1976)
Anonyme 1977 “Le Mali - Le développement forestier au Mali - Monographie sur la transformation du bois au Mali” - Rapport présenté au Stage pratique sur le développement de l'utilisation du bois dans les pays membres de l'Agence de coopération culturelle et technique - Bamako
Programme de Coopération FAO/Banque mondiale 1977 “Sahel central - Mission de reconnaissance forestière” - Rapport No. 17/77 CESA.1 - Rome
Boudet, G. 1978 “Etude de l'évolution d'un système d'exploitation sahélien au Mali” - A.C.C - Lutte contre l'aridité en milieu tropical - Compte-rendu de fin d'études sur les parcours, leur évolution et la définition d'une unité pastorale sahélienne - Maisons Alfert (France)
Programme de Coopération FAO/Banque mondiale 1978 “Rapport de la mission de préparation d'un projet forestier au Mali” - Rapport No. 14/78 MLI 3 - Rome
CILSS/Club du Sahel 1980 “Projet d'aménagement du parc national de la Boucle du Baculé et des réserves adjacentes - Phase de protection (Mali)”
CILSS/Club du Sahel 1980 “Aménagement sylvo-pastoral de la zone Ansongo-Menaka-Telataye (Mali)”.
Mozambique occupies on the southeastern part of Africa, a total area of 783 030 km2 (including 13 000 km2 of water) between latitudes 10°27' and 26°52'S and longitudes 30°12' and 40°51'E. It stretches over 2 500 km along the Indian Ocean from the Republic of South Africa to Tanzania. With the exception of the zone towards the western border, the land is generally a low-lying plateau of moderate height, descending through a sub-plateau zone to the Indian Ocean. The coastal lowland is narrow in the north but widens considerably as it goes south so that terrain less than 200 metres makes up about 44 per cent of the total land area. 13 per cent of the country has an elevation more than 1 000 metres corresponding with the edge of the Central African plateau along the boundaries with Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. All rivers flow eastwards into the Indian Ocean. Some of those which drop over the escarpment edge, such as the Zambeze, have their main catchment areas as far away as Angola (2) (5).
The climate is subtropical in the south and tropical in the centre and in the north. The rainy season extends from October to April. The influence of the southern summer monsoon and the warm Agulhas current provides the entire country with a rainfall generally above 400 mm, in contrast to the desert climate found in the same latitude on the atlantic coast of Africa. North of parallel 21°S (Save river) in the coastal lowlands the rainfall varies generally between 1 000 and 1 400 mm while more south the climate becomes drier with rainfall dropping rapidly from 1 000 mm near the sea to 400 mm or less on the boundary with Zimbabwe. The rainfall in the intermediate altitude zone is usually between 800 and 1 000 mm in the north and slightly higher in the south. In the mountainous areas (particularly Mount Binga on the Zambezia province) rainfall may reach or exceed 1 800 mm.
Population totalled 8 170 000 inhabitants in 1970 and was expected to reach 10 375 000 in 1980, growing at an average rate of 2.4%. Agricultural population was reported in 1978 to have amounted to two thirds of the total population (66.3%) (FAO Production Yearbook). Overall density is low: 13.2 inhabitants per km2 of land area. Distribution is uneven, the provinces of the interior being less densely populated: density in Maputo province is about 40 hab/km2 and is more than 20 hab/km2 in Nampula and Zambezia provinces, while it does not reach 3 hab/km2 in Niassa province and is less than 10 hab/km2 in Tete, Cabo Delgado and Manica provinces. Despite this relatively low density, vegetation has been severely affected by human intereference and only a few most remote forest areas have not been subject to some degree of depletion and degradation (5).
1. Present situation
1.1 Natural woody vegetation
1.1.1 Description of the vegetation types
The most commonly accepted classification of the vegetation types of Mozambique has been elaborated by J. Gómes Pedro and L.A. Grandvaux (“Esboço de Reconhecimento Ecológico - Agricola de Mozambique - Vegetação” 1955) and is taken up in documents (4) and (11). The presentation below is the one given in document (4) rearranged within the broad categories used in this study.
Closed broadleaved forests (NHC)
- “Sub-hygrophilous forest”: this transition forest between the hygrophilous and the xerophylous types occupies relatively small and scattered areas, at the foot or on the mountain ridges where the humidity is greater, for example on the southern and eastern slopes of the Namuli, Milange, Tamassa, Gorongosa and Chimanimani mountains and on the Mueda plateau. Throughout the most humid zone of the country, patches of sub-hygrophylous forest occur. Among the arboreous species that constitute this type of forest, the most prominent are: Cordyla africana, Chrysophyllum welwitschii, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Diospyros mespiliformis, Mimusops discolor, Cussonia spicata, Chlorophora excelsa, Croton spp., Kigelia africana, Morus lactea, Markhamia sp., Piptadenia buchananii, Berchemia zenkeri, Ficus spp., Sideroxylon inerme, Schotia spp., Uapaca spp., Vitex sp., etc.
- “Mountain forest” is a closed, moist forest composed of high or medium high trees which is typical of regions subject to heavy rains and frequent fog. This type of forest is restricted to the Gorongosa and Chimanimani mountains and several mountains in the highest parts of Zambezia province. The forest communities are composed of Aphloia myrtifolia, Maesa lanceolata, Curtisia faginea, Rauwolfia inebrians, Conopharyngia stapfiana, Celtis dioica, Widdringtonia whytei, Acacia xiphocarpa, Podocarpus sp., etc.
- Gallery forests are bordering the banks of the rivers and streams. It is a climax arboreous association with high value timber which consolidates the river banks and thus controls the course of torrential waters. The species of these gallery forests vary from north to south in the country and even with the altitude. Along the northern rivers predominate Khaya nyasica, Parkia filicoidea, Adina microcephala, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Cleistanthus holtzii, Diospyros mespiliformis, Pseudocadia zambeziaca, Treculia africana, etc. The largest gallery forests of the north and centre of the country, are those along upper courses of the rivers Malema, Lugenda, Lùrio, Mecubúri, Massalo, Rovué and Licungo. In the south, the gallery forests are normally very much depleted. In certain cases the gallery forests do not only occupy the banks but show leafy trees also in the stream.
- Mangroves are composed of shrubs or small trees, with scattered tall trees, which grow only on the mud banks of the estuaries, along some inlets and on certain coastal islands. In Mozambique they contain the following woody species: Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera cylindrica, Sonneratia alba, Heritiera littoralis, Lumnitzera racemosa. The most important mangroves in Mozambique are those of the estuary of the rivers Messalo, Zambezi, Pungué, Save, Limpopo and Maputo. Their area has been estimated at 455 000 ha by interpretation of the satellite images of 1972–1973.
Open broadleaved forests (NHc/NHO)
- “Open forest” is the forest formation that covers the greatest surface of the country. The high frequency of particular genera over relatively large areas, establishing a dominance in many instances, imposes distinct physiognomies upon the xerophilous forest. The most common dominant genera and species are: Brachystegia, Strychnos and Combretaceae, Albizia, Trichilia-Sclerocarya-Uapaca, Colophospermum mopane.
The dominance of Brachystegia is most common in the central and northern regions of the country, from the coastal plains to the plateau of the interior, going up into the mountains as far as there is soil in which it can vegetate. The southern limit of the occurrence of the Brachystegia is approximately the Limpopo river. Brachystegia may grow in pure stands but, in general, it is associated with other tree species such as Isoberlinia globiflora, Pericopsis angolensis, Burkea africana, Bridelia micrantha, Cynometra sp., Dalbergia melanoxylon, Swartzia madagascariensis, Milletia stuhlmannii, Combretum spp., Vitex sp., etc. However, the greatest percentage is represented by Brachystegia.
Strychnos or Combretaceae forests are perhaps the second most common after Brachystegia forests. They are composed of species of Combretum, Terminalia (especially T. sericea and T. macroptera) and Pteleopsis (P. myrtifolia). These forests exist over the whole country from the lowest to the highest regions and on very different soil types. They grow generally in the more drier regions.
Albizia species are dominant particularly on land formerly cleared for cultivation or for other purposes. Certain Albizia species, mainly A. adianthifolia, are indeed pioneer species. They seem to be more abundant in regions of low altitude, in the north as well as in the south, occupying always very specific areas. In the southern regions they sometimes form small pure stands.
Trichilia species (T. emetica mainly) and Sclerocarya caffra almost always grow together and may be considered as a single dominance. They predominate in the region south of Save river.
Uapacaceae are found predominantly on the plateau regions, above 600 metres. Uapaca kirkii grows in pure stands or is associated with other species, mainly the Brachystegia species and is found in the regions of Alto Niassa, Milange, Malema etc.
Colophospermum mopane is dominant over extensive areas and is a characteristic species of Mozambique. It is composed of low trees or shrubs either isolated or in clumps. This formation occupies vast regions in the western part of Mozambique, the northern part of the Limbombo hills, the region of Pafuri - Changane - Massangena and the southern part of the Tete province. It grows in regions with low rainfall, on sandy or clay soils at various altitudes. This type of open forest was given the name “dry and thin forest” by some authors.
- “Savanna forest” is composed of tall Gramineae (1.5 to 3.5 m) with a sparse, shrubby vegetation and small trees, scattered or in groups. Due to the dominance of Gramineae the fires penetrate easily into this type of vegetation. These forests gradually degrade and end up in a steppe vegetation. They correspond in general with a long dry season and low rainfall, coupled with a high temperature.
Scrub formations (nH)
Some of the “open forest” stands (such as the Colophospermum mopane forest) and most of the “savanna forest” ones have their woody component made up essentially with shrubs and trees less than 5–7 metres. As for all woody formations in Africa a clear distinction cannot be introduced easily. An attempt has been made in document (11) to separate between forests (“bosques” in spanish) and shrub formations (“matagales” in portuguese) using 5–7 metres height as a break point within the “open” and “savanna” forests (see section 1.1.2).
A typically shrubby formation is the one found on dunes and sand bars. Common species are Grewia glandulosa, Euclea natalensis, Diospyros rotundifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Suriana maritima, Euphorbia sp., Sophora tormentosa, Scaevola plumieri.
1.1.2 Present situation of the woody vegetation
The only recent vegetation mapping for the whole country is reported in document (11). It has been carried out by visual interpretation of Landsat satellite imagery (of mid-1973 as an average date) complemented by ground sampling and observation of past aerial photographs. Although the work is at a small-scale (1/1 000 000) and the classification had to be adapted in an approximative way to the one used in this study, the results constitute the best baseline at present at the country level. The situation at mid-73 as derived from this map is summarized in the following table.
|Category||Corresponding map classes (in portuguese)||Areas|
(in thousand ha)
|NHCf (without mangroves)||1.1 “Floresta alta densa”||545 1|
|1.2 “Floresta alta medianamente densa”|
|1.3 (75%) “Floresta alta aberta”|
|NHCa||1.3 (25%) “Floresta alta aberta”||425|
|3.1 (5%) “Matagal alto o floresta secundaria”|
|NHc/NHO1||2.1 “Floresta baixa densa”||4 015 2|
|2.2 “Floresta baixa medianamente densa”|
|NHc/NHO2i||2.3 “Floresta baixa aberta”||10 945 2|
|4.1 (25%) “Pradaria arborada”|
|NHc/NHOa||3.1 (95%) “Matagal alto o floresta secundaria”||11 900|
|4.1 (25%) “Pradaria arborada”|
|nH (including corresponding fallow areas)||3.2 “Matagal medio”||29 000|
|3.3 “Matagal baixo”|
|Vegetacão de dunas|
|4.1 (50%) “Pradaria arborada”|
1 including some areas of closed forests in existing national parks (NHCf2r)
2 including some areas of woodlands in existing national parks (NHc/NHO2r)
Taking into account deforestation and degradation rates (see section 2.1) and corresponding transfers during the period 1973–80, the following estimates were arrived at:
Areas of natural woody vegetation estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)
|3 350||10 800||350||11 150||14 500||12 700||29 000|
The remarks below are useful for a better understanding of these figures:
areas of virgin closed forests seem to remain only in the category “floresta alta densa” according to (11) which states that: (in this type) “forest logging is still very limited or almost inexistent” (this type covered 92 500 ha in 1973);
the area of closed forests within the four existing national parks has been estimated very tentatively at 25 000 ha (NHCf2r) and that of woodlands at 350 000 ha (NHc/NHO2r) applying, for lack of other data, the area percentage of these two broad vegetation types within the respective provinces of the national parks;
the closed forests unproductive for physical reasons (NHCf2i) are restricted to the mangroves; however it may be that some forest areas classified as productive (NHCf1) are in fact unproductive for topographic or edaphic reasons (too steep slopes in the mountains of Gorongosa, or perhaps edaphic types elsewhere).
No specific reference to ownership was found in the various documents studied. Outside forest reserves and national parks, forest land may be characterised, as in many other tropical african countries, as communal land administered on behalf of the people.
Legal status and management
Forest reserves were demarcated during the colonial period but in most cases reservation did not go beyond the stage of demarcation, if even this, and almost nowhere provision was made in the staff establishment to guarantee the protection of reserved forest against illegal interference (1). (4) mentions 11 forest reserves totalling 400 000 ha and 3 integral forest reserves with a total area of 10 300 ha.
Four national parks covering a total area of about 1 400 000 ha are mentioned in the country progress report of Mozambique at the 4th Regional Wildlife Conference for East and Central Africa (1976), which are:
|Gorongosa national park (Sofala province)||:||400 000 ha|
|Zinave national park (Inhambane province)||:||400 000 ha|
|Banhine national park (Gaza province)||:||400 000 ha|
|Bazaruto Island marine national park (Inhambane)||:||200 000 ha|
There are no management plans (4) and it can be said that there are no forests under intensive management (NHCf1m = NHc/NHO1m = 0).
Logging is permitted through concession of areas or cutting licences granted by the provincial Department of Agriculture. There is no control in the forest and log production is estimated from the measurements of the final products, the volume of which is converted into roundwood volume equivalent by using average conversion factors. Mechanization is minimum. Felling is done by two-man cross-cut saws, rarely by chainsaws; farm tractors are used to skid the logs which are transported by flat deck trucks and/or by rail (7).
Three species account for 90% of the sawn timber, i.e. panga-panga (Millettia stuhlmannii), umbila (Pterocarpus brenanii and P. angolensis) and messassa (Brachystegia spiciformis and Julbernadia globuliflora). The remaining 10% are made up of the following ones: chamfuta (Afzelia quanzensis), mecrusse (Androstachys johnsonii), metando (Cordyla africana), missanda (Erythrophleum spp.) and mongorose (Pteleopsis myrtifolia) (6). Two species which are not mentioned in the above list but which seem to have also some importance, at least for exports, are umbaua (Khaya nyassica) and tule or iroko (trade name) (Chlorophora excelsa).
Logging intensity is generally low. Extracted volume is reported to have been as high as 15 m3/ha in closed forests but it seems lower now. “Potential output” as calculated from the results of field sampling over the whole country as given in (11) are, for closed forests, 4.8 m3/ha for trees over 40 cm DBH and 8.2 m3/ha for trees with DBH ≥ 25 cm, and, for open forests, 1.8 and 2.7 m3/ha respectively. Exploitable stock was estimated in two districts between 1.8 and 7.5 m3/ha over bark in panga stands and as much as 20 to 25 m3/ha in messassa forests (7). The present commercial stocking per ha has been reduced by past logging and most of the valuable timbers have been cut in the easily accessible areas (4). Taking all these indications into account the volumes per ha presently commercialized (VAC) have been estimated on a national basis at 10 and 5 m3/ha for productive closed and open forests respectively (NHCf1 and NHc/NHO1).
According to (4) exploitation of mangroves has been till now neglected.
Total sawlog and veneer log production, as given in the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products has been the following from 1961–75:
|Sawlog and veneerlog production (in thousand m3)||402||360||310 (est.)|
Sawlogs supplied to sawmills in 1972 and 1973 were recorded as 259 000 and 278 000 m3 respectively to which must be added some 5 000 m3 of export logs (5). Total log production is somewhat smaller now (about 180 000 m3 of which 20 000 m3 export in 1979) but plans exist for increasing significantly the export of logs.
Production of fuelwood and charcoal is estimated at 9.9 million m3 in 1978 in the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products. The per capita consumption of charcoal for Beira is estimated at 0.12 ton/year per capita, corresponding to 1.5 m3 of wood. To satisfy the need of the 240 000 people of Beira using charcoal as a source of domestic energy the establishment of 18 200 ha of eucalypt plantations would be needed (200 m3/ha at the end of a 10-year rotation) (8). Other industrial roundwood (poles, posts) amounts to some 600 000 m3 (FAO Yearbook). This type of wood is used not only for housing but also for growing tobacco and tea.
1.1.3 Present situation of the growing stock
The only forest stocking information which was found available for this study is the one contained in document (11) derived from a reconnaissance sampling carried out in five provinces (Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Zambezia, Inhambane and Sofala) which represents about 80% of the total forest potential of the country. The figures obtained by province and forest type for mean gross volume per ha (DBH ≥25 cm) have been weighted to obtain averages at national level and converted to VOB volumes (DBH≥10 cm). A standard figure of 30 m3/ha has been adopted as gross volume for mangroves (NHCf2i). The results are summarized in the following table.
Growing stock estimated at end 1980
(totals in million m3)
The first large-scale plantations seem to have been those carried out for sand dune fixation at the mouth of the river Limpopo in Gaza province, with Casuarina equisetifolia. (8) mentions that in 1979 “the majority of the living stands (in this area) is between 35 and 50 years old” corresponding to planting years between 1929 and 1944. In 1950 approximately 2 800 ha were reported to have been planted, a figure which amounted to the double in 1962 (5 650 ha), according to (1). At this latter date plantations carried out by public agencies (Agriculture and Forest Service, Revué and Limpopo Brigades) were concentrated in the provinces of Maputo (areas of Infulene-Marracuene, Matola, Namaacha, Salamanga), of Gaza (Limpopo, S. Martinho do Bilene) and Manica-Sofala (Messambizi, Penhalonga, Sussundenga). Sand dune reclamation extended later on further north along the coast (provinces of Inhambane, Sofala, Zambezia and Nampula) and production plantations developed also around Lichinga in the province of Niassa (4). The bulk of the plantations are still now concentrated in these provinces, with Manica having more than 50% of the total planted area. Coniferous species (Cupressus lusitanica, and, mostly, pines - Pinus patula, P. elliotti, P. taeda and more recently P. caribaea and P. roxburghii) are almost exclusively planted in Manica and Sofala provinces while hardwood species, mainly eucalypts, are found in Maputo and Gaza provinces and to a lesser extent in Zambezia, Manica and Sofala provinces (5).
In the recent years plantations for the production of charcoal for the town of Maputo were initiated (9). It is intended to have similar plantations established around Beira, to extend planting for sand dune fixation at the mouth of the Limpopo river (8) and to extend the eucalypt and pine plantations in Manica province (10).
More than 2 000 ha of small private eucalypt plantations, most of them established between 1970 and 1974 are mentioned in document (3) and have to be added to those carried out by the public agencies which constitute the bulk of the man-made forests in the country.
1.2.2 Areas of established plantations
The statistics which have been found in documents (1), (3), (4) and (5), referring to plantation establishment until 1974, are incomplete and contradictory. The compilation made for arriving at the tables below is therefore tentative and only and inventory could provide a satisfactory picture. Many assumptions have had to be made, in particular concerning the break-down by age classes, the success/survival rates and the distribution of eucalypt plantations between “industrial” and “non-industrial” ones according to the classification used in this study. The most tentative figures are put in brackets in the tables. The following remarks are useful for a good understanding of the tables:
(3) provides detailed information on areas planted with conifers (in Manica province) until 1974. They are reported under PS.1 category (industrial softwood plantations) after updating to 1980 and application of a success/survival rate of 0.85. For the period 1975–80 it has been assumed that approximately 2 500 ha of softwood plantations have been established successfully;
eucalypt plantations established by public agencies in Manica province (areas of Messambizi, Penha Longo, Rotonda and Bandula) have been classified as industrial plantations (PHH 1). (3) provides area statistics until 1974 for this province. All the others (private plantations and plantations by public agencies in other provinces) are supposed to produce wood for fuel, charcoal, poles and posts or to serve in sand dune reclamation (PHH 2). A success/survival rate of 0.85 has been assumed and areas of “industrial” and “non-industrial” eucalypt plantations established successfully between 1975 and 1980 have been estimated at 1 400 ha and 2 200 ha respectively taking into account, among others, the achievements of the Maputo firewood plantations programme (9). The area figures given for eucalypt plantations in the tables tally with the overall planted area of 8 000 ha at end 1973 as indicated in the reply to the FAO questionnaire on eucalypts, assuming a success/survival rate of 0.85;
at end 1970 Casuarina plantations are estimated at 3 500 ha (5). A success/survival rate of 50% only has been assumed from the comments made in (8) on the plantations of the dunes of Limpopo (destruction by fires). It has been assumed that no significant area of Casuarina plantations has been established after 1960.
Areas of established industrial plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)
|PHL 1||Various species 1||(ε)||(ε)||(0.1)||(0.1)||(0.2)||ε||(0.4)|
|PHH 1||Eucalyptus spp. 2||(1.0)||1.8||0.1||0.3||ε||(3.2)|
|PH.1||Subtotal hardwood species||(1.0)||1.8||(0.2)||(0.4)||(0.2)||ε||(3.6)|
|Other pines 3||0.1||ε|
|Subtotal softwood species||(2.0)||2.8||4.1||2.8||0.6||ε||(12.3)|
|P..1||Total industrial plantations||(3.0)||4.6||(4.3)||(3.2)||(0.8)||ε||(15.9)|
1 “Various species” include in particular umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis, P. brenanii) and mecrusse (Androstachys johnsonii).
2 The eucalypt used by public agencies in Manica province is essentially E. saligna (E. grandis).
3 Other pines include P. caribaea and P. roxburhii.
Areas of established non-industrial plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)
|PHH 2||Casuarina equisetifolia||(ε)||(ε)||(ε)||(ε)||(0.4)||(0.4)||(1.0)||(1.8)|
|Eucalyptus spp. 1||(1.5)||(3.3)||(1.5)||(0.4)||(0.6)||(0.4)||(7.7)|
|P..2 = PHH 2||Total non-industrial plantations||(1.5)||(3.3)||(1.5)||(0.4)||(1.0)||(0.8)||(1.0)||(9.5)|
1 The most important eucalypt is E. saligna (E. grandis). 100 ha of private plantations of E. cloeziana are reported to have been established between 1971 and 1974 in Manica province (3). E. citriodora has also been tried. Other eucalypt species mentioned are E. camaldulensis, E. maculata, E. paniculata and E. tereticornis. The Maputo firewood plantation programme started in 1978 uses E. saligna (E. grandis).
The following table results from the addition of the two preceding ones.
Areas of established plantations estimated at end 1980
(in thousand ha)
|Age class||0–5||6–10||11–15||16–20||21–30||31–40||> 40|
|PH||Subtotal hardwood species||(2.5)||(5.1)||(1.7)||(0.8)||(1.2)||(0.8)||(1.0)||(13.1)|
|PS||Subtotal softwood species||(2.0)||2.8||4.1||2.8||0.6||(12.3)|
1.2.3 Plantation characteristics
The map of forest plantation areas of Mozambique annexed to document (4) shows the location of 11 sites of “trial plots” (provinces of Maputo, Inhambane, Manica, Tete, Niassa and Zambezia) but the same document mentions that “the records either disappeared or have not been elaborated”. Precise mensuration data have not been found. (3) estimates "the annual growth rate at 15 m3 solid over bark for Pinus patula and 22 m3 solid over bark for Eucalyptus saligna. (8) assumes an M.A.I. of 20 m3/ha/year for Eucalyptus saligna around Beira.
2. Present trenus
2.1 Natural woody vegetation
Although all documents referring to the forest resources of Mozambique mention an accelerated depletion and degradation of the forests and woodlands due to encroachment by agriculture, fires and overexploitation, no comparative study seems to have been carried out at any level whether national or local, giving some quantitative information on these processes. The data shown below are very tentative estimates based on agriculture requirements and exploitation trends as well as on broad indications provided by the forest inventory expert responsible for the national mapping and reconnaissance project carried out recently in the country and reported in (11). One fifth to one quarter of the closed forests and woodlands are said to have had their physiognomy changed in the last 10 years either by clearing for agriculture - closed forests and woodlands being cleared for agriculture and included in the cultivation cycle (transfer from NHCf1 to NHCa and from NHc/NHO to NHc/NHOa) - or by over-exploitation - dense woodlands (“floresta baixa densa” and “medianamente densa”) being converted to open woodlands by overexploitation mainly (NHc/NHO1 to NHc/NHO2).
For closed forests the following deforestation rates were arrived at:
Average annual deforestation
(in thousand ha)
No significant deforestation is expected in the virgin forests (“floresta alta densa” mainly) but some exploitation may occur which will convert them in logged-over forests (transfer from NHCf1uv to NHCf1uc). A very small amount of encroachment of the mangroves (NHCf2) by agriculture has been contemplated, of the order of magnitude of 1 000 ha per year.
5 000 ha of productive woodlands (NHc/NHO1) are assumed to become unproductive (NHc/NHO2i) every year mainly due to overexploitation and 40 000 additional hectares being converted to woodland fallow (NHc/NHOa) or permanent agriculture. 70 000 ha of unproductive woodlands also are supposed to be encroached annually by agriculture. Additional alienation for agriculture takes place in shrub areas.
Impact of overexploitation for firewood, poles, posts and sawlogs is characterized roughly by the transfers of productive to unproductive woodlands indicated above. These changes reflect only partially the effect of annual bush fires which spread over most woodlands, tree and shrub savannas of the country during the dry season. They are responsible for a steady and progressive degradation of the woody vegetation from closed forests to woodland, shrubland, steppe and finally bare soils (4). This latter document states even that “the only reason why miombo woodland still survive is because in the past, the burning of the woodlands has been haphazard not necessarily annual and not always late in the season”. The following conclusions were drawn from experiments carried out in Mozambique during a short period in forest reserves with woodlands (4):
“late burning of dry wood materials proves to be highly destructive affecting the soil and its plant cover in such a way that it hinders a regeneration of species;
nearly the same effects are recorded with systematic burnings taking place in May–June, the mid-dry season;
protected plots showed a fairly undecomposed litter with scattered puffs of Gramineae and a poor rate of regeneration of the species forming the plant cover;
some species of woody plants showing a marked degree of fire tolerance will finally be destroyed if the practice of regular and disorderly burnings goes on.”
Taking also into account the “herdman's point of view”, the authors of document (4) are proposing the following conclusions:
“complete fire protection is an unattainable ideal;
early dry season burning must be prescribed throughout the miombo woodland as a protective silvicultural measure; it is not as devastative for the woody plants as burning later in the dry season, and it affords a certain amount of protection and makes it easier to control fire later in the season;
mid-dry season burning (April–May) must be strongly condemned;
late dry season burning or just after the first rains can effectively reduce uncleared bush to open grassland suitable for grazing;
all the burnings must be controlled;
the most propitious time to control burning must be locally determined.”
2.1.3 Trends in forest utilization
Production of logs for local processing and export will probably increase significantly during the next five years in view in particular of government policy to develop exports. Consumption of fuelwood and poles will probably increase at the same rate of growth as population since no serious shortage seems to be experienced on large areas, with the exception of the main centres (increase of 10 to 15% from 1980 to 1985). Fuelwood plantations at Maputo and Beira will start alleviating the pressure on woody vegetation around these centres.
2.1.4 Areas and growing stock at end 1985
The indications given in the three preceding sections have been used to derive the following tables:
Areas of natural woody vegetation estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)
|2 900||10 700||350||11 050||13 950||13 200||29 000|
Growing stock estimated at end 1985
(in million m3)
It is difficult to make precise forecasts at this stage. Several plantation projects are being formulated but the degree of implementation in 1981–85 (fuelwood plantation around Beira, industrial plantations in Manica province, sand dune fixation at the mouth of the Limpopo river) is not easy to assess. The following estimates of total area of successfully established plantations for the whole 5-year period (1981–85) have been made based on (8) and (10) and on realistic rates of achievement:
|Manica afforestation project||:||3 000 ha of eucalypt plantation (PHH 1) and|
7 000 ha of pine plantations (PS.1);
|Maputo firewood project||:||5 000 ha of eucalypt plantations (PHH 2);|
|Beira firewood project||:||2 500 ha of eucalypt plantations (PHH 2);|
|Sand dune fixation project||:||500 ha of Casuarina and eucalypt plantations (PHH 2).|
Areas of established industrial plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)
|Age class||0–5||5–10||11–15||16–20||21–30||31–40||> 40|
|PHL 1||Various species||(ε)||(ε)||(0.1)||(0.1)||(0.1)||(0.1)||(0.4)|
|PHH 1||Eucalyptus spp. and other fast-growing hardwood species||(3.0)||(1.0)||1.8||0.1||0.3||(6.2)|
|PH.1||Subtotal hardwood species||(3.0)||(1.0)||(1.9)||(0.2)||(0.4)||(0.1)||(6.6)|
|P..1||Total industrial plantations||(10.0)||(3.0)||(4.7)||(4.3)||(3.5)||(0.4)||(25.9)|
Areas of established non-industrial plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)
|P..2 = PHH2||Casuarina equisetifolia|
Areas of established plantations estimated at end 1985
(in thousand ha)
|Other fast-growing hardwood species|
|PH||Subtotal hardwood species||(11.0)||(2.5)||(5.2)||(1.7)||(1.1)||(1.3)||(1.3)||(24.1)|
FAO 1963 “Forestry in Angola and Mozambique” - mimeo - Rome
FAO 1974 “Moçambique - Preliminary Country Development Brief - Food and Agriculture Sector (including Fisheries and Forestry)” - Food and Agriculture Sector Country Development Brief Series - Rome
FAO 1977 “Review of the Proposed Forest Industries Development Plans in Mozambique with Special Emphasis on the Pulp and Paper Industry” - by L. Markila MOZ/76/013 - Rome
FAO 1978 “Forest Resources in Mozambique and their Rational Use - A preliminary Evaluation” - by J.H. Ferreira de Castro - FO: MOZ/76/013 (FO3) - Project Working Document - Rome
FAO 1978 “Forest Sector Information System in Mozambique: A Preliminary Development Plant” - by Matti Palo - FO:MOZ/76/00/(FO3) - Project Working Document - Rome
FAO 1979 “Report on Reorganization of State Controlled Rural Sawmills in the Peoples Republic of Mozambique” - by L. Deherve - FO:MOZ/76/00/ - Rome
FAO 1979 “Logging in the Natural Forests” - by P. Pesonen - FO:MOZ/76/007 - Rome
FAO 1979 “Forestry Project Identification Mission” - by M. Gulçur - MOZ/76/007 (FO3) - Rome
FAO 1979 “Plantaciones Forestales para la Produccion de Combustible Leñoso en la Provincia de Maputo” - by H. Gomez Navas - Maputo
Ministerio de Agricultura 1979 “Request to the UN/FAO World Food Programme for Assistance concerning a Project for Economic and Social Development” - Maputo
FAO 1980 “Evaluación de los Recursos Forestales de la Republica Popular de Mozambique - Mayo de 1979 a Junio de 1980” - draft report by J. Malleux - MOZ/76/007 - Maputo
Namibia is situated in south-western Africa and covers an area of 824 293 km2 between latitudes 17° and 20°45' S and longitudes 11°45' and 25°25' E. The main geographic regions are:
the 80 to 140 km wide coastal Namib desert, bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and shretching from the Orange river in the south to the Cumene river in the north;
inland it is generally steeply bordered by the central plateau, which is the northern extension of the South African plateau and the Great Escarpment with rugged mountains up to 2 697 m, rocky outcrops and wide sandfilled valleys and plains;
the Kalahari Desert Basin with an average elevation between 1 000 and 1 500 m dominates northern and eastern Namibia;
the eastern Caprivi spur reaches up to Zimbawe over a distance of more than 450 km.
The central plateau drains to the southwest into seasonal floodplains, which, however, have subflows reaching the ocean and providing the coastal towns with water throughout the year. Only the Cumene and Orange rivers are perennial. To the east and north the plateau drains into three major evaporation basins of the Kalahari: the very saline Etosha basin in the north, the Okavango basin in northern Botswana and the Molopo basin in the southeast.
The Etosha lake however receives its water mainly from the overflow of the Cumene river during the raining season through many creeks and small lakes.
In the dry season evaporation causes extensive saltplains and very saline and unfertile soils. The prevailing wind is the hot continental southeast trade, which reaches a maximum in January. This wind transports large quantities of sand and forms extensive sand dunes. The cool Benguela current flowing northwards from the Antartic influences the temperature of the coastal belt which averages only 15°C and causes fog and low clouds. Annual rainfall along the coast however is extremely low and irregular: 11 mm in Walvis Bay and 15 mm in Lüderitz. The central plateau and the Kalahari basin receive more rain, from 100 mm in the south to 363 mm in Windhoek and over 500 mm in the north (517 mm in Odangua and 524 mm in Tsumeb, spread over more than 5 months from October to April). The Caprivi strip is the most humid area with more than 700 mm in the extreme east. Highest temperatures are found in the east (Climatological Atlas of Africa by Jackson, S.P., 1961)
Soils generally are poor. There are shifting sand dunes south of Walvis Bay and north-west, very sandy soils in the rest of the coastal belt and the Kalahari desert and stony calcareous or rocky soils on the central plateau. In the north the soils are generally slightly better developed with, in the south of the Etosha basin relatively fertile cambisols and vertisols. The higher precipitation of the north makes irrigated agriculture possible which however does not cover a large area yet (FAO Unesco Soil Map of the World).
In 1977 the population was estimated at 1.2 million in 260 000 households (UN). Sixty per cent live in rural areas in northern Namibia, mainly in the Ovambo, Okavango and East Caprivi homelands whereas the southern part is highly urbanised (47% in 1960). Population increases at an estimated rate of 3% per annum.
The present settlement policy is a concentration of the Africans (71% in 1966) and non-white population in homelands comprising 39,6% of the total land areas. Bushmen (totalling 13 300 in 1966) are nomadic in northeastern Namibia and the Caprivi strip. The mainly african population of northern Namibia live essentially from rainfed subsistence agriculture and non-commercial cattle raising. In the central highlands and southern Namibia people practise commercial cattle farming, and in the south commercial karakul sheep farming. Grazing capacity however is very low, especially in the southern part and increases gradually towards the north-east to a maximum along the Okavango, Linyanti and Zambezi rivers, the latter two in the Caprivi strip. Much of the cereals have to be imported, mainly from South Africa (1) (2) (4).
Although probably wildlife forms an important resource for the rural population, figures are not available (2) (4).
1. Present situation
1.1 Natural woody vegetation
The Namib desert and the central plateau are very arid and covered with desert and grass steppe vegetation. Only in the northern and northeastern part there are savanna forests and wooded steppes. In the eastern Kalahari desert shrub dominate the vegetation.
1.1.1 Description of the vegetation types
The following description is based mainly on documents (6), “Carta Fitogeografica de Angola” by Grandvaux Barbosa, 1970, and “Families of flowering plants” by Riley, 1963.
Open broadleaved forests (NHc/NHO)
In the northern Namibia, near the angolan border, a mosaic of steppes and savanna woodlands occur, often dominated by Colophospermum mopane, which on badly drained soils sometimes even form pure stands. Other trees are often associated such as Adansonia digitata (baobab). With a higher rainfall more trees penetrate such as species of Boscia, Combretum Sterculia, Securidaca, Terminalia and Commiphora and also Acacia litakunensis, Euphorbia cooperi, Hyphaene ventricosa and Guibourtia conjugata. To the northeast of Oshana dry semi-deciduous savanna woodlands occur with Baikiaea plurijuga in pure stands or associated with a variety of other trees such as Burkea africana, Pterocarpus angolensis, Erythrophleum africanum, Guibourtia coleosperma, Copaifera baumiana and others. Densities vary greatly from open steppes to shrub savanna and savanna woodlands. Locally Ricinodendron rautanenii occurs in nearly closed stands on the crests of fixed dunes. Its fruits are an important staple food for the bushmen (3). This type of vegetation has been and is still being modified by human interference, through agriculture and grazing.
Mixed tree and grassland savannas, with a varying density of woody elements are found south of the woodlands. The open savannas north of the Etosha lake are greatly influenced by impeded drainage and salinity. Main dominant trees often are Colophospermum mopane and Acacia spp. The savannas of the Etosha game reserve are very well developed and include all the remmants of almost undisturbed woodland vegetation. It is a dense growth of species of the genera Colophospermum, Acacia, Terminalia, Euphorbia, Commiphora and Combretum. The Etosha lake itself is surrounded by saline grasslands. Elsewhere large parts are being utilised as pastures. In eastern Namibia, on the sandy soils with fixed dunes,a transition occurs from the woodlands to Acacia deciduous bushland (see under “shrub formations”) and wooded grasslands. The Windhoek mountains are covered with a similar transition vegetation.
Scrub formations (nH)
The central eastern region of Namibia is part of the Kalahari desert and covered with Acacia wooded grassland and deciduous bushland. The vegetation varies from dense thorny thickets to a low open type. The genus Acacia is well represented, the most typical species being the “camel thorn”, A. giraffae, and also A. karroo, A. detinens and A. hebedada. Associated are other trees and bushes such as Aloe spp., Boscia albitrunca, Burkea africana, Olea verrucosa and many others. Rocky areas are covered by a scarce vegetation of bushes and shrubs like Acacia giraffae and other species of Acacia, Aloe spp. and Pentzia spp. This is the the main area of commercial cattle raising. This activity affects strongly the composition of the vegetation and favours the development of the non-potable thorny shrubs. Overgrazing and fire are locally common practices.
Semi-desert vegetation of the transition between the Kalahari/Karroo and Namib regions is found in a strip parallel to the coast. It has dwarf trees and shrubs with a sparse grass cover. Common trees are Acacia nebrownii, A. mellifera, Rhigozum trichotonum and Cactophractes alexandrii.
More coastwards the Namib desert has a very poor and open herb vegetation which is dependent of the rare rain showers. A few succulent bushes occur such as Salsola, Aloe, Salicornia and Tamarix.
In the southeast, generally above 1 000 m, the upper Karroo shrub vegetation extends into Namibia. It consists of small bushes and small-leaved undershrubs such as Pentzia spp. and the composite Chrysocoma tenuifolia. The shrubs are perennial and grow apart.