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The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004 is based mainly on data and analysis provided by FAO's technical divisions. Specific references cited for particular articles in this edition include the following:

Pages 8-13

A technical note regarding FAO's preliminary estimates of the costs of hunger is available at

ACC/SCN. 2004. Fifth report on the world nutrition situation. Geneva. 130 pp.

Alderman, H. and Behrman, J. 2003. Estimated economic benefits of reducing LBW in low-income countries. Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania.

Alderman, H., Hoddinott, J., & Kinsey, B. 2003. Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Washington, DC, IFPRI. 30 pp.

Alderman, H., Behrman, J., & Hoddinott, J. 2004. Hunger and malnutrition. In Lomborg, B. ed., Global crises, global solutions. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 672 pp.

Black, R., Morris, S. & Bryce, J. 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year. The Lancet, 361: 2226-34.

Horton, S. 1999. Opportunities for investments in nutrition in low-income Asia. Asian Development Review, 17 (1,2): 246-273.

Horton, S. & Ross, J. 2003. The economics of iron deficiency. Food Policy 28: 51-75.

Jones, G., Steketee, R., Black, R., Bhutta, Q., Morris, S. & the Bellagio Child Survival Study Group. 2003. How many child deaths can we prevent this year. The Lancet, 362: 65-71.

Martorell, R., Khan, K.L. & Schroeder, D.G. 1994. Reversibility of stunting: Epidemiological findings in children from developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48 (Suppl 1): S45-57.

Pelletier, D., Frongillo, E. 2002. Changes in child survival are strongly associated with changes in malnutrition in developing countries. Washington, DC, Academy for Educational Development. 32 pp.

Popkin, B., Horton, S., and Kim, S. 2001. The nutrition transition and prevention of diet-related diseases in Asia and the Pacific. Tokyo. UN University Press. 58 pp.

Seres, N. in ACC/SCN. 2000. Fourth report on the world nutrition situation. Geneva. 121 pp.

WHO. 2002. The world health report 2002. Geneva. 248 pp.

Pages 14-15

FAO. 2003. Proceedings: Measurement and assessment of food deprivation and undernutrition. Rome, 411 pp.

UNICEF. 2003. The state of the world's children 2004. New York. 147 pp.

Pages 18-23

Barker, D. 1999. The long-term outcome of retarded fetal growth. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 129:189-96.

Barker, D. 1999. The fetal origins of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130 (4): 322-324.

Faigenbaum, S. 2002. Los supermercados en la distribución alimentaria y su impacto sobre el sistema agroalimentario nacional. Santiago. University of Chile. 93 pp.

FAO. 2000. Analysis of disparities in nutritional status by wealth and residence: examples from Angola, Central African Republic and Senegal. Rome. 23 pp.

Haddad, L., Ruel, M. & Garrett, J. 1999. Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing: some newly assembled evidence. Washington. IFPRI. 41 pp.

Maxwell, D., Levin, C., Armar-Klemesu, M., Ruel, M., Morris, S., & Ahiadeke, C. 2000. Urban livelihoods and food and nutrition security in greater Accra, Ghana. Washington. IFPRI. 172 pp.

McCulloch, N. & Ota, M. 2002. Export horticulture and poverty in Kenya. Brighton. IDS. 24 pp.

Neven, D. & Reardon, T. 2003. The rapid rise of Kenyan supermarkets: impact on the fruits and vegetables supply system. Unpublished paper presented at FAO Scientific Workshop: Globalization of food systems: impact on food security and nutrition, Rome, 8-10 October 2003. 17 pp.

Popkin, B. 2003. The nutrition transition in the developing world. Development Policy Review, 21 (5-6): 581-597.

Reardon, T., Timmer, P., Barrett, C. & Berdegué, J. 2003. The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia and Latin America. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146.

UK Food Group. 2003. Food, inc. London. IIED. 89 pp.

UN. 2004. World urbanization prospects: the 2003 revision, data tables and highlights. New York. 20 pp.

Weatherspoon, D. & Reardon, T. 2003. The rise of supermarkets in Africa: implications for agrifood systems and the rural poor. Development Policy Review, 21 (3).

World Bank. 2003. Global economic prospects 2004. Washington. 333 pp.

Pages 24-25

Arantes, R. 2003. The Brazilian “Ministério Público” and political corruption in Brazil. Oxford. Centre for Brazilian Studies, University of Oxford. 28 pp.

Millennium Project Task Force on Hunger. 2004. Halving hunger by 2015: a framework for action. Interim report. New York. Millennium Project. 219 pp.

Pages 26-27

Korf, B, & Singarayer, R. 2002. Livelihoods, food security and conflict in Trincomalee. Paper presented at the Third CEPA/PIMU Poverty Symposium, Colombo. 21 pp.

FAO. 2003. Understanding seed systems and strengthening seed security. Rome. 23 pp.

LEISA. 2001. Coping with disaster. LEISA Magazine 17 (1): 1-36.

Zakieldin, S. 2002. How communities of Western Sudan have coped with and adapted to present climate hazards. Presentation to the Second AIACC African and Indian Ocean Island Regional Workshop, Dakar. 20 pp.

Pages 28-29

Behrman, J., Sengupta, P. & Todd, P. 2001. Progressing through PROGRESA: an impact assessment of a school subsidy experiment. Washington. IFPRI. 83 pp.

Global Campaign for Education. 2004. Learning to survive: how education for all would save millions of young people from HIV/AIDS. 32 pp. Available at

McEwan, P. 1999. Evaluating rural education reform: the case of Colombia's Escuela Nueva Program. La Educación, 132-133 (available at

Pages 30-33

FAO. 2004. International Year of Rice fact sheets (available at

HM Treasury/DFID. 2004. International Finance Facility proposal. London. HM Stationery Office. 19 pp.

IRRI. 2002. Food security as economic stimulus. Rice Today 1 (1): 29.

van den Berg, H. 2004. IPM Farmer Field Schools: a synthesis of 25 impact evaluations. Rome. FAO. 53 pp.

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