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FAO. 2004a. The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2004. Rome.

FAO. 2004b. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004. Rome.

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Hertel, T.W., Ivanic, M., Preckel, P.V. & Cranfield, J.A.L. 2004. The earnings effects of multilateral trade liberalization: implications for poverty. The World Bank Economic Review, 18(2): 205-236.

Hertel, T.W., Ivanic, M., Preckel, P.V., Cranfield, J.A.L. & Martin, W. 2003. Short- versus long-run implications of trade liberalization for poverty in three developing countries. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(5): 1299-1306.

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Ingco, M. & Nash, J.D., eds. 2004. Agriculture and the WTO: creating a trading system for development. Washington, DC, World Bank and New York, USA, Oxford University Press.

Jales, M. 2004. The impact of export competition policies: export subsidies and export credits. Presentation at an Informal Expert Consultation on Export Competition: Equivalence of Alternative Policies and Mechanisms. FAO, Rome, 25-26 November 2004.

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McCorriston, S. & MacLaren, D. 2002. Perspectives on the state trading issue in the WTO negotiations. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 29(1): 131-154.

McCorriston, S. & MacLaren, D. 2004. Trade distorting STEs. Presentation at an Informal Expert Consultation on Export Competition: Equivalence of Alternative Policies and Mechanisms. FAO, Rome, 25-26 November 2004.

McCorriston, S. & MacLaren, D. 2005. Domestic market structure and trade: modelling the effects of trade distorting state trading enterprises. In S. Jayasuriya, ed. Trade theory and analytical models: essays in honour of Peter Lloyd. Vol. 1. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Edgar.

McCulloch, N., Winters, L. & Cirera, X. 2001. Trade liberalisation and poverty: a handbook. London, Centre for Economic and Policy Research and UK Department for International Development.

McMillan, M., Rodrik, D. & Welch, H.W. 2002. When economic reform goes wrong: cashews in Mozambique. Faculty Research Working Paper Series, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Harvard University.

Messerlin, P. 2003. Agriculture in the Doha Agenda. Policy Research Working Paper 3009. Washington, DC, World Bank.

Milner, C., Morrissey, O. & Rudaheranwa, N. 2001. Policy and non-policy barriers to trade and implicit taxation of exports in Uganda. Journal of Development Studies, 37(2): 67-90.

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Minot, N.W. & Goletti, F. 2000. Rice market liberalisation and poverty in Vietnam. Research Report 114. Washington, DC, International Food Policy Research Institute.

Morrison, J.A. 2002 The differential impacts of trade liberalisation on food security: a research agenda. Paper presented at the FAO Expert Consultation on Trade and Food Security: Conceptualising the linkages, Rome, 11-12 July 2002.

Nicita, A. 2004. Who benefited from trade liberalization in Mexico? Measuring the effects on household welfare. Policy Research Working Paper 3265. Washington, DC, World Bank.

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OECD. 2000b. A review of state trading enterprises in agriculture in OECD member countries: an inventory. COM/AGR/APM/TD/WP(2000)19. Paris.

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Porto, G.G. 2003a. Trade reforms, market access and poverty in Argentina. Washington, DC, World Bank.

Porto, G.G. 2003b. Using survey data to assess the distributional effects of trade policy. Washington, DC, World Bank.

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Ravallion, M. & Datt, G. 1999. When is growth pro-poor? Evidence from the diverse experiences of India's states. Policy Research Working Paper 2263. Washington, DC, World Bank.

Ravallion, M. & Lokshin, M. 2004. Gainers and losers from trade reform in Morocco. Policy Research Working Paper 3368. Washington, DC, World Bank.

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Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture

In addition to the usual review of the recent world food and agricultural situation, each issue of this report since 1957 has included one or more special studies on problems of longer-term interest. Special chapters in earlier issues have covered the following subjects:

Rice in the world food economy


Factors influencing the trend of food consumption
Postwar changes in some institutional factors affecting agriculture


Food and agricultural developments in Africa south of the Sahara
The growth of forest industries and their impact on the world's forests


Agricultural incomes and levels of living in countries at different stages of economic development
Some general problems of agricultural development in less-developed countries in the light of postwar experience


Programming for agricultural development


Land reform and institutional change
Agricultural extension, education and research in Africa, Asia and Latin America


The role of forest industries in the attack on economic underdevelopment
The livestock industry in less-developed countries


Basic factors affecting the growth of productivity in agriculture
Fertilizer use: spearhead of agricultural development


Protein nutrition: needs and prospects
Synthetics and their effects on agricultural trade


Agriculture and industrialization


Incentives and disincentives for farmers in developing countries
The management of fishery resources


Raising agricultural productivity in developing countries through technological improvement
Improved storage and its contribution to world food supplies


Agricultural marketing improvement programmes:
some lessons from recent experience
Modernizing institutions to promote forestry development


Agriculture at the threshold of the Second Development Decade


Water pollution and its effects on living aquatic resources and fisheries


Education and training for development
Accelerating agricultural research in the developing countries


Agricultural employment in developing countries


Population, food supply and agricultural development


The Second United Nations Development Decade:
mid-term review and appraisal


Energy and agriculture


The state of natural resources and the human environment for food and agriculture


Problems and strategies in developing regions


Forestry and rural development


Marine fisheries in the new era of national jurisdiction


Rural poverty in developing countries and means of poverty alleviation


Livestock production: a world perspective


Women in developing agriculture


Urbanization, agriculture and food systems


Energy use in agricultural production
Environmental trends in food and agriculture
Agricultural marketing and development


Financing agricultural development


Changing priorities for agricultural science and technology in developing countries


Sustainable development and natural resource management


Structural adjustment and agriculture


Agricultural policies and issues: lessons from the 1980s and prospects for the 1990s


Marine fisheries and the law of the sea: a decade of change


Water policies and agriculture


Forest development and policy dilemmas


Agricultural trade: entering a new era?


Food security: some macroeconomic dimensions


The agroprocessing industry and economic development


Rural non-farm income in developing countries


World food and agriculture: lessons from the past 50 years


Economic impacts of transboundary plant pests and animal diseases


Agriculture and global public goods ten years after the Earth Summit


Agricultural biotechnology: meeting the needs of the poor?

Selected publications


(available at

The State of Food and Agriculture
The State of Agricultural Commodities
The State of Food Insecurity in the World
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture
State of the World's Forests


(available at


Moving away from poverty: a spatial analysis of poverty and migration in Albania Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, 7(2): 175-193(A. Zezza, G. Carletto and B. Davis, August 2005)

Agricultural biotechnology for developing countries: an FAO perspective Farm Policy Journal, 1(2): 4-12 (T. Raney, August 2004)

The state of global food insecurity and the benefits of hunger reduction Fome Zero: políticas públicas e cidadania. Cadernos do CEAM, Vol. 4, No. 14(Brasilia: Universidade de Brasilia)(H. de Haen and B. Davis, 2004)

Hogares, pobreza y políticas en épocas de crisis. México, 1992-1996 Revista de la CEPAL, 82: 191-212(B. Davis, S. Handa, and H. Soto, April, 2004)

Sustaining food security in the developing world: the top five policy challenges Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 42(3): 261-272(P. Pingali, 2003)

Agricultural biodiversity and biotechnology in economic development(New York, USA: Springer)(J. Cooper, L.M. Lipper and D. Zilberman)



Measuring technical efficiency of wheat farmers in Egypt (A. Croppenstedt)


Food aid: a primer(S. Lowder and T. Raney)


Transaction costs, institutions and smallholder market integration: potato producers in Peru (I. Maltsoglou and A. Tanyeri-Abur)


Familiar faces, familiar places: the role of family networks and previous experience for Albanian migrants(G. Carletto, B. Davis and M. Stampini)


Moving away from poverty: a spatial analysis of poverty and migration in Albania(A. Zezza, G. Carletto and B. Davis)


Monitoring poverty without consumption data: an application using the Albania panel survey(C. Azzarri, G. Carletto, B. Davis and A. Zezza)


Investing in agriculture for growth and food security in the ACP countries(J. Skoet, K. Stamoulis and A. Deuss)


Estimating poverty over time and space: construction of a time-variant poverty index for Costa Rica(R. Cavatassi, B. Davis and L. Lipper)


Will buying tropical forest carbon benefit the poor? Evidence from Costa Rica (S. Kerr, A. Pfaff, R. Cavatassi, B. Davis, L. Lipper, A. Sanchez and J. Hendy)


Effects of poverty on deforestation: distinguishing behaviour from location (S. Kerr, A. Pfaff, R. Cavatassi, B. Davis, L. Lipper, A. Sanchez and J. Timmins)


Understanding vulnerability to food insecurity: lessons from vulnerable livelihood profiling (C. Løvendal, M. Knowles and N. Horii)


Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy (P. Pingali)


Identifying the factors that influence small-scale farmers' transaction costs in relation to seed acquisition (L.B. Badstue)


Poverty, livestock and household typologies in Nepal (I. Maltsoglou and K. Taniguchi)


National agricultural biotechnology research capacity in developing countries(J. Cohen, J. Komen and J. Falck Zepeda)


Internal mobility and international migration in Albania(G. Carletto, B. Davis, M. Stampini, S. Trento and A. Zezza)


Being poor, feeling poorer: combining objective and subjective measures of welfare in Albania(G. Carletto and A. Zezza)


Food insecurity and vulnerability in Viet Nam: profiles of four vulnerable groups(FAO Food Security and Agricultural Projects Analysis Service)


Food insecurity and vulnerability in Nepal: profiles of seven vulnerable groups(FAO Food Security and Agricultural Projects Analysis Service)


Public attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology(T. J. Hoban)


The economic impacts of biotechnology-based technological innovations(G. Traxler)


Private research and public goods: implications of biotechnology for biodiversity(T. Raney and P. Pingali)


Interactions between the agricultural sector and the HIV/AIDS pandemic: implications for agricultural policy(T. S. Jayne, M. Villarreal, P. Pingali and G. Hemrich)


Globalization of Indian diets and the transformation of food supply systems(P. Pingali and Y. Khwaja)


Agricultural policy indicators (T. Josling and A. Valdés)


Resource abundance, poverty and development (E.H. Bulte, R. Damania and R.T. Deacon)


Conflicts, rural development and food security in West Africa (M. Flores)


Valuation methods for environmental benefits in forestry and watershed investment projects(R. Cavatassi)


Linkages and rural non-farm employment creation: changing challenges and policies in Indonesia (S. Kristiansen)


Information asymmetry and economic concentration: the case of hens and eggs in eastern Indonesia (S. Kristiansen)


Do futures benefit farmers who adopt them? (S.H. Lence)


The economics of food safety in developing countries (S. Henson)


Food security and agriculture in the low income food deficit countries: 10 years after the Uruguay Round (P. Pingali and R. Stringer)


A conceptual framework for national agricultural, rural development, and food security strategies and policies (K.G. Stamoulis and A. Zezza)


Can public transfers reduce Mexican migration? A study based on randomized experimental data (G. Stecklov, P. Winters, M. Stampini and B. Davis)


Diversification in South Asian agriculture: trends and constraints(K. Dorjee, S. Broca and P. Pingali)


Determinants of cereal diversity in communities and on household farms of the northern Ethiopian Highlands(S. Benin, B. Gebremedhin, M. Smale, J. Pender and S. Ehui)


Land use change, carbon sequestration and poverty alleviation (L. Lipper and R. Cavatassi)


Social capital and poverty lessons from case studies in Mexico and Central America (M. Flores and F. Rello)

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