Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Alexander, R.B., Smith, R. & Schwarz, G. 2000. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature, 403: 758-761.

Allee R.J., Dethier, M., Brown, D., Deegan, L., Ford, R.G., Hourigan, T.F., Maragos, J., Schoch, C, Sealey, K., Twilley, R., Weinstein, M.P. & Yoklavich, M. 2000. Marine and estuarine ecosystem and habitat classification. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-43. Silver Spring, USA, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service.

Antonov, J.I., Levitus, S. & Boyer, T.P. 2002. Steric sea level variations during 1957-1994: Importance of salinity. J. Geophys. Res. (C Oceans), 107:8013.

Austin, M.P. 2002. Case studies of the use of environmental gradients in vegetation and fauna modeling: theory and practice in Australia and New Zealand. In Scott, J.M., Heglund, P.J., Morrison, M.L., Haufler, J.B., Raphael, M.G., Wall, W.A. & Samson, F.B., eds. Predicting species occurrences: issues of accuracy and scale. Washington, DC, Island Press. 840 pp.

Bernert, J.A., Eilers, J.M., Sullivan, T.J., Freemark, K.E. & Ribic, C. 1997. A quantitative method for delineating regions: an example for the Western Corn Belt Plains ecoregion of the USA. J. Environ. Manage., 21:405-20.

Bijlsma L, Ehler, C.N., Klein, R.J.T., Kulshrestha, S.M., McLean, R.F., Mimura, N., Nicholls, R.J., Nurse, L.A., Pérez Nieto, H., Stakhiv, E.Z., Turner, R.K. & Warrick, R.A. 1996. Coastal zones and small islands. In Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C. & Moss, R.H. eds. Climate change 1995: impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses, pp. 289-324. Contribution of working group II to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 878 pp.

Bryant, D., Rodenburg, E., Cox & Nielsen, D. 1998. Coastlines at risk: an index of potential development-related threats to coastal ecosystems. Washington, DC, World Resources Institute. 8 pp.

Burke, L., Kura, Y., Kassem, K., Revenga, C, Spalding, M. & McAllister, D. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: coastal ecosystems. Washington, DC, World Resources Institute. 100 pp. (also available at

Cabanes, C, Cazenave, A. & Le Provost, C. 2001. Sea level rise during past 40 years determined from satellite and in situ observations. Science (Wash.), 294:840-842.

Cahoon, D.R. & Lynch, J.C. 1997. Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of Southwestern Florida, USA. Mangroves Salt Marshes, 1:173-86.

CBD. 2004. Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 7): Decision VII/30, 9-20 February 2004, Kuala Lumpur (available at

Christensen, N.L., Bartuska, A.M., Brown, J.H., Carpenter, S., D'Antonio, C, Francis, R., Franklin, J.F., MacMahon, J.A., Noss, R.F., Parsons, D.J., Peterson, C.H., Turner, M.G. & Woodmansee, R.G. 1996. Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecol. Appl., 6: 665-691.

Christian, R.R. 2003. Coastal initiative of the Global Terrestrial Observing System. Ocean & Coast. Manage., 46: 313-321.

Christian, R.R., Stasavich, L.E., Thomas, C.R. & Brinson, M.M. 2000. Reference is a moving target in sea-level controlled wetlands. In Weinstein, M.P. & Kreeger, D.A., eds. Concepts and controversies in tidal marsh ecology, pp. 805-825. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Press.

Church, J.A. 2001. How fast are sea levels rising? Science (Wash.), 294: 802-803.

Cohen, J.E., Small, C, Mellinger, A., Gallup, J. & Sachs, J.D. 1997. Estimates of coastal populations. Science (Wash.), 278: 1211.

Coleman, J.M., Huh, O.K. & DeWitt, B. Jr. 2003. Major world deltas: a perspective from space. NASA Solid Earth & Natural Hazards Research Applications, Contract No. SENG NRA-OES-05. Washington, DC, NASA. 242 pp.

Costanza. 1999. The ecological, economic, and social importance of the oceans. Ecol. Econ., 31:199-213.

Day, J. 1997. System functioning as a basis for sustainable management of deltaic ecosystems. Coast. Manage., 25: 115-53.

De Wit, R., Stal, L.J., Lomstein, B.A., Herbert, R.A., Van Gemerden, H., Viaroli, P., Ceccherelli, V.U., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Bartoli, M., Giordani, G., Azzoni, R., Schaub, B., Welsh, D.T., Donnelly, A., Cifuentes, A., Anton, J., Finster, K., Nielsen, L.B., Underlien Pedersen, A.E., Turi Neubauer, A., Colangelo, M. & Heijs, S.K. 2001. ROBUST: the role of buffering capacities in stabilising coastal lagoon ecosystems. Cont. Shelf Res., 21: 2021-2041.

Duda, A.M. & Sherman, K. 2002. A new imperative for improving management of large marine ecosystems. Ocean Coast. Manage., 45: 797-833.

FAO. 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Twenty-eighth Session of the FAO Conference, 31 October 1995, Rome (available at

GEO. 2002. Terms of Reference for the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations (GEO) (available at

GESAMP. 2001. Protecting the oceans from land-based activities: land-based sources and activities affecting the quality and uses of the marine, coastal and associated freshwater environment. Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 71. GESAMP. 162 pp.

(also available at

Gitay, H., Brown, S., Easterling, W. & Jallow, B., eds. 2001. Ecosystems and their goods and services. In McCarthy, J.J., Osvaldo, F.C., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. & White, K.S., eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. 235-342. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 1042 pp. (also available at

Gordon, D.C., Boudreau, P.R., Mann, K.H., Ong, J.E., Silvert, W.L., Smith, S.V., Wattayakorn, G., Wulff, F. & Yanagi, T. 1996. LOICZ Biogeochemical Modelling Guidelines. LOICZ Reports and Studies, 5. Texel, The Netherlands, LOICZ. 96 pp.

GTOS. 1997a. GCOS/GTOS plan for terrestrial climate-related observations. GTOS report 12. Rome, FAO (also available at

GTOS. 1997b. GHOST - Global Hierarchical Observing Strategy. GTOS report 13. Rome, FAO (also available at

GTOS. 1998a. GTOS implementation plan. GTOS report 17. Rome, FAO (also available at

GTOS. 1998b. GTOS Data and Information Management Plan. Rome, FAO (also available at

GTOS. 1998c. Report of the GCOS/GTOS Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate, fourth session. GTOS report 15. Rome, FAO (also available at

GTOS. 2003. Biennial report 2002-2003. GTOS report 34. Rome, FAO (also available at

Guisan, A. & Zimmermann, N.E. 2000. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecol. Model, 135(2): 147-86.

Hart, G.F. 2000. Indian delta studies, the deltas of peninsular India. Part 1: Field studies and data collection. Final report to the Smithsonian Institution. Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution (also available at

Heglund, P. 2002. Foundations of species-environment relations. In Scott, J.M., Heglund, P.J., Morrison, M.L., Haufler, J.B., Raphael, M.G., Wall, W.A. & Samson., F.B., eds. Predicting species occurrences: issues of accuracy and scale. Washington, DC, Island Press. 840pp.

Heinz Center. 2002. The state of the nation's ecosystems: measuring the lands, waters, and living resources of the United States. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 288 pp.

Hirzel, A.H., Hausser, J., Chessel, D. & Perrin, N. 2002. Ecological-niche factor analysis: how to compute habitat-suitability maps without absence data? Ecology, 83: 2027-36.

Howarth, R., Billen, G., Swaney, D., Townsend, A., Jaworski, N., Lajtha, K., Downing, J.A., Elmgren, R., Caraco, N., Jorden, T., Berendse, F., Freney, J., Kudeyarov, V., Murdoch, P. & Zhoa-liang, Z. 1996. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry, 35: 75-139.

Huston, M.A. 2002. Introductory essay: critical issues for improving predictions. In Scott, J.M., Heglund, P.J., Morrison, M.L., Haufler, J.B., Raphael, M.G., Wall, W.A. & Samson, F.B., eds. Predicting species occurrences: issues of accuracy and scale. Washington, DC, Island Press. 804 pp.

ICSU/UNEP/FAO/UNESCO/WMO. 1996. Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS): turning a sound concept into a practical reality. UNEP/EAP.TR.95-08. Nairobi, UNEP. 97 pp.

IGBP Secreteriat. 2004. LOICZ science plan and implementation strategy structure (draft). Kremer, H.H., Le-Tissier, M.D.A., Burbridge, PR. & Crossland C.J., eds. Stockholm, IGBP Secretariat. 91 pp.

IGOS. 2003. The draft coastal theme implementation plan. Submitted to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partners. 11th IGOS-P meeting May 27 2004. Rome (available at

ISO. 2003. ISO Geographic information - Metadata ISO 19115:2003. ISO (available at

IUCN. 2003. 5th IUCN World Park Congress, Durban, South Africa, 8-17 September 2003 (available at

Jackson, L.E., Kurtz, J.C. & Fisher, W.S., eds. 2000. Evaluation guidelines for ecological indicators. EPA/620/R-99/005. Washington, DC, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. 109 pp. (also available at

Jenkins, M.C. & Kemp, W.M. 1984. The coupling of nitrification and denitrification in two estuarine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29: 609-19.

Kerr, R. 2001. A little sharper view of global warming. Science (Wash.), 294: 765.

Kineman, J.J. 2004. Functional niche decomposition, modeling and mapping for landscape ecology and regionalization. Boulder, USA, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences.

King, D.A. 2004. Climate change science: adapt, mitigate, or ignore? Science (Wash.), 303: 176-77.

Kingsford, R. 2000. Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral. Ecology 25: 109-27.

MA. 2003. Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Washington, DC, Island Press. 245 pp.

Marsh, A.S. 1999. How wetland plants respond to elevated carbon dioxide. National Wetlands Newsletter 21: 11-13.

McCarthy, J.J., Osvaldo, F.C., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. & White, K.S., eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 1042 pp. (also available at

Moss, R.H., Gregg, M.C., Kaye, K. & Mahoney, J.R. 2002. Integrating climate change and global change research. In USCCSP ed. 11-28 pp. Strategic plan for the climate change science program final report, July 2003. Washington, DC, United States Global Change information office. 211pp. (also available at

Michener, W.K., Blood, E.R., Bildstei, K.L., Brinson, M.M. & Gardner, L.R. 1997. Climate change, hurricanes and tropical storms, and rising sea-level in coastal wetlands. Ecol. Appl., 7: 770-801.

Miller, L. & Douglas, B.C. 2004. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise. Nature, 428: 406-9.

Mumby, P., Edwards, A, Arias-Gonzalez, J., Lindeman, K., Blackwell, P., Gall, A, Gorczynska, M., Harborne, A., Pescod, C., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C., Llewellyn, G. 2004. Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature, 427: 533-36.

National Academy of Sciences. 2000a. Ecological indicators for the nation. Washington, DC, National Academy Press (also available at

National Academy of Sciences. 2000b. Global change ecosystems research. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.

National Academy of Sciences. 2000c. Clean coastal waters: understanding and reducing the effects of nutrient pollution. Washington, DC, National Academy Press. 405 pp.

National Science and Technology Council. 1995. Ecosystem Working Group: building a scientific basis to ensure the vitality and productivity of the U.S. ecosystem. Washington, DC, National Science and Technology Council.

Nicholls, R.J. & Small, C. 2002. Improved estimates of coastal population and exposure to hazards. EOS, 83: 301.

Nixon, S.W. 1981. Remineralization and nutrient cycling in coastal marine ecosystems. In Neilson, B.J. & Cronin, L.E., eds. Estuaries and nutrients, pp. 111-138. Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. 643 pp.

Nixon, S.W. 1995. Coastal, marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia, 41: 199-219.

Pernetta, J.C. & Mee, L.D. 1998. The Global international waters assessment. In ACOPS, eds. Towards enhanced ocean security into the third millennium, pp. 201-221. London, Advisory Committee on the Protection of the Sea.

Peterson, A.T. & Vieglais, D.A. 2001. Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modeling: new approaches from bioinformatics attack a pressing problem. BioScience, 51: 363-72.

PEW Oceans Commission. 2002. Coastal sprawl: the effects of urban design on aquatic ecosystems in the United States. Arlington, USA, PEW Oceans Commission. 40 pp. (also available at

Pilkey, O.H. & Cooper, J.A.G. 2004. Society and sea level rise. Science (Wash.), 303: 1781-82.

Pulwarty, R.S. 2000. NOAA-Office of Global Programs: the Regional Assessments Program. The ENSO Signal, 12 (also available at

Pykh, Y.A. & Malkina-Pykh, I.G. 2000. The method of response function in ecology. St. Petersburg, Moscow, WIT Press. 275 pp.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. 1971. Strategic framework and guidelines for the future development of the list of wetlands of international importance of the convention on wetlands. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat. Ramsar, Iran, 1971 (also available at

Rubec, P.J., Bexley, J.C.W., Norris, H., Coyne, M.S., Monaco, M.E., Smith, S.G. & Ault, J.S. 1999. Suitability modeling to delineate habitat essential to sustainable fisheries. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp., 22: 108-33.

Schamberger, M.L. & O'Neil, J. 1986. Concepts and constraints of habitat-model testing. In Verner, J., Michael, L., Morrison, C. & Ralph, J., eds. Wildlife 2000, pp. 5-10. Madison, USA, University of Wisconsin Press.

Scialabba, N., ed. 1998. Integrated coastal area management and agriculture and forestry and fisheries. FAO guidelines. Rome, FAO, Environment and Natural Resources Service. 256 pp.

Seitzinger, S.P. & Kroeze, C. 1998. Global distribution of nitrous oxide production and N inputs in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12: 93-113.

Sherman, K. & Duda, A.M. 1999. An ecosystem approach to global assessment and management of coastal waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 190: 271-87.

Smith, S.V., Hollibaugh, J.T., Dollar, S.J. & Vink, S. 1991. Tomales Bay metabolism: C-N-P stoichiometry and ecosystem heterotrophy at the land-sea interface. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 33: 223-57.

Smith, S., Swaney, D., Talaue-McManus, L., Bartley, J., Sandhei, P., McLacghlin, C., Dupra, V., Crossland, C, Buddemeier, R., Maxwell, B., Wulff, F. 2003. Humans, hydrology, and the distribution of inorganic nutrient loading to the ocean. BioScience, 53: 235-45.

Söderqvist, T., Mitsch, W.J. & Turner, R.K. 2000. The values of wetlands in a landscape and institutional perspective. Ecol. Econ., 35: 1-6.

Thompson, J.G. & Patterson, J.H. 2000. The management and sustainable use of ducks and geese in North America. In Comin, F.A., Herrera-Silveira, J.A. & Ramirez-Ramirez, J., eds. Limnology and aquatic birds: monitoring, modelling and management, pp. 281-305. Mérida, Mexico, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. 305 pp.

Turner, R.K., Adger, W.N. & Lorenzoni, I. 1998. Towards integrated modelling and analysis in coastal zones: principles and practices. LOICZ Reports & Studies No. 11. Texel, The Netherlands, LOICZ IPO. 122 pp.

Tschirley, J., Servin, G. & Sessa, R. 2003. The terrestrial ecosystem monitoring sites: a utility assessment. Int. J. Global Environmental Issues, 3: 369-381.

UNCED. 1992. Agenda 21. Chapter 17 (available at

UNEP. 1997. Global environment outlook. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. 264 pp.

UNEP. 1999. GIWA project document. Document No. GF/FP/1100-99-01.

UNEP. 2004. Towards a UNEP module for the assessment of the coastal and marine environment, draft document. 24 pp. (available at

UNEP/MAP/PAP. 1999. Conceptual Framework and Planning Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management. Split, Priority Actions Programme. 93 pp. (available at

UNESCO. 2000. Strategic design plan for the coastal component of the Global Oceanographic Observing System (GOOS). IOC/INF-1146, GOOS Report No. 90. Paris. 160 pp. (also available at

UNESCO. 2003a. A reference guide on the use of indicators for integrated coastal management -ICAM dossier 1. IOC manuals and guides No. 45. Paris. 127 pp. (also available at

UNESCO. 2003b. Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands (available at

UNESCO. 2003c. The integrated strategic design plan for the coastal observations module of the Global Oceanographic Observing System. IOC/INF-1183. GOOS Report No. 125. Paris. 190 pp. (also available at

Valiela, I., Collins, G., Kremer, J., Lajtha, K., Geist, M., Seely, B., Brawley, J. & Sham, C.H. 1997. Nitrogen loading from coastal watersheds to receiving estuaries: new method and application. Ecol. Appl., 7: 358-80.

Valiela, I. & Cole, M.L. 2002. Comparative evidence that salt marshes and mangroves may protect seagrass meadows from land-derived nitrogen loads. Ecosystems, 5: 92-102.

Vitousek, P.M., Aber, J.D., Howarth, R.W., Likens, G.E., Matson, P.A., Schindler, D.W., Schlesinger, W.H. & Tilman, D.G. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol. Appl., 7: 737-50.

Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C. & Moss, R.H., eds. 1996. Climate change 1995: impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change. Scientific-technical analyses, pp. 289-324. Contribution of working group II to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 878 pp.

Wickham, J.D., O'Neill, R.V., Riiters, K.H., Smith, E.R., Wade, T.G. & Jones, K.B. 2002. Geographic targeting of increases in nutrient export due to future urbanization. Ecol. Appl., 12: 93-106.

World Resources Institute. 2002. World Resources 2000-2001: people and ecosystems. The fraying web of life. Washington, DC. 389 pp. (also available at

WSSD. 2002. World Summit on Sustainability, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 26 - September 4, 2002 (available at

Zhang, K., Douglas, B. & Leatherman, S.P. 2004. Global warming and coastal erosion. Climate Change, 64: 41-58.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page