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Chapter 4
Keeping clean

Background information

Keeping clean is one of the main factors contributing to good health. It prevents many kinds of disease. But what does it have to do with nutrition? First of all, all diseases have a bad effect on the feeding of the body. The effect of diarrhoeal diseases is particularly serious, and often fatal in young children. Secondly, diseases are often conveyed through food and drink. This means that "clean food" and "clean water" are essential to a "good diet" and that hygiene is important in all aspects of food preparation and consumption.


At this age children need to be aware of the cleaning activities around them, the reasons for them, and their own role in them. This means recognizing all kinds of dirt and being aware of the dangers it represents. Instead of bacteria, children are introduced to the idea of dirt you cannot see, which is re-emphasized in lessons on handwashing and clean water. The idea that dangerous dirt can be carried is illustrated in lessons on dirty hands and flies. Children are encouraged to extend their own personal hygiene activities and improve their hygiene routines. In Lesson 3 children draw their own picture of "cleaning points" in the home, and use this as a checklist through the remaining lessons. Much of the homework focuses on rules and routines for household hygiene.


Lesson 1

establishes areas of cleaning activity and children’s roles in them.


Lesson 2

introduces the idea of "dirt you cannot see" (i.e. bacteria).


Lesson 3

reinforces the need for clean hands; children also make a pictorial checklist of "cleaning points" in the home.


Lesson 4

is about when and how to wash hands.


Lesson 5

deals with personal hygiene.


Lesson 6

focuses on how flies contaminate food, and the need to cover food.


Lesson 7

shows the importance of clean drinking water.


Lesson 8

illustrates the dangers of rubbish and how to dispose of it properly.


Background information for teachers

The main areas of personal and domestic hygiene are

  • keeping yourself clean-which includes washing hands and cleaning teeth
  • washing and cleaning babies and younger children
  • cleaning clothes, cloths, covers
  • clean food - food gathering, preparation and consumption
  • clean water, water treatment and hygienic ways of carrying water
  • keeping the house and surroundings free of rubbish.

This lesson establishes most of these areas of activity and gets children to describe their own roles in them.


Pupils should be able to:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

Ask what families had to say about good eating habits. Pick up anything which refers to hygiene, which is the theme of this chapter - for example, washing hands, cleaning plates and pots.

Introduction/Activity 19

Look at the pictures. Ask What things in the house need cleaning? What things in the school need cleaning? Remind them that they too need cleaning! After one or two examples, put children in groups to find as many examples as possible, then call on the groups in turn to report. Briefly discuss why things need cleaning, to see if pupils recognize that dirt is dangerous.

Activity 20

a) Ask Who cleans things at home? and then What do YOU clean? Show approval of children who clean a lot of different things; ask "expert" children to describe how they clean particular things.

b) Say you are going to demonstrate cleaning something. Do a mime of (e.g.) washing spoons, cleaning a baby. Children guess what is being cleaned.

c) Put children into small groups and ask them also to prepare and perform a "cleaning mime" for the class, which has to guess what is being cleaned.


a) Ask children to count the word "clean" in the Reading text (there are 7).

b) Say the other words from the text in mixed order and ask pupils to find them (e.g. ground, babies, food, plates, ourselves, clothes, floor, pots).

c) Read out the first sentence (We clean many things!) and ask pupils to repeat it. Read out the beginnings of the following sentences (We clean.....?) - pupils chorus the end of each sentence.

d) If there is time, do the Reading again as a mime and chorus:

Ask yourself

Demonstrate asking yourself this question and answering it. E.g. What do I clean at home? Well, I clean myself - and I clean my clothes..... What about you? Count on your fingers.

Ask children to ask themselves the same questions and answer them mentally, counting on their fingers. Give them time to do this. Then ask them to copy and complete the table in their books.

Walk round and look at the answers. Don’t interfere with the content, but ask for clarification if necessary.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper or cardboard, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Pupils give examples of things which must be cleaned. Store the message or display it permanently, and do the same with the others.


Choose one of the two homeworks, or let pupils choose, individually or as a class.


Background information for teachers

Dirt contains bacteria that cause food poisoning, common diarrhoea, typhoid and cholera. If pupils have already learnt about bacteria or "germs", then mention them. However, the idea of invisible but powerful microscopic life is quite difficult for young children to grasp. In this chapter bacteria are simply presented as "dirt you cannot see". What is essential at this age is that children realize that some dirt is invisible, that dirt can carry disease, and that their hands can carry dirt. These ideas are reinforced in the following lessons.


Pupils should

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from homework

Get feedback on the homework - on how to clean things (children demonstrate) or on why we clean things. This should lead to the idea that dirt is dangerous.


Get children to tell you where they can find dirt. What things are dirty? Why is dirt bad? How is it bad? Several ideas should come out - e.g.

Activity 21

Establish the idea of invisible dirt, like this:

a) Ask pupils (or a few pupils) to make one finger a little dirty - with pen, pencil, dust, mud, food, anything they can find. They should show their dirty finger to their friends. Ask them if they can see the dirt.

b) Ask them to rub off the dirt very thoroughly and show their friends again.

c) Ask Are your hands clean now? How do you know? See what they think.

d) Tell them there is other dirt, dirt that they cannot see. This kind of dirt is very dangerous and very strong. It can make them sick. It’s on their hands now. It was there before they put on the new dirt. It’s still there.

e) Make pupils wash their hands with soap and running water.

f) Ask the pupils Are your hands clean now? How do you know? Lead them to understand that soap and water remove the dirt you cannot see.

g) Use the pictures and the questions to reinforce the idea of dirt you cannot see, which is removed with soap and water.


Pupils look at the pictures around the Reading and say which things look clean. Are they really clean? This again reinforces the idea of dirt you cannot see.

Read the text aloud. Strongly emphasize the words EVERYWHERE and CANNOT. As you read it, assign the individual lines to individual pupils or small groups, keeping the first and last lines for the whole class. The class then reads the text aloud, again emphasizing EVERYWHERE and CANNOT.

Activity 22

Establish the idea that "dangerous dirt" can be carried.

On the table put a cup of water, a piece of food, a knife and fork/spoon.

Show your fingertips and say

Here is some dirt. You cannot see it.
It’s very strong and dangerous.
It can make me sick.
If it gets into my mouth I will be sick.
How can it get into my mouth?

Get some suggestions from pupils and mime them very slowly - e.g.

Raise hand to mouth (e.g. biting nails).
Write with a pencil, then put the end of the pencil in your mouth.
Touch the food and take the food to your mouth.
Touch the rim of the cup, then drink the water.
Handle the knife, use it to cut the food, then eat the food with fork or spoon.

Add some drama by encouraging pupils to warn you. Finish by asking How can I stop the dirt getting in my mouth? (the answer is to wash your hands with soap and running water).

Ask yourself

Am I afraid of dirt? Why/Why not? Discuss openly with the whole class what they want to say in answer to these questions. Many answers are possible, but praise good reasons (e.g. No, because I wash my hands often; Yes, because you cannot see it; Yes, because it can make you sick; No, because my mother keeps the house very clean). Point out that they have to choose only ONE of the alternatives in the box. Leave them to copy and complete the box.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper or cardboard, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Instead of saying the examples, pupils can mime them in imitation of the teacher. Children take the message home.


The homework aims to get families to reinforce the activities.


Background information for teachers

This lesson is a little different from the others. It has two purposes.

1. It reinforces the previous lesson by raising children’s awareness of what they do with their hands. The children use mime to describe a day in the life of their hands. Others guess what they are miming. The class discusses the danger points in the life of their hands and when they should be washed during the day.

2. It gets children to produce a pictorial checklist for describing and checking their own hygiene habits. This should be started in class, so that children are sure of what they have to do. It can be finished for homework.


Pupils should be able to

Time: 30 minutes

Feedback from the previous lesson

Remind pupils about their answers to the question Are you afraid of dirt? (Ask yourself in the previous lesson).

Pupils tell the class what families said about how dirt makes you sick. Pick up the idea that dirty hands are one of the biggest problems.


Check that children have washed their hands. Make a big point of this - ask each child individually, or ask them to ask each other whether hands have been washed.

Activity 23

a) Show the children your hands. Mime some actions with them and ask children to identify the action. For example (waking up in the morning) you rub your eyes and scratch yourself, wash, brush your teeth etc.

b) Ask what children are doing with their hands in the pictures.

c) Divide children into groups. Explain they should take turns to tell the story of their hands during the day. They can only use their hands to do this. The others should guess the different actions.

d) Introduce the idea of Danger Points, e.g. touching eyes, putting fingers in mouths, handling something which they put in their mouths, not washing their hands before eating etc. Did they have any Danger Points in their stories? Discuss why they are dangerous.

e) Discuss all the times when you should wash your hands, and all the things that are dangerous to touch before eating (e.g. animals, faeces, dirty water).


Prepare the homework with the children. They should take a whole page in their exercise books to draw themselves and their home. This picture will be used as a checklist for the following lessons.

Go through the instructions. Draw the sketch in the book on the board, then complete the sketch for your own home, explaining what you are doing. Get the children to start their own pictures for their own homes. It is not important that the drawings are recognizable, as long as the children themselves know what they represent. However they should be complete, with all the elements. Ask them to finish the pictures for homework. Tell them to show the picture to their families.

An alternative is to draw one big poster picture together in class and display it in all the remaining lessons of this chapter.


Background information for teachers

Dirty hands are one of the main transmitters of dangerous bacteria.

It is important that hand washing becomes a routine. Of course children need to know why they should wash their hands, but at this age the most important things are that

  • they know when to wash hands
  • they know how to wash them
  • they do actually wash them.

Hands should be washed after going to the toilet, before and after eating, before and after cleaning babies’ bottoms, before preparing food and before collecting drinking water. Soap is essential, since it is soap which removes bacteria from the skin. The water should be clean and running. It is no good to wash your hands in the same water as other people, or use a dirty towel to dry your hands after washing.

A single lesson cannot do much to change routine practices. It must be backed up by training in schools and homes. The school should show the importance it gives to clean hands by providing good washing facilities (in particular, running water and soap), and training younger children in hand-washing routines. If improvements are needed, this matter should be raised at a staff meeting, with the PTA/PCSC or in the School Health and Nutrition Committee.


Pupils should be able to:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

Check that pupils have completed their drawings of self, home and school. Ask them to check that they have put in all the things in the list. If there is time, ask them to explain their pictures to one another.


Books closed. Find out when pupils wash their hands and how they wash them.

a) When? Show a picture of a child and describe her/his day in brief - e.g. Kalwe gets up, fetches water, eats breakfast, goes to the toilet, walks to school etc. Then describe it again asking children to put their hands up where they think it’s important to wash hands. Ask them to explain why.

b) How? Ask two or three pupils to mime washing hands and ask questions to clarify exactly how they do it. Do not give advice at this moment, but explain that we want to find out the BEST way of washing hands.

Activity 24

Open books. Pupils look at the pictures and answer the questions, bringing out the differences in the two ways of washing hands. Ask which they prefer, and why. Use the discussion to get children to see for themselves that it is better to wash with running water and not to use a dirty towel. Explain that soap is very important because it kills and removes all kinds of dirt, including dirt you cannot see.


a) Say that the Reading gives advice about when to wash hands. What do pupils think it will say?

b) Pupils look at the Reading to check if their predictions are right.

c) Ask what the Reading says about how to wash hands. Does it talk about towels? running water? soap? (in fact it doesn’t talk about towels)

d) Ask a volunteer to read the passage aloud.

e) Ask pupils to read the passage in pairs to each other.

Extra activity

a) Bring two pupils to the front and say they will demonstrate how to wash hands well, guided by the class.

b) Ask What will they need? and supply what pupils say (a basin, water, a jug or cup, a piece of soap).

c) Ask How will they do it? and get instructions from the class.

d) The two pupils demonstrate. One pours water to wet the other’s hands. The other washes hands, paying attention to nails and between the fingers. The first pours water to rinse the washer’s hands. The class observes, checks that everything is done correctly and gives advice.

e) Reverse the roles of the demonstrators. This time the class comments on what is happening (e.g. she is washing her hands with soap; the soap is lifting the dirt off; the water is taking the dirt away).


If time allows, play the game Wash your hands.

a) Give a lot of examples of everyday actions (see list in the box below) and get children to show a rapid mime for each. Also mime hand-washing.

b) Go through the actions again and ask which ones involve washing hands (e.g. eating an orange, going to the toilet). Pupils mime hand-washing before or after the action, as appropriate.

c) Tell children that to pretend to "go to the toilet" they have to leave the room and come in again.

d) Give instructions to individual pupils. If the action involves hand-washing, they must mime that as well. Mix "hand-washing" instructions with others, and repeat the instruction to "go to the toilet" frequently. When a pupil forgets to "wash hands" then s/he is out of the game.

After pupils have learned the game, they can play it among themselves in groups.

Some instructions for the game: Wash your hands" (the "hand-washing" actions are underlined).

Get up!
Have a drink of water!
Go to the toilet!
Eat an orange!
Pick up rubbish!

Eat your food! Walk to school!
Prepare the vegetables!
Wash the clothes!
Feed the baby!
Dig the ground!
Ring the school bell!

Walk to school!
Get dressed!
Have a snack!
Fetch water!
Write your name!
Open your books!

Ask yourself

The purpose of this question is to get pupils to extend their handwashing practices. Demonstrate asking yourself the question and answering it. For example When do I wash my hands? Well, I always wash them after going to the toilet and before I have a meal. But I don’t always wash them before I have a snack. I should remember to do that. What about you? Ask them to think of a new time to wash their hands. Circulate and observe while they copy and complete the box.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper or cardboard, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Ask the class to explain the message (i.e. to say why one should use soap when washing hands).


The homework aims to get the family to reinforce the message about when to wash your hands.


Background Information for teachers

Personal hygiene is very important for reducing disease. Regular washing and clean clothes make it difficult for dangerous bacteria and parasites to live on the body; care of the teeth prevents decay; clean hands stop dangerous bacteria from spreading to food and drink. Therefore the importance of personal hygiene needs emphasizing. In addition, keeping the body clean should be a matter of personal pride and value and we must try to build up this motivation. The lesson is mainly about habit formation and valuing being clean.

As with hand-washing, the school and the class should have policies and rules about personal hygiene. For example, they may have inspections of hands and hair and standards for clothing worn to school. These will have a much greater long-term effect than a single lesson.


Pupils should:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

Pupils look at the "Home" picture (from Lesson 3). They put a big circle round one hand (because we are talking about washing hands). Ask individuals when they washed their hands yesterday, how often and how.

Introduction/Activity 25

Start with feelings.

Read out and discuss the opening questions about washing routines. Spend most time on the last question (why). Encourage many reasons - e.g. smelling nice and looking good as well as hygiene. Make sure they remember that dirt is dangerous.

Activity 26

This activity and the Reading focus on reasons for keeping particular parts of the body clean. Use them to find out what children know and think, and to give a little information about the dangers of dirt on the body.

a) Pairs work to name the parts of the body labelled in the diagram, using the words in the box. Check by calling out the numbers of the labels.

b) Pairs choose a part of the body and discuss for a minute why it is important to keep that part clean.

c) Pairs report to the whole class. Possible answers are (you may have others):


a) Books closed. Read aloud the first part of each sentence and ask pupils to suggest what follows.

b) Open books. Get pupils to work out the second part of each sentence.

c) Pupils cover the second column with their hands. Read the first half of each sentence again; pupils call out the second half.

Activity 27

Pupils sing the song about washing in the pupils’ book. The monitor checks pupils’ cleanliness as the pupils continue to sing the song.

Ask yourself

Do this series of questions as a call-and-response exercise with the whole class. Ask the questions and call on the pupils to say Yes! all together. Ask them to choose one thing they have done, and then copy and complete the box.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Ask pupils to give reasons why they should keep clean. Children take the message home and read it to their families.


For homework, let pupils teach the song Bushe namusamba to their brothers and sisters.

Children find out what "washing rules" they have in their homes.


Background information for teachers

Flies and other insects and animals (cockroaches, mice) are attracted to food and carry bacteria to it on their feet. This lesson concentrates on flies. Children need to realise that flies are dirty and can carry diseases. Fortunately most people dislike flies and we can reinforce this natural feeling. Children must also become aware that all uncovered food is dangerous because it may have been visited by flies. The important behavioural message is to cover or wrap all food.


Pupils should be able to:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

a) Check that pupils have copied and answered the Ask yourself questions.

b) Pupils look at their "Home" picture from Lesson 3. They put big circles around hair, nails, feet, teeth and clothes. Then in pairs they tell each other if these things are clean today.

c) Pupils tell the class the "washing rules" in their homes.


Say we are going to talk about flies. Write up the word; hold up something to represent a fly.

Find out what pupils know, think and feel about flies. Do they like them? Why/Why not? What do flies do? Where do you find a lot of flies? What do flies like? Do they like clean things? Do they like our food? Are flies dangerous?


On the floor put a piece of organic dirt and on the table a piece of food. Say:

Here is some dirt. It is very dangerous dirt.
If it gets into my mouth I will be sick.
How can it get into my mouth?

If pupils recall Lesson 2 they may suggest that your hands will carry the dirt. Say:

My hands are clean.
I will not touch the dirt.
How can the dirt get into my mouth?

If pupils suggest that flies can carry the dirt, give them the "fly" and ask them to show how the fly walks on the dirt and then flies to the food and walks on that. It carries the dirt on its feet. The dirt is so small that you cannot see it, but it is still very dangerous. When we eat the food, we can get sick.

If they don’t make the suggestion, show them yourself.

Activity 28 reinforces this idea.

Ask pupils to say what is happening in the picture.
What advice they would give to Chiko and Kalwe - to eat or not to eat?
Why? Discuss the reasons (the flies have carried dirt to the food from the latrine and the rubbish heap).

Extra activity If there is time, role-play the scene. The whole class can suggest what the players do and say, like this:

a) Establish some "dirty places" in the classroom, as in the picture. Use something to represent the food (a book, a piece of cardboard).

b) Two pupils are flies. They come (buzzing) from a "dirty place", visit the "food", eat some, wipe their feet on it and fly away.

c) Two pupils come in and see the food. They say how hungry they are and how good the food looks. They sit down and stretch out their hands.

d) Two other pupils tell them not to eat the food and explain why.


Ask pupils to find the advice in the text, to look for the words DO NOT.

They read out the two pieces of advice. Then they read to find the reason for this advice.

Activity 29

Ask pupils to say how we can protect food from flies. Get a lot of ideas for different ways of covering and wrapping (cloth, paper, covers, nets, bags, containers).

Pupils draw pictures of food containers on their "Home" picture (from Lesson 3). They explain their pictures to their friends.

Go round looking at the pictures and tell the class anything interesting you see (pupils will feel rewarded).

Ask yourself

Demonstrate asking yourself these questions and answering them. For example, Do flies walk on my food? - well, sometimes I buy a snack that is not wrapped from a vendor. At home I always cover food. What about you? Ask pupils to ask themselves the questions and think about the answers. Then they copy and complete the box.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper or cardboard, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Ask pupils to give reasons for the message.


For homework, ask pupils to ask their families about where to find flies and how to keep them away.


Background information for teachers

One of the most important pollutants of drinking water is faeces from people and animals. Water can be contaminated at source, but also when it is collected with dirty hands or carried in dirty containers.

Water can look clean even when it is full of dangerous bacteria. It is important for children to realize this. They must look at where water comes from and what is going into it. The message is Think about what you drink! Children should also know something about how to clean and protect drinking water.


Pupils should:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching/learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

a) Pupils look again at their "Home" picture from Lesson 3. They put a big circle around the food in the picture. Is it covered in their picture? Is it safe?

b) Pupils say what their families told them about where flies are found (e.g. uncovered latrines, rubbish pits), and what families do to keep away flies.


a) Ask pupils how water comes to their house.

b) If pupils help to carry water to the house, ask them to show how they do it. Observe if they wash hands first, use a clean container/a closed container, don’t let dirty hands come in contact with water and cover the water in the house. This will show you what to focus on in Activity 28 ©.

c) Ask if the water is clean. Do they want to drink clean water? Why? (because dirty water makes you sick).

Activity 30

a) Hold up your (clean) hands (or a pupil’s) and ask Are these hands clean? Get pupils to recall the idea of dirt you cannot see from Lesson 2. (The answer to the question is Yes, if they have been washed with soap and water.)

b) Present two glasses, one of muddy water, the other with clear water. Ask Is this water clean? Tell pupils to THINK!

c) Help them to come to the conclusion that:

the muddy water is certainly dirty, but
the clear water may also be dirty - there may be dirt you cannot see.

Activity 31

a) Ask How does water get dirty? Pupils give ideas, then look at the pictures.

b) Groups look at the pictures and discuss the question, then report back. Make sure that they work out some of the answers for themselves. Together count the kinds of dirt which are going into the water. Ask if they know any places in the area where there is a danger of dirty water.

c) Ask them to look at how the children are carrying the water. Can they see the danger? (that dirty hands make water dirty). Ask them to say and show what is the best way to transport water so it does not get dirty (e.g. clean closed container, washed hands).


Ask pupils to find the words dirty water in the Reading, then safe, sick and drink. Then another word like drink (think). Pupils can then read the text aloud to each other in pairs. Quiz them on the meaning - What does it say about dirty water? What will happen if you drink it? What must you do?

Reinforce the slogan with a mime. Hold up a cup of water, raise it to your mouth, then raise your other hand in a halt sign and say Think before you drink! Get pupils to copy you, move for move.

Ask yourself

Children need to think about what they drink. Demonstrate asking yourself this question - e.g. Do I always drink safe water? - Well, the water at home is safe because it has chlorine in it. But sometimes I go swimming in the lake, and then I drink some water by mistake. That’s dangerous, because that water is dirty. What about you? Discuss this question with the whole class so that children become aware of local danger points. Children should then choose one of the statements in the box, and complete it for themselves. Their answers may give you ideas for future lessons.


Ask for a volunteer to write the Remember message on a piece of paper or cardboard, display it in the classroom and read it aloud. On the opposite side write the title of the lesson. Ask pupils to explain the message and give details (e.g. water which looks clean may be dirty, you must know where it comes from, local lake water is not clean etc.).


Pupils find out from their families how to make water safe for drinking. Families will certainly know how to do this. More details are given in the Grade 4 lessons.

Warn pupils that in the next lesson they will have to handle rubbish. If they wish they can bring something to handle it with (e.g. gloves, a plastic bag).


Background Information for teachers

Rubbish is a breeding ground for bacteria which cause diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera and many other diseases. It attracts mice, rats, flies and cockroaches, which carry the bacteria into houses and onto food. Dirty surroundings also smell bad and make a place unattractive. Rubbish should be collected and buried in a rubbish pit, or burnt.

Children need to value clean surroundings. They should begin to see the connection between rubbish and disease, which is quite complicated. They should also begin to form good habits with rubbish. For this reason the lesson starts with a practical activity.

As with handwashing and personal hygiene, a single lesson cannot have much effect on long-term behaviour. The school needs to have a policy about rubbish which is understood and recognized by everyone in the school, backed by families and implemented in class. If improvements are needed, raise the matter at a staff meeting or PTA/PCSC meeting.


Pupils should:

Time: 30 minutes

Teaching and learning aids

Feedback from the previous lesson

a) Pupils look again at their "Home" picture from Lesson 3. They put a big circle around the water. In pairs they tell each other if the water is covered, clean and safe to drink.

b) Ask pupils what their families said about how to make water safe for drinking. If they mention chlorinating and boiling, ask if they have seen adults doing these things. Praise knowledge of details (e.g. how long to boil the water, how much chlorine, the price of chlorine etc).


Prepare for Activity 32. Pupils read the instructions in pairs to find out what they have to do. Check they understand what to do (emphasize washing hands). Give them a time limit (10 minutes?) then send them outside. Go with them if necessary.

Activity 32

a) Pupils go into the playground, find some rubbish, throw it away in the proper place, wash their hands and come back to class.

b) Praise pupils for their cleaning activities. Ask what rubbish they found, why they put it in the pit and why they washed their hands. Try to get them to recognize that rubbish is dirty.

c) Put some rubbish on the floor and some pieces of food on the table.

d) If time allows, quickly revise the danger of flies. Pupils should remember from Lesson 6 that flies carry dirt to food. Give them the "fly" and ask them to show again how it walks on the rubbish, then flies to the food and walks on that. Ask How does it carry the dirt? (on its feet), Can you see the dirt? (No, it is too small), Is it dangerous? (Yes, it makes us sick).

e) Ask What animals like rubbish? What animals can carry dirt onto our food? See if pupils can think of mice, rats, cockroaches, as well as flies.


Leave the rubbish on the floor and the food on the table. Ask for a volunteer to read the passage aloud (first make sure s/he can recognize all the words). Ask for volunteers to represent a fly, a mouse, a rat, a cockroach and a person. Get the reader to pause after each sentence, while the "actors" do what the text says.

Ask yourself

Demonstrate asking and answering these questions. Ask children to ask themselves the same questions and answer them. Then read the question in the box and ask children to answer it personally. Walk round and look at what they write. Don’t interfere with the content, but encourage and commend.


Ask for a volunteer to write out, display and read out the Remember message, and ask pupils to explain the message (e.g. Why is rubbish bad? Why do we put it in a pit?). Children take the message home and read it to families.

Preparation for homework

Pupils look at their "Home" picture from Lesson 3. They put a big ring around the rubbish pit. Ask What rubbish do you throw away? Who carries the rubbish to the pit? How often? Who buries it?


Ask pupils to pick up rubbish at home, throw it in a pit and tell their families what they have done and why.

Ask them to show their "Home" pictures to their families and talk about what they do to keep things clean.


At the end of the chapter get small groups to present all the Remember messages to the class, as they have practised. Make eight groups, each presenting one of the messages. They should read it out, explain it, illustrate it and say why it is important.

Event track (optional)

You may wish to organize a final "event" to recycle and publicize the messages of this chapter. This can be a performance in class, or for families or other classes, or be part of an Open Day. Here are some ideas.

1. Do the mime and chorus activity in Lesson 1 as a class.

2. Draw a poster titled A day in the life of my hands with the best ideas from Lesson 3. Circle the danger points in red. Train pupils to stand by the poster and explain what is dangerous and why.

3. Display the best "Home" pictures from Lesson 3. Train children to stand by them and explain what they clean, how often, and how.

4. Train pupils to do handwashing demonstrations/commentary as in the extra activity, Lesson 4. They can do How to and How not to.

5. Divide the class in two and train them to do a call-and-response chant based on the Reading in Lesson 5. They can illustrate it with pictures of dirty and clean children.

6. After the feedback on the Lesson 5 homework, create a poster of "washing and cleaning rules" and get children to illustrate it.

7. Develop the role-play in Lesson 6, Activity 28 and perform it as a mini-play.

8. Build up the demonstration of how to carry water from Lesson 7. Some pupils do it the wrong way, and some pupils do it the right way. Other pupils do a commentary on both.

9. Rehearse pupils in presenting all eight Remember messages in the right order, as in Lesson 8. Each message should be presented by a small group. One pupil holds up the message, one reads it aloud, and one or two others explain and give examples as they have practised in the lessons.

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