Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page



To give an overview of the SEAGA Approach.


Conceptual framework, Context analysis, Food security, Guiding principles, Livelihood analysis, Logical framework, Participatory methods, Performance indicators, Quantitative and qualitative data, Resources, Needs and constraints analysis, SEAGA approach, SEAGA levels, SEAGA matrix, Stakeholder analysis, Typologies of sampling and participation.

SEAGA Approach

The SEAGA Approach uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for integrating socio-economic and gender issues into planning and delivery of rescue, resuscitation, relief, rehabilitation and development aid programmes.

Two ways of distinguishing between quantitative and qualitative data are by the source of information and the way in which the information is gathered, interpreted and used. Quantitative data are based on formal surveys, including national data sources. They are usually analyzed using formal statistical tests. Qualitative data are based on less formal methods of data collection, such as rapid appraisal techniques. Qualitative methods study process more effectively. Quantitative methods tend to focus on inputs and numerically definable outputs.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Definitions[4]

Quantitative data can be defined as measures of quantity, such as the number of women and men who own sewing machines in a village.

Qualitative data can be defined as people’s judgements and perceptions about a subject, such as the confidence those women and men have in sewing machines as instruments of financial independence.

There is sometimes considerable overlap between quantitative and qualitative approaches, yet confusion in their presentation. "Quality of life" indicators, such as those that measure changes in a population’s health, education or employment, are often confused with qualitative indicators, because both appear to refer to "quality". In fact, health, education or any other subject can be measured by using both qualitative and quantitative data gathering methods.

Quantitative and qualitative data should be used together to permit a more complete representation of the situation and for cross checking of data. Participatory qualitative methods (such as case studies and/or rapid appraisal techniques) can provide information to help identify important areas of study, or assess the validity of analyses from quantitative data for a specific community or region. They can also assist local people to systematically assess and communicate information themselves about their situation (their perceptions, needs, resources and constraints).

In general, if designing both qualitative and quantitative studies for the same purpose, they should be carried out sequentially to provide the opportunity to improve one study based on findings from the previous study. Qualitative and quantitative methods may provide seemingly contradictory information in some instances. This discrepancy itself is an important source of information and points to issues that need further exploration.

Rapid and Participatory Rural Appraisal (RRA and PRA)

It is important to recognize the difference between RRA and PRA. The key difference is who leads the research. If the learning process is mostly managed by outsiders, such as development field workers, it is called RRA; if, on the other hand, it is a continuous research and action process managed by the local community, it is called PRA.

Rapid Rural Appraisal should be organised in the case of assessment surveys for emergency situations, when there is a time limitation factor and need to collect information quickly. Emergency field operators mostly manage this process. RRA facilitates making full use of local knowledge and experience, limiting the imposition of outsiders’ preconceptions on local conditions. Local people are given the opportunity to describe how they do things, what they know and what they want.

Typologies of Sampling

  • Systematic

Every person/household/variety and so on, is given a number. Every fifth, tenth or other is chosen for the sample until the required size is obtained

  • Random

Sample numbers are selected at random until the required sample size is obtained

  • Stratified

Groups of a population are separated based on certain characteristics (e.g. land holding size, family status). Each group is treated as a separate case and samples are drawn for each group

  • Cluster

Groups or clusters are sampled instead of on an individual basis (e.g. agro-ecology zones). Random samples are then drawn for each group

  • Quota

A number of cases are required. Sampling proceeds until the quota is met

The focus is not on learning everything, but on understanding what is necessary for deciding on relief interventions. Both careful planning and flexibility are needed to ensure fruitful fieldwork. As RRA tools (techniques) depend on schematic pictures, maps and diagrams, they provide information immediately available for analysis.

The number of sites to include in the RRA depends on the size and complexity of the affected area and on the time and resources available. The more variation there is in an area by socio-economic factors, farming systems and environmental conditions for example, the more numerous the sites will have to be in order to have a full understanding of the situation.

SEAGA Concepts

The SEAGA approach is based on three guiding principles, (i) Gender Roles and relations are of key importance, (ii) Disadvantaged people are a priority, (iii) Participation of local people is essential for development (progress).

Participation is a rich concept with different typologies, meaning different things to different people in different settings. In the SEAGA Concept, participation is considered a process of communication among local people and intervention agents, during which local people take the leading role to analyse the current situation and to plan, implement and evaluate relevant activities.

Typologies of Participation

  • Passive

People are informed what is going to happen

  • Sharing

Questions asked by outsiders are answered

  • Consultative

People are consulted but have no part in decision-making

  • Incentive

People provide resources such as labour in exchange for material incentives

  • Functional

People participate in groups to meet predetermined objectives

  • Interactive

Local people and outsiders participate in joint analysis, project design, implementation and monitoring and evaluation

  • Mobilising

People take initiative independently from external institutions

SEAGA addresses socio-economic patterns at three levels (field, intermediate and macro levels), for different people.

A SEAGA Framework Profile matrix can be used to organise substantive topics. Information is gathered from answers collected from applying investigative tools (techniques) and "question tanks", through various aspects of analysis, linked at the three levels, in order to effectively address the different special, practical and strategic needs of men and women.

SEAGA Framework

A SEAGA Framework Profile can be drafted and filled, based on the answers found to question tanks (checklists) using the indicative categories (layers or angles) of information below.

SEAGA Levels

People are the focus of the Field Level, particularly the socio-economic differences between women and men as individuals, and among households, and communities as a whole.


A lack of food security in a village may stem from environmental (e.g. drought) and economic problems (e.g. a lack of wage labour opportunities), institutional problems (e.g. inadequate extension training on food conservation methods) and social problems (e.g. discrimination against women).

Discrimination against women, for example, can result in women's lack of access to credit, in turn limiting their ability to purchase inputs. The end result is that overall productivity is lower than it could be under the circumstance. Where women have a major responsibility to produce food crops, these linkages are important food security considerations.

A lack of food security in a village, for example, may not result only from crop and animal production problems at the household or community level, but also from barriers to district-level markets, as well as national pricing policies and international terms of trade.

Structures are the focus of the Intermediate Level, such as institutions and services, that function to operationalise the links between macro and field levels, including communications and transportation systems, credit institutions, markets and extension, health and education services. Institutions are often responsible for interpreting national policies and for developing programmes that implement those policies. Institutions are also often in a position to develop processes that permit local people to get more involved in making decisions about the kind of change they would like to have happen in their communities. They facilitate linkages between households and individuals, communities, and policy makers who work at the macro level. Institutions also are responsible for the collection, documentation, analysis and interpretation of data in a country. The manner in which quantitative and qualitative data are structured and presented has a strong influence on the use of those data by policy makers at all levels. SEAGA includes both national level and community level institutions as part of the intermediate level analysis. The analysis of the institutional component provides information about regulatory mechanisms and the flow of services. There are many types of institutions in any society. Institutions are public, private, formal, non-formal, religious or secular.

The Macro Level focuses on policies and plans, both international and national, economic and social, including trade and finance policies and national development plans.

Framework of Linkages between Policies and Food Security[5]

*Household Resource Endowment:

- Land (Farm Size, Quality, Tenure).
- Household Compostion (Labour Force)
- Human Capita 1 (Skills & Knowledge).
- Savings other & Assets
- On farm & Off-farm Capital (Livestock & Equipment).

Impact of Structural Changes on Agricultural Production and Farmers (Example Conceptual Framework)[6]

Aspects of SEAGA Analysis

For any particular problem, a number of socio-economic patterns play a role. SEAGA materials address six socio-economic categories: socio-cultural, demographic, institutional, political, economic and environmental. In some cases institutional and political issues, as well as social and demographic issues are paired and treated as two categories instead of four.

Gender Mainstreaming Analysis - Simple Situation Profile Outline

SEAGA Substantive Process Outline

Social Structure

Daily and Seasonal Calendars


  • Locations and Definitions

  • Population, Birth Rates, Migration, Wealth, Sex, Ethnicity, Cast, Religion

  • Gender Audit. Inequities, Socio-economic Groups, Social Coping Strategies

  • Daily and Seasonal Activities, Income, and Food Availability

  • Multiplicity and Division of Activities and Work Loads
  • Variations and Biases
    (e.g. wage labour, child care)
  • Products and By-products

  • Product Uses and Outputs from their Use

  • Disposition to Use Products (Access). Ownership and Decision-making (Control)

Farming Systems

Income and Expenditure

Institutions and Services

  • Household Livelihoods Complexity

  • On-farm and Off-farm Activities. Knowledge Bases and

    Who is Involved. Roles and Responsibilities

  • Flow of Resources to and from the Household

  • Sources and Relative Divisions

  • Basic Needs and Savings. Potentials. Changes in Crises

  • Relative Importance to Groups and Household Members

  • Management, Institutions, Groups, Services and Stakeholders

  • Capacities, Participation, Communication Lines, Decision-making Roles and Relations, and Conditions

  • Structures, Linkages, Risks, Benefits and Affects

Problem Analysis

Strategic Planning

Options Assessment

  • Problem Identification. Nature, Visibility, Personification, Political Significance, Related Trends, Predictions. Priorities and Ranking

  • Resource Control and Division of Labour

  • Practical, Strategic and Special Needs of Groups

  • Principles. Desired Change. Policy Initiative. Vision. Goal. Objectives

  • Situation, History and Assumptions. Beginning, Trigger, Seasonality, Frequency, Duration, Geography, People (%), Groups and Stakeholders

  • Implementation Strategy

  • Analysis of Best Bets, Feasibility, Costs, Benefits, Implications

  • Social Fault Lines. Resources and Constraints. Conflict and Partnership. Force Fields. Consensus

  • Realistic and Concrete Action Plans for Priority Activities

Causes, Effects and Solutions

Conflict Management

Project Formulation

  • Analysis of Agendas and Opportunities

  • Causes of Problems, Resulting Effects, and Solutions

  • Resource and Assistance Requirements

  • Identification of Conflict Dynamics. Interest Based Bargaining. Options

  • Understanding Types, Existence, Circles and Perceptions of Conflict

  • Resolution of Conflicts

  • Definition of Objectively Verifiable Indicators

  • Partnership, Networking, Mandates, Relative Advantages, Feasibility, Responsibilities, Donors

  • Logistical Framework

Structural Policy

Stabilisation Policy

Food Security Policy

  • Infrastructure, Services, Institutions and Trade

  • Availability, Credibility, Distance, Social Mobility Competition, Time, Rates, Norms, Literacy

  • Contact, Quantity and Regularity of Supply Constraints

  • Exchange Rate, Fiscal and Monetary Policy

  • Resources, Freedom, Information, Capacities, Experiences, Effects

  • Social, Political and Economic Trade-offs and Impacts (Private and Social Prices)

  • Integration of Economic and Welfare Policy Goals

  • Understanding the Constraints and Needs of Vulnerable Groups

  • Policy Alternatives and Choices that Support Vulnerable Groups' Livelihoods and Services

Data Selection Policy

Data Management Policy

Participation Policy

  • Definitions, Indicators, Types, Levels, Sectors, Methods, Sampling and Resources, Monitoring, Evaluation of Results

  • Sex-disaggregated Data. Intra-household Data. Access and Control

  • Macro Level Statistics

  • Capacity to Store, Retrieve, Relate, Integrate and Present Data Types: Spatial, Numeric, Textual

  • Maps, Population, Landforms and Land Use Activities

  • Information Analysis

  • Focus and Nominal Groups, Networks, Activities, Media, Displays

  • Participation, Responsibilities. Timetable and Schedules, Locations, Linkages

  • Consultation and Promotion

The Context Analysis tools address economic, environmental, social and institution patterns that pose support or constraints to development (progress).

SEAGA Framework Profile - Context Analysis





  • Geographic situation

  • Physical organisation of the disaster area

  • Village social maps (population trends, number and location of households by type)

  • Land use trends

  • Wealth rankings

  • Poverty and food security status indicators

  • Welfare factors, population trends and type of victims

  • Jobs, wages and cost of living

  • Crop production history, area planted, amount harvested, food self-sufficiency, food security, exchange terms

  • Major cultural beliefs and languages spoken among the population

  • Linkages capacities (macro-meso-micro). Regional and district services. NGOs and networking structures

  • Degrees of decentralization

  • Organizational structures (services, communities, committees, and representatives)

  • Gender policies in institutions and organisations

  • Lines of decision-making

  • Information dissemination and communication channels

  • Levels of religious involvement by the State

  • Existing welfare policies and stages of processes (health, education, housing, civil legislation)

  • Existing laws and new rules.

  • Labour demand

  • Currency stability and terms of trade

  • International assistance (e.g. lending policies)

  • Conference outcomes

The Livelihoods Analysis tools address the flow of activities and resources through which different people make their living.

SEAGA Framework Profile - Livelihoods Analysis





  • Food habits

  • Social resources

  • Natural resources (land forms and uses, locations and sizes, activities)

  • Farming systems (on farm and off farm activities)

  • Activities linkages and mobility

  • Livelihood strategies (seasonal and daily calendars)

  • Crisis coping strategies

  • Household composition

  • Resource access and control

  • Activities and labour intensity

  • Expenditure and income sources

  • Benefits and consumption

  • Infrastructure (communication and transport channels)

  • Markets

  • Services

  • Support systems

  • Bargaining power

  • Contacts and networks

  • Labour returns - activity analysis

  • Wage rates for men and women

  • Price analysis

  • Intra-household gender audit, and data for gender sensitive macro-level planning

  • Natural resource management

  • Gender base roles, rights and obligations

  • Work opportunities, trade and local markets

  • Traditional and formal law

  • Exchange and interest rates (monetary and fiscal policies)

  • Incentives

  • Disaggregation of markets

The Stakeholders Analysis tools address planning intervention activities based on men’s and women’s priorities.

SEAGA Framework Profile - Stakeholders Analysis





  • Local groups and institutions

  • Key informants and experts

  • Institutional profiles (goals, achievements and needs)

  • Linkages with outside organisations and agencies

  • Priority problems of men, women, socio-economic groups

  • Causes and effects of priority problems

  • Livelihood intervention opportunities and action priorities

  • Opportunities for improved participation and resolution of conflicts

  • Stakeholders (Venn Diagram)

  • Product markets

  • Markets (raw materials, credit, labour, land)

  • Facilitating stakeholders

  • Constraining stakeholders

  • Opportunities for improving data collection and compilation sources, methods and mechanisms

  • Opportunities for network building

  • Opportunities for integration of a gender theme in programming and management

  • Options for new lines of decision making

  • Communication alternatives

  • Stabilisation policy reform and structural adjustment processes

  • International partners

  • Government representatives

  • Political parties

  • Nominal groups and committees

  • Distribution of funds for policy implementation

  • Control of costs and benefits by institutional structures

  • Political and economic gains or losses, and implications

The Needs and Constraints Analysis are for managers involved in planning and delivering policy based programmes and projects.

SEAGA Framework Profile - Needs and Constraints Analysis





  • Resources missing

  • Group needs

  • Problem analysis

  • Priority analysis

  • Conflicts and partnerships analysis

  • Preliminary community action plan

  • Information management systems

  • Resource needed

  • Constraints and options analysis

  • Problems, conflicts and partnerships management

  • Force analysis

  • Best bets action plans (problems, causes, coping strategies, opportunities, priorities, solutions, what, who, costs, timing)

  • Strategic planning

  • Food security constraints analysis

  • Market welfare analysis

  • Linkages modeling

  • Stakeholder and development planning

  • Implementation design (actors, pros, cons and resources)

  • Project cost benefit analysis (feasibility)

SEAGA Matrix - Context Analysis Tools

In any particular community, there are a number of socio-economic patterns that influence how people make a living and their options for development. Looking at the Context helps us to understand these patterns. Key questions include:

  • What are the important agro-environmental, economic, institutional and social patterns in the village?

  • What are the links between the field-level patterns and those at the intermediate- and macro-levels?

  • What is getting better? What is getting worse?

  • What are the supports for intervention? The constraints?

Trend lines: for learning about the Impact of Disasters (without and with project) and the Vulnerability of people in affected areas.

  • Environmental (Deforestation, Water Supply).

  • Economic (Jobs, Wages, Costs of Living).

  • Population (Birth Rates, Out-migration, In-migration).

  • Other Issues Important to the Community {Crop Production: good, bad and normal years over the past 5-10 years. Area Planted - year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5. Crop Harvested bags (UNITS): year 1, etc. Food Self-Sufficiency (months): year 1, etc. Households Food Insecure (%): year 1, etc. Prices of main staple per bag (UNITS): year 1, etc. Terms of Exchange: e.g. exchange of 1 adult male sheep would bring how many kg of grain over year 1, year 2, etc.}.

Village Resources Map: for learning about the environmental, economic and social resources in the community.

Transects: for learning about the community’s natural resource base, land forms, and land use, location and size of farms or homesteads, and location and availability of infrastructure and services, and economic activities.

Village Social Map: for learning about the community’s population, local poverty indicators, and number and location of households by type (ethnicity, caste, female-headed, wealthy, poor, etc.)

Venn Diagrams: for learning about local groups and institutions, and their linkages with outside organisations and agencies.

SEAGA Matrix - Livelihoods Analysis Tools

Livelihood Analysis focuses on how individuals, households and groups of households make their living and their access to resources to do so. It reveals the activities people undertake to meet basic needs and to generate income. Gender and socio-economic group differences are shown with respect to labour and decision-making patterns. Key questions include:

  • How do people make their living? How do the livelihood systems of women and men compare? Of different socio-economic groups?

  • Are there households or individuals unable to meet their basic needs?

  • How diversified are people’s livelihood activities? Do certain groups have livelihoods vulnerable to problems revealed in the Development Context?

  • What are the patterns for use and control of key resources? By gender? By socio-economic group?

  • What are the most important sources of income? Expenditures?

Resources Mapping - Farming Systems Diagram: for learning about household members’ on-farm, off-farm and non-farm activities and resources.

Benefits Analysis Flow Chart: for learning about benefits use and distribution by gender.

Daily Activity Clocks: for learning about the division of labour and labour intensity by gender and socioeconomic group.

Seasonal Calendars: for learning about the seasonality of women’s and men’s labour, and seasonality of food and water availability and income and expenditure patterns, and other seasonal issues of importance to the community.

Resources Access and Control Matrix for learning about use and control of resources by gender and socioeconomic group, often applied using proportional piling and picture cards.

Income and Expenditures Matrices: for learning about sources of income, sources of expenditures and the crisis coping strategies of different socio-economic groups.

Wealth Ranking: for determining the proportion of the population that is vulnerable. Proportional piling techniques can be used to determine proportions, e.g. of people that are poor.

SEAGA Matrix - Stakeholders Analysis Tools

Stakeholders are all the different people and institutions, both insider and outsider, who stand to gain or lose, given a particular activity. With this toolkit the focus is on learning about people’s priority problems and the development opportunities for addressing them. For each activity proposed, different stakeholders are identified, revealing where there is conflict or partnership. Key questions include:

  • What development activities do different people propose?

  • For each proposed development activity, who are the stakeholders? How big is their stake?

  • Is there conflict between stakeholders? Partnership?

  • Which organizations work most closely with community members?

  • What are their ties to other levels of systems, such as government and/or private institutions?

  • How does the community infrastructure support opportunities for economic development in a community?

  • How do institutional structures and mechanisms control the costs and benefits of development?

  • Are there gender-linked differences in the distribution of these costs and benefits?

  • Are there gender-specific aspects to the importance of infrastructure to community members?

Venn Diagrams: for learning about local groups and institutions, and their linkages with outside organisations and agencies.

Institutional Profiles: for learning about the goals, achievements and needs of local groups and institutions.

SEAGA Matrix - Resources, Needs and Constrains Analysis Tool

Bottlenecks to implementing change can occur when institutional regulations and functions do not adapt to policy and legal changes. In addition, all groups in a society may not have equal access to these institutions. In many instances, institutions explicitly or implicitly control the distribution of costs and benefits of development through regulatory and service-delivery mechanisms. Key questions include:

  • What are the priority problems in the community? For women? Men? For different socio-economic groups?

  • What are the immediate needs for institutional capacity building to facilitate a participatory approach to development?

  • Given resource constraints and stakeholder conflicts, which proposed development activities can realistically be implemented?

  • Which development activities most support the SEAGA goal of establishing an environment in which both women and men can prosper?

  • Which development activities most support the SEAGA principle of giving priority to the disadvantaged?

Problem Analysis for bringing together different groups in the community, to explore local coping strategies and to identify opportunities to address the problems by identifying issues related to the situation, to existing attitudes and to individual group behaviours. Preferences can be recorded in the form of flow charts and ranking matrices.

Force Field Analysis: for planning specific actions for achieving change by focusing on forces that facilitate or constrain change.

Conflict Identification and Resolution: for understanding and addressing the potential and actual types of conflicts at each planning phase.

Resource and Constraints Analysis: for understanding how individuals and groups allocate and use resources to manage risks, minimise constraints and maximise opportunities.

Policy Analysis: for analysing policies by defining issues, examining policy alternatives, making choices, and then implementing, monitoring and evaluating each.

Strategic Planning: for providing a common direction framework or umbrella under which programmes can be developed, implemented, monitored and evaluated.

Logical Framework

Incorporating gender analysis into programme and project management processes for Emergency Relief Operations requires addressing strategic questions posed at each intervention ‘Objective Level’ (goals, purpose, outputs and activities). The questions asked should investigate the socially constructed differences between men and women, and among themselves. These differences determine the extent to which men and women vary in their access to and control over resources and encounter different constraints and opportunities in society (whether at the level of the household, community or state).

A Logical Framework (Logframe) is an analytical instrument that links macro and intermediate levels with micro-functions of a programme and project. It provides for organizing thinking, relating activities and investment to expected results, setting performance levels, allocating responsibilities, and communicating concisely. The logframe helps to structure policy and management practices (implementation - strategy, design and delivery) while at the same time provides information, guidance, and decisions or complementary inputs to achieve consensus.

Engendering the logical framework is particularly about identifying and accounting for the gender issues implicit in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of projects, i.e. ensuring it is conscious of social equity issues such as gender relations.

The preparation of an engendered logframe matrix involves the participation of project planners, stakeholders and beneficiaries in analyzing gender relations and addressing the strategic questions posed at each ‘Objective Level’. Stakeholder agreements on these are critical. This analysis should take place not only once during start-up, but also throughout the course of monitoring and evaluation.

A generic project logframe consists of a matrix with four levels (goals, purpose, outputs and activities) each with a set of four attributes (narrative summary, objectively verified indicators, means of verification, and assumptions).

Different terms are used for each ‘Objective Level’ to specify the accomplishments, achievements and targets to be achieved by the intervention. Objectives separate cause from effect (e.g. project strategy - intended effect; means - ends; cause - effect; intervention - achievement; independent variables - dependent variables).

In planning an intervention, a logframe typically begins to take form by working "top-down" through the matrix. First the ultimate goal is defined, followed by the purpose of the project, then the outputs needed to achieve the goal, and finally, the activities and inputs needed to achieve the outputs. To reduce the risk of being unfocused, only one goal and purpose should be stated for each intervention. Normally, however, there are multiple activities and outputs in a project, which should be reflected in the logframe.

Logical Framework Structure


  • Goals are the most general level of objective. A project should contribute to a goal, but is not responsible for all efforts toward attaining a goal. This is the sectoral or national aim and the reason for which the project is undertaken. The project should contribute toward reaching this aim, but is not solely responsible for it. What are the long-term objectives associated problems and possible solutions?


  • The Purpose is the clear statement of what is expected to be achieved as a direct result of the intervention. Achieving the purpose depends on the project success, but may also depend on some factors not completely within project management control. What are the immediate objectives, expected immediate effects, benefits, to who, expected improvements or changes?


  • Outputs are the specific contributions of the intervention, resulting from the management of the project objectives and activities. Which outputs (kind, quantity, purpose, by whom, by when, where) should be produced in relation to the immediate objectives?


  • Activities are substantive tasks carried out by intervention staff using the range of resources necessary to perform project activities -human, material, financial, etc. Which materials, equipment, services, commodities, resources should be provided, quantity, purpose, by whom, when, where, at what cost?





What do we want/need to achieve?

How can we tell if we have achieved it?

Where can we get information to confirm this?

What else must happen if it is to succeed?

It is important to understand how the underlying logic of a logical framework is tested. This is done by reading the logframe from "bottom-up". For example, the linkages between the components of the matrix would read as follows: if activities are implemented, and the associated relevant assumptions are valid, the project would achieve the outputs. If the outputs are achieved and the related assumptions remain valid, the project will achieve its purpose. If the purpose is achieved and the related assumptions hold, then the overall goal is achieved.

Assumptions about stakeholders at all levels should be discussed. Analysis of institutional issues (capability, resources, constraints and structural mechanisms) should be considered before proceeding with the design phase. In some instances, integration of gender and other socio-economic issues into design may require planned interventions at the institutional level such as training or modification of institutional mechanisms.

The establishment of indicators and means of verification are intrinsic to the functionality of a logframe. They show what and how to measure the achievement of the summary in each level. Indicators are units against which to measure success - covering statements of purpose, activities, inputs and outputs. Qualitative indicators are classified as objective indicators, or "objectively verifiable indicators".

Performance Indicators

An indicator is an item of information, which conveys a change or result expected at each level of the operation hierarchy in order to demonstrate progress. An indicator can be either direct or indirect (proxy) but should be such that reasonable independent observers would agree that progress has or has not been made as planned. A good indicator should have four attributes:

  • Plausible - possible to measure

  • Independent - measure changes at one level

  • Targeted - specifically defined i.e. measures of whether, what, purpose, when, where and how. (How much? -Quantity; How well? - Quality; By when? - Time; Who - Target group; Where? - Location)

  • Objectively verifiable - Quality standards should be included when appropriate

Question Tank - Engendered Logical Framework

Goal Checklist

Narrative summary

Objectively verified indicators

Means of verification

Important assumptions

  • Do gender relations affect the project goal?

  • What measures can verify achievement of the gender-sensitive goal?

  • Are data for verifying the goal sex-disaggregated and analysed in terms of gender?

  • What gender analysis tools will be used (e.g., in impact assessment)?

  • What are the important external factors necessary for sustaining the gender sensitive goal?

Purpose Objectives Checklist

Narrative summary

Objectively verified indicators

Means of verification

Important assumptions

  • Does the project have gender responsive objective(s)?

  • What measures can verify achievement of the gender responsive objective(s)?
  • Is data for verifying the project purpose sex-disaggregated and analysed in terms of gender? What gender analysis tools will be used (e.g., in Rapid Rural Appraisal)?
  • What are the important external factors necessary for sustaining the gender-responsive objective(s)?

Outputs Checklist

Narrative summary

Objectively verified indicators

Means of verification

Important assumptions

  • Is the distribution of benefits taking gender roles and relations into account?

  • What measures can verify project benefits accrue to women and men, and different types of women engaged in or affected by the project?

  • Is data for verifying project outputs sex-disaggregated and analysed in terms of gender? What gender analysis tools will be used (e.g., participatory field evaluations)?

  • What are the important external factors necessary for achieving project benefits (specifically for women)?

Activities Checklist

Narrative summary

Objectively verified indicators

Means of verification

Important assumptions

  • Are gender issues clarified in the implementation of the project, e.g. workplan?

  • Which goods and services are provided by the beneficiaries to the project?

  • Are contributions from women and men accounted for?

  • Are external inputs accounting for women’s access to and control over these inputs?

  • Is data for verifying project activities sex-disaggregated and analyzed in terms of gender?

  • What gender analysis tools will be used (e.g. monitoring the activities)?

  • What are the important external factors necessary for achieving the activities and especially ensuring the continued involvement of men and women participants in the project?

Quantitative Indicators of Participation

  • What is the extent of the inputs of women/men at different levels into project identification and planning?

  • How many project identification and planning meetings were held with local stakeholders?

  • What was the attendance by local stakeholders at project identification and planning meetings, by sex, age, ethnicity and socio-economic background?

  • What were the levels of contribution/participation by local stakeholders at project identification and planning meetings?

  • What were the levels of participation by local stakeholders in data collection efforts?

  • With what frequency did women and men attend?

  • How many women and men were placed in key decision-making positions?

Qualitative Indicators of Participation

  • What were the stakeholder and end-user perceptions of their level of participation (measured through participatory ranking techniques on a scale of 1 to 5)?

  • What was the degree of mutual support among the group and between men and women?

  • How able was the group to moderate conflict resolution and to prevent conflict?

Question Tank - Programme and Project Review[7]

General Checklist


  • Is information on affected populations/beneficiaries disaggregated by sex and age?

  • If ‘gender’ is a designated theme, is there a clear indication of what strategies will be used or what results relating to gender inequalities or differences are expected?

  • Has there been any coordination of agencies on gender issues?

  • Has there been any training of staff or efforts to build capacity in this area?

  • Have any lessons been documented from previous years relating to specific gender issues and strategies?

  • Do the gender elements in funding proposals only consist of specific, targeted initiatives or has a gender perspective also been used throughout major initiatives?

Gender Equality Checklist

Gender Equality

  • Have both women and men been consulted on priorities, needs and capabilities?

  • Has there been attention to the systematic reporting of and appropriate responses to gender-violence and sexual exploitation?

  • What specific steps have been taken to overcome the barriers that prevent women from playing a key role in decision-making?

  • Has there been specific support to women’s organizations and to the involvement of women’s in peace negotiations and reconstruction?

  • Where there is work with national institutions (such as the Ministry of Agriculture), is there a component to strengthen the capacities of these institutions to work on gender issues?

Vulnerable Groups Checklist

Vulnerable Groups

  • Is there recognition that all vulnerable groups are usually made of men, women, boys and girls and that their vulnerabilities may be influenced by gender?

  • Are women listed as a vulnerable group without attention to how their vulnerabilities are also influenced by whether or not they are displaced, head a household, under the age of 15, etc.

Food and Agriculture Checklist

Food and Agriculture

  • Have men and women been consulted in the design and distribution of food aid?

  • Has there been a recognition of the roles of women in caring for families and dependents?

  • Have women’s roles in agriculture been identified and supported?

Health Checklist


  • Is there recognition of women’s and men’s roles and needs relating to reproductive health care?

  • Are the resources allocated to meet agency guidelines on reproductive health (for example, as outlined in the inter-agency field manual)? Have staff received training in the use of the manual?

  • Are the health priorities of women who are not mothers taken into consideration?

  • Has there been attention to the psychosocial well-being of women and men?

  • Do HIV/AIDS programmes recognize and respond to women’s and men’s needs and situations?

Water and Sanitation Checklist

Water and Sanitation

  • Are water and sanitation programmes based on an understanding of the roles, responsibilities and needs of women and girls in ensuring domestic water supplies?

  • Women often hold the primary responsibility for water collection and use - have they been involved in setting priorities and making decisions about water supply programmes.

  • One prerequisite for successful sanitation programmes in ‘ordinary circumstances is women’s involvement’. Has this ‘lesson learned’ been applied?

Education Checklist


  • Do education programmes reach girls as well as boys?

  • Has attention been paid to the different obstacles faced by girls and boys in attending schools?

  • Are both women and men mobilized as teachers?

  • Do adult education/vocational training programmes target both women and men?

Economic Recovery and Reconstruction Checklist

Economic Recovery and Reconstruction

  • Do mainstream economic reconstruction programmes provide opportunities for women as well as men? Are there strategies to minimize obstacles to their participation?

  • Are there opportunities for women to learn skills in non-traditional fields?

Child Protection Checklist


  • Is there recognition of the different needs and resources of girls and boys?

[4] Source: CIDA, (1996). "Guide to Gender Sensitive Indicators".
[5] Source: Adapted from World Bank (1990).
[6] Source: FAO, 1997. Implications of Economic Policy for Food Security. A Training Manual. FAO, 2001. SEAGA Macrolevel Handbook (Revision: Harrigan, J., & Evers, B.).
[7] Source: Donor Retreat on Consolidated Appeals Process and Co-ordination in Humanitarian Assistance, Montreux Switzerland by CIDA/MHA Division (March 2001).

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page