Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page



Provide an overview of possible partnerships, and the participatory identification of relevant stakeholders in emergency relief.

See: SEAGA Tools.
Module links: Human Resources, Targeting and Procurement


Consolidated Assistance Programming, Group dynamics, Institution building, Partnership analysis and mapping, Total quality management.

Partnership Analysis and Mapping

The effectiveness of emergency operations depends largely on a variety of factors related to partnerships. The identification of partners will depend on the type of disaster, the scenario of the emergency and the phase of intervention.

Partnerships analysis and mapping is fundamental to develop team expertise, and represents the physical criteria for the identification and selection of partners, at headquarters and field level, according to their mandate and capacities.

It is important to: (i) Check who might be involved in the emergency operation; (ii) Identify whether available government structures (e.g. health clinics and schools) or development institutions (e.g. food aid projects and NGOs) can be strengthened and used for an emergency response, or if alternative solutions should be employed; (iii) Contact partners at all levels, from headquarters to the field areas of operation; (iv) Build mutual trustful relationships, and (v) Establish a timeframe of the different phases and tasks of various partners.

A multitude of stakeholders... A complex system of intervention

One of the most important effects of relief interventions can be their contribution to institution building. The reinforcement of local structures can form the basis for the development of democratic structures. It is desirable to assess and map local institutions’ abilities to provide sound technical resources, manage equipment and supervise the labour of participating workers. The nature of local markets and transport infrastructure, and their ability to respond effectively to changing patterns of supply and demand during the crisis period should also be understood.

Different Partners for Emergency Operations

  • Other UN technical divisions

  • Local NGOs

  • Other UN agencies

  • International NGOs

  • Government bodies

  • Inter-governmental agencies

  • Local authorities

  • Bilateral agencies

A useful SEAGA tool for learning about local groups and institutions, and their linkages with outside organizations and agencies is the Venn Diagram of Stakeholders, which can also help building network linkages.

Implementation of SEAGA

Socio-economic and gender analysis is important to understand the destructive impact of emergencies on the social, economic and political infrastructures of the economy. SEAGA is also important in linking responses to emergency needs and the setting of roots for sustainable development.

The multidisciplinary cross-sectoral issues covered by SEAGA require visible aggregation of the efforts of humanitarian agencies, and integration of their complementary capacities. Inter-agency group dynamics for implementation of SEAGA in emergencies need to be promoted, particularly the dialogue and harmonisation of humanitarian response strategies, to achieve the best results.

Socio-economic and gender issues need to be highlighted during diagnosis and planning within common assistance programming, in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian assistance i.e. the impact on the affected population.

OCHA plays an important role, including operational and implementation aspects, e.g. coordination and consolidation of common assistance programming and inter-agency thinking processes.

A conceptual framework is required for the implementation of SEAGA. It should reflect donors’ strategies and the comparative strengths, relative needs, means and capacities of operators in the field. An agenda is needed for sensitisation and practical training of agency managers and staff, particularly at programming and implementation levels. Concrete corporate commitments and accountability, with monitoring and evaluation systems, should be established at the highest level among country teams (Humanitarian Coordinators, Heads of Agencies) and partners.

The Consolidated Appeal Process is a strategic instrument of collaboration, often viewed as a corporate marketing tool representing the image and mandate of the UN. Consolidated Appeal Processes are continuous and should preferably include partner governments and NGOs. Linkages with support mechanisms (e.g. common country assessments) should be reinforced. Consolidated appeals should not be seasoned catalogues of projects unrelated to each other.

TQM (Total Quality Management) Schematic for Integration of Humanitarian Agencies into Multi-disciplinary SEAGA Partnerships

Ongoing inter-agency collaboration and interaction mechanisms are complex. Collaboration among agencies tends to be strong at local operational levels, particularly where several agencies intervene in common sectors. However, inter-agency dynamics tend to be less efficient at the planning level. Bilateral cooperation mechanisms and individual strategies among agencies tend to be stronger than as a collective inter-agency entity. Guidance from agencies’ headquarters is important.

Constraints and Solutions for Gender Mainstreaming in Emergency Programming (Example)

Question Tank - Partnership

Partnerships Analysis and Mapping Checklist

  • Mandate and Locations

  • Resources and sustainable means

  • Type

  • Staff capacity and comparative advantage

  • Existing and Ad-hoc agreements

  • Rapid response capacity

  • Areas and phase of intervention

  • Local roots

  • Gender awareness and audit

Country-Common Inter-agency Core Team Responsibilities Checklist

  • Create awareness of the risks faced by various stakeholders and humanitarian principles

  • Strengthen the inter-agency sense of ownership of SEAGA

  • Provide clear leadership at all levels (headquarters and country teams)

  • Harmonize the agenda and content of SEAGA training and sensitisation undertaken by agencies

  • Mobilize the efforts and attentions of the international community

  • Overview existing inter-agency mechanisms addressing cross sectoral issues at country level, and assist in the integration and harmonisation of SEAGA activities into programme conception, management and implementation

  • Access knowledge and information available among agencies and other operators in the field, and make use of this information through dissemination between agencies, partners and the private sector

  • Support compilation and analysis of available existing information

  • Support information collection processes to fill information gaps

  • Support humanitarian information sharing systems

  • Facilitate expertise exchange, i.e. exchanges of working experiences and demonstrate past and ongoing successes

  • Integrate information into consolidated inter-agency planning and programming

Key Informants Checklist

  • How can we use the local knowledge?

  • Have women or men developed informal networks or formal organizations that could be supported? These associations play important roles in supporting efforts to articulate their needs and mobilize change.

  • Who participates in committees/decision-making organizations? Who participates in programmes identification and implementation? Women’s participation in committees and other structures is often inhibited by cultural constraints, full workload, and at times resistance by men.

  • Who should do household-level targeting: Village officials? Partner NGOs? Ministry staff? Project staff? What supportive measures or separate organizations are necessary?

  • Identify Key Informants in the following categories:

Outside the community

Within the community

  • Key governmental officials and technicians at central and peripheral level

  • UN agencies aid operators

  • National and international NGOs managers and staff

  • Other relevant humanitarian organisations

  • Local community associations

  • Traditional chiefs

  • Community leaders and elders

  • Men and women in the intervention area

  • What information should we get and how?

  • Identify Key Informants for the Following Roles:

  • Understanding of the population’s history (e.g. refugees, displaced)

  • Identify people’s main needs.

  • Assist/become "facilitators"

  • Identify socio-economic aspects related to the structure of the different population groups

  • Identify transitory organisation and coping strategies.

  • Estimate the knowledge of key informants/beneficiaries?

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page