ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES SERIES 10

ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES SERIES 10

Frost Protection:
fundamentals, practice, and economics

Volume 2

Richard L Snyder
University of California, Atmospheric Science,
Department of Land, Air and Water Resources - Davis, California, USA

J. Paulo de Melo-Abreu
Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA)
Departamento de Ciencias do Ambiente
Apartado 3381, 1305-905 Lisboa, Portugal

Scott Matulich
Washington State University
School of Economic Sciences
Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6210, USA

 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2005

 

Table of Contents


GEO-SPATIAL DATA AND INFORMATION
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT [ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING]
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

Over-tree sprinkler experiment in Northern California (photographer: unknown)

Russet patches near the eyes and rings developed on small apple fruits damaged by frost in Northern Portugal (photographer: António Castro Ribeiro)

The use of hoops and plastic to protect Alstroemeria plants in Northern California (photographer: Richard L. Snyder)

Background image in this page
Illustration elaborated from "L’Encyclopédie Diderot et D’Alembert"

The conclusions given in this report are considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.

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FAO declines all responsibility for errors or deficiencies in the database or software or in the documentation accompanying it, for program maintenance and upgrading as well as for any damage that may arise from them. FAO also declines any responsibility for updating the data and assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions in the data provided. Users are, however, kindly asked to report any errors or deficiencies in this product to FAO.

ISSN 1684-8241
ISBN 92-5-105329-4

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© FAO 2005


CONTENTS

Preface

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1 - FROST PROBABILITY AND RISK OF DAMAGE

Importance of probability and risk
Risk and certainty calculations
Event probability calculations
Crops with fixed sensitivity

Data entry
Probability output
Risk worksheet and chart

Last spring and first autumn frost dates

Data entry
Probability output
Growing-season chart
Risk worksheet and chart
Calculation methods

Damage Estimator (DEST.xls) application

CHAPTER 2 - ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF PROTECTION METHODS

Introduction
Model overview

Initialization
Technology Selection
Budgets

Acquisition cost of equipment
Annual Variable Costs
Total Annual Cost Summary

Cost-Effectiveness
Risk
Other protection methods

REFERENCES

APPENDIX - EXAMPLES OF BUDGET SHEETS

FAO ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES SERIES

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