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This volume reviews concepts of probability and risk of frost damage and uses that information to help readers make economic decisions about frost protection. Computer application programs are included with the book to help simplify complex calculations. The application programs are written in Microsoft Excel and sample calculations are presented in the text. Programs include TempRisk.xls, FriskS.xls, DEST.xls and FrostEcon.xls, and these applications are used to determine the probability and risk of frost damage when the damage sensitivity is fixed, the certainty that an event with the computed probability will occur at least once over a selected number of years, the physical risk of early planting or late harvest of field and row crops, the risk of frost damage specific to a tree or vine crop that has changing sensitivity to frost during critical phenological stages and to determine the economic risk of frost damage and cost-effectiveness of frost protection methods.

Ice accumulation from the use of under-tree sprinklers in Northern California (photographer: Richard L. Snyder)

Apple flowers damaged by frost depicting darkened petals a few days after a frost event in an orchard in Northern Portugal (photographer: António Castro Ribeiro)

Ice accumulation from operation of targeted sprinklers over grapevines (photographer: Robert Corrella)

Environment And Natural Resources Service (SDRN) publications
www.fao.org/sd/enpub1_en.htm

SDRN contact: Chief-SDRN@fao.org

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
www.fao.org


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