The State of Food and Agriculture 2007

THE STATE
OF FOOD
AND
AGRICULTURE
2007

Paying farmers for environmental services

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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2007



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword   (Download pdf 1 Mb)
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and acronyms

Explanatory note

PART I - PAYING FARMERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

1.Introduction and overview   (Download pdf 659 Kb)

    Ecosystem services and agriculture
    The role of farmers
    Payments for environmental services
    Current experience with payments for environmental services
    Implications for poverty
    Main messages from the report

2. Environmental services and agriculture (Download pdf 832 Kb)

    How can agricultural producers generate environmental services?
    Agriculture and climate change mitigation
    Water quantity and quality
    Biodiversity conservation
    Importance of scale, location and coordination in supplying environmental services
    Technical versus economic potential to supply environmental services
    Conclusions

3. Demand for environmental services (Download pdf 544 Kb)

    Value and beneficiaries of environmental services
    Who are the potential buyers?
    Demand for three main environmental services
    Farmers and landholders as buyers of services
    Future developments affecting potential growth of PES programmes in developing countries
    Conclusions

4. Supplying environmental services: farmers’ decisions and policy options (Download pdf 672 Kb)

    The role of individual farmers' decisions
    Constraints against the provision of environmental services
    Policy options to shape farmers’ incentives
    Why payments?
    Supply response to payments for environmental services
    Conclusions

5. Designing effective payments for environmental services (Download pdf 384 Kb)

    What should payments be made for?
    Who should be paid?
    How much should be paid?
    How should payments be made?
    Reducing transaction costs
    Establishing an enabling environment
    Conclusions

6. Implications for poverty

    The poor as suppliers of environmental services
    Indirect impacts of PES programmes on the poor
    Payments for environmental services and poverty reduction: where are the synergies?
    Conclusions

7. Conclusions

    The way forward

PART II - WORLD AND REGIONAL REVIEW: a longer term perspective (Download pdf 704 Kb)

    Agricultural production
    Food consumption
    Agricultural trade
    Food insecurity
    Opportunities and challenges in the future

PART III - STATISTICAL ANNEX (Download pdf  896 Kb)

    Notes on the annex tables
    Table A1 Total and agricultural population (including forestry and fisheries)
    Table A2 Land use
    Table A3 Water use and irrigated land
    Table A4 Production of cereals and meat
    Table A5 Production of fish and forest products (2004)
    Table A6 Value of agricultural exports and share in total exports
    Table A7 Value of agricultural imports and share in total imports
    Table A8 Share of processed food products in total food trade   (Download pdf 288 Kb)
    Table A9 Per capita GDP and per capita agricultural GDP of the agricultural population
    Table A10 Dietary energy, protein and fat consumption
    Table A11 Number of undernourished and proportion in total population
    Table A12 Life expectancy and child mortality

Glossary of terms (Download pdf  640 Kb)
References
Special chapters of The State of Food and Agriculture
Selected publications


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