8.9 Mango and guava processing technologies

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8.9.1 Mango processing technologies

Mangoes are processed at two stages of maturity. Green fruit is used to make chutney, pickles, curries and dehydrated products. The green fruit should be freshly picked from the tree. Fruit that is bruised, damaged, or that has prematurely fallen to the ground should not be used. Ripe mangoes are processed as canned and frozen slices, purée, juices, nectar and various dried products. Mangoes are processed into many other products for home use and by cottage industry.

The mango processing presents many problems as far as industrialization and market expansion is concerned. The trees are alternate bearing and the fruit has a short storage life; these factors make it difficult to process the crop in a continuous and regular way. The large number of varieties with their various attributes and deficiencies affects the quality and uniformity of processed products.

The lack of simple, reliable methods for determining the stage of maturity of varieties for processing also affects the quality of the finished products. Many of the processed products require peeled or peeled and sliced fruit. The lack of mechanised equipment for the peeling of ripe mangoes is a serious bottleneck for increasing the production of these products.

A significant problem in developing mechanised equipment is the large number of varieties available and their different sizes and shapes. The cost of processed mango products is also too expensive for the general population in the areas where most mangoes are grown. There is, however, a considerable export potential to developed countries but in these countries the processed mango products must compete with established processed fruits of high quality and relatively low cost. Green mango processing Pickles.

The optimum stage of maturity should be determined for each variety used to make pickles.

There are two classifications of pickles - salt pickles and oil pickles. They are processed from whole and sliced fruit with and without stones. Salt is used in most pickles.

The many kinds of pickles vary mainly in the proportions and kinds of spices used in their preparation. One basic recipe for the study of the preparation and storage of pickles in oil is as follows:

Mango pieces 250 g Tumeric powder 2 to 4 g
Salt 60 g Fenugreek seeds 2 to 4 g
Mustard powder 30 g Bengal gram seeds 2 to 4 g
Chili powder 20 g Gingelly oil 20 to 30 g

The ingredients are mixed together and filled into wide-mouthed bottles of 0.5 kg capacity. Three days later the contents are thoroughly mixed and refilled into the bottles. Extra oil is added to form a 1-2 cm layer over the pickles. Chutney.

The product is prepared from peeled, sliced or grated unripe or semi-ripe fruit by cooking the shredded fruit with salt over medium heat for 5 to 7 minutes, mixed and then sugar, spices and vinegar are added. Cook over moderate heat until the product resembles a thick purée, add remaining ingredients and simmer another 5 min. Cool and preserve in sterilised jars.

Spices usually include cumin seeds, ground cloves, cinnamon, chili powder, ginger and nutmeg. Other ingredients such as dried fruits, onions, garlic and nuts may be added. Drying/dehydration. immature fruit is peeled and sliced for sun-drying. The dried mango slices can be powdered to make a product called amchoo. The use of blanching, sulphuring and mechanical dehydration gives a product with better colour, nutrition, storability and fewer microbiological problems. Ripe mango processing Purée.

Mangoes are processed into purée for re-manufacturing into products such as nectar, juice, squash, jam, jelly and dehydrated products. The purée can be preserved by chemical means, or frozen, or canned and stored in barrels. This allows a supply of raw materials during the remainder of the year when fresh mangoes are not available.

It also provides a more economical means of storage compared with the cost of storing the finished products, except for those which are dehydrated, and provides for more orderly processing during peak availability of fresh mangoes.

Mangoes can be processed into purée from whole or peeled fruit. Because of the time and cost of peeling, this step is best avoided but with some varieties it may be necessary to avoid off-flavours which may be present in the skin. The most common way of removing the skin is hand-peeling with knives but this is time-consuming and expensive. Steam and lyepeeling have been accomplished for some varieties.

Several methods have been devised to remove the pulp from the fresh ripe mangoes without hand-peeling. A simplified method is as follows: the whole mangoes were exposed to atmospheric steam for 2 to 2 1/2 min in a loosely covered chamber, then transferred to a stainless steel tank.

The steam-softened skins allowed the fruit to be pulped by a power stirrer fitted with a saw-toothed propeller blade mounted 12.7 to 15.2 cm below a regular propeller blade. The pulp is removed from the seeds by a continuous centrifuge designed for use in passion fruit extraction. The pulp material is then passed through a paddle pulper fitted with a 0.084 cm screen to remove fibre and small pieces of pulp.

Mango purée can be frozen, canned or stored in barrels for later processing. In all these cases, heating is necessary to preserve the quality of the mango purée. In one process, purée is pumped through a plate heat exchanger and heated to 90°C for 1 min and cooled to 35° C before being filled into 30 lb tins with polyethylene liners and frozen at -23.50 C.

In an other process, pulp is acidified to pH 3.5, pasteurized at 90°C, and hot-filled into 6 kg high-density bulk polyethylene containers that have been previously sterilised with boiling water. The containers are then sealed and cooled in water. This makes it possible to avoid the high cost of cans.

Wooden barrels may be used to store mango pulp in the manufacture of jams and squashes. The pulp is acidified with 0.5 to 1.0% citric acid, heated to boiling, cooled, and SO2 is added at a level of 1000 to 1500 ppm in the pulp. The pulp is then filled into barrels for future use. Slices

Mango slices can be preserved by canning or freezing, and recent studies have shown the feasibility of pasteurized-refrigerated and dehydro-canned slices. The quality of the processed product in all of these procedures will be dependent upon selection of a suitable variety along with good processing procedures. Thermal process canning of mango slices in syrup is the most widely used preservation method. Beverages

The commercial beverages are juice, nectar and squash. Mango nectar and juice contain mango purée, sugar, water and citric acid in various proportions depending on local taste, government standards of identity, pH control, and fruit composition of the variety used. Mango squash in addition to the above may contain SO2 or sodium benzoate as a preservative. Other food grade additives such as ascorbic acid, food colouring, or thickeners may be used in mango beverages.

A short description of finished products found in literature is as follows:

  Brix of purée
Nectar components 15° 17° 20°
Purée 100 100 100
Sugar 45 43 40
Water 255 257 260

Commercial processing conditions may require the use of a preservative.

The pH is adjusted to approximately 3.5 by adding citric acid as a 50% solution.

The time of heat processing will vary with filling temperature, can size and viscosity of the juice or nectar.

Mango squash may be prepared according to flow-sheet described below; the finished product may contain 25% juice, 45% TSS and 1.2 to 1.5% acidity and may be preserved with sulphur dioxide (350ppm) or sodium benzoate (1000 ppm) in glass bottles.

Mango squash simplified flow-sheet.


Mango pulp 900 900
Sugar 900 1100
Citric acid 18 15
Water 900 900


Mangoes are washed, stored, peeled with stainless steel knives. The pulp is prepared by using a pulper with fine sieve (0.025-in); Sugar is mixed with water and citric acid = syrup; The pulp is added to the syrup and mixed well; The mixture is strained trough cloth; The squash is heated at 85° C and bottles are filled and closed.

For additional heat treatment bottles may need to be maintained at a product temperature of 80°C for 30 minutes if the product is to be processed without preservatives. The bottles are then left to cool in water and stored at room temperature.

Two negative points must be avoided: presence of air bubbles (which is a source of quick deterioration) and separation of squash solids (giving an undesirable appearance). The means to avoid these two phenomena are described in the fruit juices section.

A type of "squash type" beverage may also be manufactured with '/a pulp + '/a water + i/a sugar and pH adjusted to 3.7 by addition of citric acid. Using different sieve sizes affects the quality and reduces air bubbles to a certain extent but homogenisation and de-aeration of purée or squash seem to be important in order to avoid separation and air bubbles.

The squash quality is evaluated on the basis of the following characteristics: pH, titrable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid (by 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol method), specific gravity. Dried/dehydrated.

Ripe mangoes are dried in the form of pieces, powders, and flakes. Drying procedures such as sun-drying, tunnel dehydration, vacuum-drying, osmotic dehydration may be used. Packaged and stored properly, dried mango products are stable and nutritious.

One described process involves as pre-treatment dipping mango slices for 18 hr (ratio 1:1) in a solution containing 40° Brix sugar, 3000 ppm SO2, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 1% citric acid; this method is described as producing the best dehydrated product. Drying is described using an electric cabinet through flow dryer operated at 60° C. The product showed no browning after 1 year of storage.

Drum-drying of mango purée is described as an efficient, economical process for producing dried mango powder and flakes. Its major drawback is that the severity of heat preprocessing can produce undesirable cooked flavours and aromas in the dried product. The drum-dried products are also extremely hydroscopic and the use of in-package desiccant is recommended during storage. 5 Canning.

This preservation technology is described in various technological flow-sheets in this bulletin. Mango bar or "fruit leather" is presented in various flow-sheets.


8.9.2 Guava processing technologies Guava purée

Guava purée is used in the manufacture of guava nectar, various juice drink blends and in the preparation of guava jam. The washed sound fruit is first passed through a chopper or slicer to break up the fruit and this material is fed into a pulper. The pulper will remove the seeds and fibrous pieces of tissue and force the reminder of the product through a perforated stainless steel screen. The holes in the screen should be between 0.033 and 0.045 in. The machine should be fed at a constant rate to ensure efficient operation.

The puréed material coming from the pulper is next passed through a finisher. The finisher is equipped with a screen containing holes of approximately 0.020 in. The finisher will remove the stone cells from the fruit and provide the optimum consistency to the product.

Perhaps the best way to preserve the guava purée is by freezing and the material passing through the finisher can be packaged and frozen with no further treatment. It is not necessary to heat the product to inactivate enzymes or for other purposes. The material can be frozen in a number of types of cartons and cans; however, a fibre box with a plastic bag inside is commonly used and is probably the less expensive.

It is also possible to can and heat process the guava purée and this can be accomplished by heating the purée to 195° F in an open double bottom kettle, filling into cans, closing the cans, inverting the cans for a few seconds, followed by cooling. Cans should be cooled rapidly to approximately 100° F before they are cased and stacked into warehouses. Guava juice and concentrate

Guava juice can be used in the manufacture of a clear guava jelly or in various drinks. A clear juice may be prepared from guava purée that is depectinised enzymatically. About 0.1% pectin-degrading enzyme is mixed into the purée at room temperature; heating of the product at approximately 120° F will greatly speed the action of the enzyme. After 1 hr. clear juice is separated from the red pulp by centrifuging or by pressing in a hydraulic juice press. A batch-type or continuous-flow centrifuge can be used on the depectinised purée with no further treatment.

The clear juice after centrifuge or after press (and subsequent filtration) can be preserved by freezing or by pasteurization in hermetically sealed cans.

For shipment to overseas markets it may be advantageous to concentrate either the purée or the juice.

8.10 Recent trends in fruit and vegetable processing

8.10.1 New products

The number and variety of fruit and vegetable products available to the consumer has increased substantially in recent years. The fruit and vegetable industry has undoubtedly benefited from the increased recognition and emphasis on the importance of these products in a healthy diet.

Traditional processing and preservation technologies such as heating, freezing and drying together with the more recent commercial introduction of chilling continue to provide the consumer with increased choice. This has been achieved by new heating (e.g. UHT, microwave, ohmic) and freezing (e.g. cryogenic) techniques combined with new packaging materials and technologies (e.g. aseptic, modified atmosphere packaging).

The overall trend in new fruit and vegetable products is "added value", thus providing increased convenience to the consumer by having much greater variety of ready prepared fruit and vegetable products. These may comprise complete meals or individual components. The suitability of products and packages for microwave re-heating has been an important factor with respect to added convenience.

The major trends in the development of fruit and vegetable heat processed products in recent years are shown in table 8.10.1; the number of new fruit and vegetable products is seen in table 8.10.2.

TABLE 8.10.1 Fruit and vegetable product trends

Heat processed products

1. Canned fruits and vegetables

- combination of vegetables in sauces and vegetable recipe dishes. Exotic fruits.

2. Glass packed fruits and vegetables

- "Condiverde"/"antipasti" products based on vegetables in oil.

- High quality fruit packs.

3. Retortable plastics

- Basic vegetables or vegetable meals

- Fruit in jelly

4. Aseptic cartons

- Ready made jelly

5. Rosti meals

- Potato based products in retort pouches

6. Fruit juices

- New combinations of juices and freshly squeezed products

7. Crisps

- Thick and crunch skin-on crisps. Kettle or pan fried chips. Lower fat crisps.

Source: C. Dennis (1993)


TABLE 8.10.2 Numbers of new fruit and vegetable products

  1990 1991 1992 Jan-June
Frozen vegetable products 66 95 21
Chilled vegetable products 76 81 78
Heat processed vegetables 51 60 38
Heat processed fruits 13 14 5
Fruit juices and drinks 73 83 46
Potato crisps 32 33 16

Source: C. Dennis (1993)

New product development in the fruit and vegetable sector is most important in meeting the continued challenge of providing the consumer with choice and high quality products.


8.10.2 A fresh look at dried fruit

New fruit varieties and advance in drying technologies are putting a fresh twist on dried fruit applications. Fruits that have been introduced to the drying process include cranberries, blueberries, cherries, apples, raspberries and strawberries - not to mention the traditional mainstays of raisins, dates, apricots, peaches, prunes and figs.

Perceived as a "value-added" ingredient, dried fruit adds flavour, colour, texture and diversity with little alteration to an existing formula. The growing interest in ethnic cuisines in U.S.A. and the change to a more healthy way of eating, has also moved dried fruit considerably closer to the mainstream.

Found primarily in the baking industry, dried fruit is coming into its own in various food products, including entrees, side dishes and condiments. Compotes, chutneys, rice and grain dishes, stuffings, sauces, breads, muffins, cookies, deserts, cereals and snacks are all food categories encompassing dried fruit.

Since some dried fruit is sugar infused (osmotic drying), food processors can decrease the amount of sugar in formula - this is especially the case in baked products. Processors are making adjustments in moisture content of the dried fruit so that a varied range is available for different applications. An added bonus is dried fruits' shelf stability (a shelf life of at least 12 months). Dried fruit is more widely available in different forms, including whole dried, cut, diced and powders.


8.10.3 Citric acid and its use in fruit and vegetable processing.

Citric acid may be considered as "Nature's acidulant".

It is found in the tissues of almost all plants and animals, as well as many yeasts and moulds.

Commercially citric acid is manufactured under controlled fermentation conditions that produce citric acid as a metabolic intermediate from naturally-occurring yeasts, moulds and nutrients. The recovery process of citric acid is through crystallization from aqueous solutions.

Citric acid is widely used in carbonated and still beverages, to impart a fresh-fruit "tanginess". Citric acid provides uniform acidity, and its light fruity character blends well and enhances fruit juices, resulting in improved palatability. The amount of citric acid used depends on the particular desired flavour (e.g., High-acid: lemonade; Medium-acid: orange, punch, cherry; Low-acid: strawberry, black cherry, grape).

Sodium citrate is often added to beverages to mellow the tart taste of high acid concentrations. It provides a cool, distinctive smooth taste and masks any bitter aftertaste of artificial sweeteners. In addition, it serves as a buffer to stabilise the pH at the desired level. The high water solubility of citric acid (181 g/100 ml) makes it an ideal additive for fountain fruit syrups and beverages concentrates as a flavour enhancer and microbial growth inhibitor (preferably at pH < 4.6).

In processed fruits and vegetables, citric acid performs the following functions:

  1. It reduces heat-processing requirements by lowering pH: inhibition of microbial growth is a function of pH and heat treatment. Higher heat exposure and lower pH result in greater inhibition. Thus the use of citric acid to bring pH below 4.6 can reduce the heating requirements. In canned vegetables, citric acid usage is greatest in tomatoes, onions and pimentos. For tomato packs, the National Canners Association recommends a pH of 4.1 to 4.3. In general, 0. 1% citric acid will reduce the pH of canned tomatoes by 0.2 pH units.
  2. Optimise flavour: citric acid is added to canned fruits to provide for adequate tartness. Recommended usage level is generally less then 0.15%.
  3. Supplement antioxidant potential: citric acid is used in conjunction with antioxidants such as ascorbic and erythorbic acids, to inhibit colour and flavour deterioration caused by metal-catalysed enzymatic oxidation. Recommended usage levels are generally 0.1% to 0.3% with the antioxidant at 100 to 200 ppm.
  4. Inactivate undesirable enzymes: oxidative browning in most fruits and vegetables is catalysed by the naturally present polyphenol oxidase. The enzymatic activity is strongly dependent on pH.

Addition of citric acid to reduce pH below 3 will result in inactivation of this enzyme and prevention of browning reactions.


8.10.4 Cherry and apricot oils are safe for food use

The oils obtained by cold pressing the kernels of the cherry (Prunus cerasus) and the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) have been declared acceptable for food use by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food's Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP) by June 1993.

In its assessments of the safety in use of the cherry and apricot kernel oils, the ACNFP consider specifications that included data on fatty acid composition, the presence of natural antioxidants and the content of cyanide, mycotoxins and heavy metals.

The Committee says that it gave particular consideration to the possible presence in the oils of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, from which cyanide is released by enzymic action when the kernels of cherry and apricot are crushed. Amygdalin was found to be absent from the cherry and apricot kernel oils.

The ACNFP is satisfied that there are no food safety reasons why the use of cherry and apricot kernel should not be acceptable provided there is compliance with the specifications shown in Table 8.10. 3.

TABLE 8.10.3 Specification of purity for cherry and apricot kernel oils as determined by UK ACNFP

  Cherry Apricot
Contaminants limits:
Heavy metals (total) 0.5 mg/kg 0.5 mg/kg
Aflatoxins (total) 4.0 g/kg 4.0 g/kg
Cyanide 0.15 mg/kg 0.15 mg/kg
Pesticide residues 0.01 mg/kg 0.01 mg/kg
alpha/delta/gamma (mg/kg) 356-886 569-899

Source: Anon. (1993)

The oils are obtained by the mechanical mincing and cold pressing of kernels extracted from cleaned cherry or apricot stones. After filtering, the oils are stored and are to be sold in a raw, unrefined state. The cherry and apricot kernel oils are high unsaturated and are expected to be used as speciality oils for salad dressings, baking and shallow frying applications.


8.10.5 The use of fruit juices in confectionery products

During the last decade, the concept of fruit juices has gained immensely on consumer popularity. The majority of new non-alcoholic and alcoholic fruit drink products were a combination of syrups, fruit juices and flavours.

The confectionery industry followed suit and new products incorporated fruit juices as part of their confectionery formulations and processes. Fruit juice concentrates of high solids are often used instead of normal or single-fold juices.

Juice concentrates are made of pure fruit juices. The process starts with pressing fruits and obtaining pure fruit juice; this is stabilised by heat treatment which inactivates enzymes and micro-organisms. The next processing step is concentration under vacuum up to 40-65° Brix or 4-7 fold. The concentrates are then blended for standardisation and stored.

These fruit juice concentrates are often further stabilised by the addition of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate and are usually stored away from light and are refrigerated or frozen.

Depectinised fruit juices are also used to prevent foaming in confectionery processes and are essential for use in clear beverage products. Fruit juice concentrates which are depectinised, and have added preservatives are called stabilised, clarified, fruit juice concentrates.

Fruit juices are used in confectionery products in conjunction with natural and artificial flavours which provides intense flavour impact and are cost-effective for a confectionery product.

The traditional concern in using fruit juice concentrates in confectionery applications has been the effect of the natural acids on the finished product, particularly the formation of invert sugar during processing.

This is a logical concern since concentrates contain differing amounts and types of acids. For example: apple, cherry, strawberry and other berries contain primarily malic acid. Grapes mainly contain tartaric acid. Cranberry is high in quinic acid. Citrus fruits and pineapple contain differing amounts of citric acid. The concentrates, when used, are normally buffered to a pH of 5-7 with sodium hydroxide.

In formulating products with fruit juice concentrates, the solids of the concentrate are considered as mostly reducing sugars and a reduction in corn syrup is made to compensate for equivalent amount of reducing sugar being added in the concentrate.

The exact replacement can be determined by measuring the D.E. of the concentrate to be added. In formulations when small amounts of concentrate are used (less than 1%), no adjustment is made since the reducing sugar contribution of the concentrate is not significant.

Fruit juice concentrates can also be used to provide a source of natural colour, in particular red colour. Grape, raspberry, cherry, strawberry and cranberry concentrates in small amounts are very effective in colouring cream centres.

The inclusion of fruit juices in confectionery products is now left up to the imagination of the manufacturer. These products must, of course, hold up to the standards of flavour integrity, and product excellence, during the shelf-life of these products.

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