Fruit and vegetable processing

by Mircea Enachescu Dauthy


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 1995

Table of Contents

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103657-8

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

(c) FAO 1995



Chapter I Introduction

1.1 General introduction
1.2 Importance of fruit and vegetables in world agriculture
1.3 What fruit and vegetables can be processed?
1.4 Processing planning
1.5 Location
1.6 Processing systems
1.7 Choice of processing technologies for developing countries
1.8 Fruit and vegetables - global marketing view

Chapter 2 General properties of fruit and vegetables; chemical composition and nutritional aspects; structural features

2.1 General properties
2.2 Chemical composition
2.3 Activities of living systems
2.4 Stability of nutrients
2.5 Structural features

Chapter 3 Deterioration factors and their control

3.1 Enzymic changes
3.2 Chemical changes
3.3 Physical changes
3.4 Biological changes

Chapter 4 Methods of reducing deterioration

4.1 Technical methods of reducing food deterioration
4.2 Procedures for fruit and vegetable preservation
4.3 Combined preservation procedures

Chapter 5 General procedures for fruit and vegetable preservation

5.1 Fresh storage
5.2 Preservation by reduction of water content: drying/dehydration and concentration
5.3 Chemical preservation
5.4 Preservation of vegetables by acidification
5.5 Preservation with sugar
5.6 Heat preservation/heat processing
5.7 Food irradiation

Chapter 6 Auxiliary raw materials

6.1 Water
6.2 Sweeteners
6.3 Salt
6.4 Food acids
6.5 Pectic preparations
6.6 Intensive sweeteners

Chapter 7 Packaging materials

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Protection of food by packaging materials
7.3 Films and foils; plastics
7.4 Glass containers
7.5 Paper packaging
7.6 "Tin can"/tinplate

Chapter 8 Fruit specific preservation technologies

8.1 Fruit quality
8.2 Harvesting and preprocessing
8.3 Fresh fruit storage
8.4 Fruit drying and dehydration technology
8.5 Technology of semi-processed fruit products
8.6 Fruit sugar preserves technology; jams, jellies, marmalade, fruit paste
8.7 Fruit juice technologies
8.8 Banana and plantain processing technologies
8.9 Mango and guava processing technologies
8.10 Recent trends in fruit and vegetable processing

Chapter 9 Vegetable specific processing technologies

9.1 Vegetables varieties
9.2 Harvesting and pre-processing
9.3 Fresh vegetable storage
9.4 Vegetable drying/dehydration
9.5 Vegetable juices and concentrated products
9.6 Pickles and sauerkraut technology
9.7 Vegetable canning

Chapter 10 Quality control/quality assurance and international trade; good manufacturing practices (gmp); hygiene requirements; hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP)

10.1 Quality control/quality assurance and international trade
10.2 Good manufacturing practices (gmp); hygiene requirements
10.3 Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP)

Chapter 11 Fruit and vegetable processing units - general approach; preliminary study; how to invest, install and operate a processing centre; modular units: from farm/family to community/business level

11.1 Preliminary study
11.2 How to prepare, start and operate a fruit and vegetable processing centre
11.3 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - module "level 5" family level
11.4 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 4" farm and/or community level
11.5 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 3" community and / or entrepreneurial level
11.6 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 2" business level
11.7 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - module "level 1" business and/or national level
11.8 Overall raw material consumption data / yield for fruit and vegetable processed products - approximate data
11.9 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - quality control sheet daily recording sheet finished products defects


Appendix I - Fruit and vegetable processing flow-sheets

Appendix II - Standards for grades of dried apricots

Appendix III - Recipe guidelines; dried fruit and vegetables

Appendix IV - Complete units and various equipment and material for fruit and vegetable processing