11.7 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - module "level 1" business and/or national level

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The "level 1" module has two main characteristics: utilisation of complete processing lines; specific equipment for particular fruit or vegetable, for example: specific mango destoning machines, etc.

a) Buildings

  1. Covered platform for temporary storage of raw materials and washing; surface = 100 sq. m.
  2. Workshop for wet processing (cutting, dipping, boiling, water blanching, pasteurization, etc.) = 150 sq. m.
  3. Workshop for dry processing = 200 sq. m.
  4. Storage room for processed products = 120 sq. m.
  5. Quality Control Laboratory = 35 sq. m.

All areas need to be on a cemented platform; recommendations about processing workshops and all points related to buildings, equipments, etc. as presented in section 10.2 (Good Manufacturing Practices - GMP - and Hygiene Requirements) must be integrated in the design and respected during construction, installation and operation.

Area (i) is covered and surrounded by plastic sheets to avoid dust contamination.

Areas (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) should conform to the quality standards described in section 10.2.

b) Outside yard

This area is needed in order to install:

  1. various dryers: simple sun drying trays; tent sun dryer; cabinet sun dryer; cabinet solar dryer with heat collector;
  2. SO2 generator; sulphuring cells;
  3. storage of drums for natural acidified vegetables (preservation by lactic fermentation);

The area should be cemented to avoid excessive dust generation. An approximate surface of 250 sq. m. is necessary.

Access to the outside yard must be closed for non- production personnel.

It is useful to build some surface for shade drying from the beginning; this surface could be used also in order to protect drying trays with products in case of rain. Drums/receptacles with vegetables could be stored here during first step of lactic fermentation (preservation by natural acidification).

c) Equipment and material

As a basic minimum, a "level 1" processing unit module needs the same equipment as a "level 2" module.

The following pages list recommendations for various specialised processing lines for tomato products and for tropical fruit products.


11.7.1 Manufacturing processing lines for tomato products and tropical fruit products

Flow-sheet of processing operations for tomato products

Figure 11.7.1 Manufacturing processing lines and equipment for canned tomato products and tropical fruit products

Factors affecting product quality

a) Causes of flat-sour spoilage of tomato juice:

b) Causes of spoilage of canned tomatoes:

c) Causes of spoilage of tomato paste:

Most of these factors can affect also the quality of canned guava nectar, canned passion fruit nectar and of other tropical fruit products.

For the recommended heat processing times for tomato products see Table 11.7.1.

TABLE 11.7.1 Recommended process times for canned tomatoes by can size, minutes

  Still retort, 212°F Agitating cooker, 212°F
Can Size Water-cool Air-cool Water-cool Air-cool
303 x 406 45 35 14 9
307 x 409 45 35 14 9
401 x 411 55 45 18 13
603 x 700 100 80 25 20

Source: Da Fonseca, J.L.F., Moy, J.H. (1975)

The relationship of direct refractometric readings for natural tomato solids are listed in Table 11.7.2.

TABLE 11.7.2 Refractometric readings for natural tomato solids

Tomato pulp- purée Concentration Tomato paste % solids % solids
Light 8.0 - 10.1 24.0 - 28.0
Medium 10.1 - 11.3 28.0 - 32.0
Heavy 11.3 - 15.0 32.0 - 38.5
Extra heavy 15.0 - 24.0 over 38.5
Concentrated tomato juice 20.0 - 24.0  

Source. Da fonseca, J.L.F., Moy, J.H. (1975)

The processing time (spin process) for different packs of passion fruit juice are listed in Table 11.7.3.


11.7.2 Manufacturing equipment for canned tomato products and tropical fruit products factory

The products obtained in this factory would be mainly:

The list of equipment by product is presented below; the first six items are common for all products:

(1) bin dumper;

(2) sizer;

(3) roller inspection table;

(4) soak tank washer;

(5) rotary washer;

(6) sorting, trimming table.

a) Production line for whole tomato products

(7) caustic peeler;

(8) inspection table;

(9) hand pack;

(10) salt dispenser;

(11) conveyor;

(12) juice filler; (juice is provided from pump 26)**;

(13) conveyor;

(14) steam flow steamer;

(15) conveyor;

(16) rotary pressure cooker;

(17) rotary cooler.

b) Production line for tomato juice

(18) distribution belt (common for all other lines);

(19) chopper;

(20) pump;

(21) hot break tank;

(22) pump;

(23) juice extractor;

(24) pump;

(25) heating tank;

(26) pump; ** (juice is fed into juice filler at (12) in whole tomato line from this point);

(27) strainer;

(28) filler;

(29) conveyor;

(30) seamer;

(31) conveyor;

(32) rotary pressure cooker;

(33) rotary cooler.

c) Production line for tomato purée, paste line

Tomatoes are fed into this production line from the hot break tank 21.

(34) pump;

(35) vibrating screen;

(36) pulper;

(37) pump;

(38) heating tank;

(39) pump;

(40) kettle;

(41) kettle;

(42) kettle;

(43) vacuum pan for paste;

(44) pump;

(45) finisher;

(46) pump;

(47) holding tank;

(48) pump;

(49) filler;

(50) conveyor;

(51) seamer;

(52) conveyor;

(53) cooler;

d) Production line for passion fruit and guava nectar

(54) elevator;

(55) passion fruit slicer;

(56) centrifugal peel separator;

(57) pump;

(58) distribution belt;

(59) disintegrator; (for guava nectar)

(60) pump;

(61) pulper; (for both passion fruit and guava)

(62) pump;

(63) finisher;

(64) pump;

(65) de-aerator;

(66) formulation tank; (preparation of syrup for both passion fruit and guava nectars)

(67) pump;

(68) flash pasteurizer;

(69) pump;

(70) filler;

(71) conveyor;

(72) seamer;

(73) conveyor;

(74) spin-cooker-cooler;

(75) cooling belt;

(76) conveyor.

All products use a labeller/caser (77) and a conveyor for finished products.

A passion fruit finished product can be processed as a good quality beverage base with sugar:juice ratio of 58:42, on dilution with 4 times its volume with water.

Passion fruit jelly is prepared containing 25% juice.

Tomato juice concentrated with a Bertuzzi vacuum evaporator and centritherm equipment can be obtained.

For tomato juice, two products have commercial application: canned natural tomato juice and spiced juice.

With small alterations of preparation equipment, mango products can also be obtained using the manufacturing plant described above for tomato and tropical fruits.

Temperate and tropical fruit jellies, marmalades, syrups, jams and various types of sugar preserves can also be manufactured in this plant as far as preparation and juice extraction equipment are available and that kettle can be used for cooking the preserves. The preparation equipment should be arranged in a "modular" way in order to enable multiple fruit processing steps.

11.7.3 Equipment specifications

  1. Equipment should be designed to hold the product with minimum spills and overflow.
  2. Surfaces in contact with food should be inert and non-toxic, smooth and non-porous.
  3. No coatings or paints should be used that could possibly chip, flake or erode into the product stream.
  4. Equipment should be designed and arranged to avoid having pipes, mechanisms, drives, etc., above the open product streams.
  5. Bearings and seals must be located outside the product zone or sealed and self lubricating.
  6. Proper design avoids sharp or inaccessible corners, pockets, ledges so that all parts can be reached and cleaned easily. Build so that units are easy to take apart if necessary.
  7. Loose items like locking pins, clips, handles, gates, keys, tools, fasteners, etc. that could fall into the product stream should be eliminated.
    Figure 11.7.2 General layout for a fruit and vegetable processing unit/factory for tomato and tropical fruit products
  8. Equipment should be laid out for easy access for cleaning and servicing. Three feet from walls and between lines is recommended.
  9. Any and all containers, bins, cans, lug boxes, etc., used in the packaging or handling of food products should not be used for any purpose other than their primary use. Special containers should be provided which are readily identifiable and cannot get into the product stream.
  10. All equipment parts that come in contact with foods must be constructed with rust-resistant metal such as stainless steel.

11.7.4 Mango processing unit - mango juice in bags "hot fill" procedure

a) Main production equipment

  1. Scalder / washing machine model 1 106
  2. Destoner model 1602
  3. Thermobreak model CC05
  4. Refiner
  5. Reception tank
  6. Transfer pump
  7. Mixing tank with shaking
  8. Transfer pump
  9. Tubular pasteurizer
  10. Bag filling machine model E 104
  11. Cooling tunnel

b) Packaging materials

i. Special bags, capacity from 5 kg to 25 kg, with adequate valve system for filling and closing; adapted to bag filling machine model E 104.

Figure 11.7.3 Mango processing unit - Mango juice in bags "Hot Fill" process (Courtesy of H. Biaugeaud S.A.)

11.8 Overall raw material consumption data / yield for fruit and vegetable processed products - approximate data

Table 11.8

Table 11.8 (continued)

Table 11.8 (continued)

Table 11.8 (continued)

11.9 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - quality control sheet daily recording sheet finished products defects

Table 11.9

Table 11.9 (continued)


Recommended sampling plan on production/processing line

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