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Annex I: Glossary

Glossary

Anopheline: A mosquito of the subfamily which includes the genus Anopheles. May transmit malaria.

Arbovirus: Arthropod-borne virus.

Arthropod: Includes insects, ticks and mites.

Culicine: A mosquito of the subfamily which includes the genera Mansonia, Hedes and Culex, and which may transmit a number of diseases.

Cutaneous: Of the skin.

Ecology: The study of interrelationships of organisms to their environment (or surroundings). Ecology considers individual organisms, populations, and communities, as well as large units of landscape such as forests, estuaries and river basins. For an EIA, the ecosystem can be considered to be an appropriate unit of analysis concerned with a community and its environment, both living and non-living (eg fish community of a lake and lake pH).

Ecosystem: A community and its environment (living and nonliving considered collectively) (may range in extent from very small to very large units).

Environment: The total of all those physical, chemical, biological and social economic factors that impinge on an individual, a community or a population.

Environmental audit: An analysis of the technical, procedural and decision making aspects of an EIA carried out sometime after a proposal has been implemented.

Environmental impact: A change in effect on an environmental resource or value resulting from human activities including project development, often called an "effect".

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or Environmental Assessment: A formal process to predict the environmental consequences of human development activities and to plan appropriate measures to eliminate or reduce adverse effects and augment positive effects.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A document or report which contains the results of an EIA study. The EIA is also referred to in some countries as Environmental Statement (ES).

Environmental management: Management and control of the environment and natural resources systems in such a way so as to ensure the sustainability of development efforts over a long-term basis.

Environmental monitoring: Observation of effects of development projects on environmental resources and values.

Environmental planning: All planning activities with the objective of preserving or enhancing environmental values or resources.

Eutrophication: The process of a water body becoming anaerobic, ie without oxygen.

Externalities: Effects on a project, individual or institution resulting from an action by a different project, individual or institution (eg market prices or pollution).

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE): A preliminary attempt to evaluate environmental impacts in order to determine whether a full-scale environmental impact assessment is needed. Also called Initial Environmental Investigation (IEI), partial EIA or "Preliminary EIA".

Non-Governmental Organization: Private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, or undertake community development, (World Bank Operational Directive 10.70).

Parastatal: A government owned company.

Pathogen: An organism or substance which causes disease.

Reservoir host: An animal species which carries a pathogen without detriment to itself and serves as a source of infection.

Residual Environmental impact: Potential impact remaining after mitigation measures have been adopted into a project.

Scoping: An exercise involving the preliminary identification of the environmental issues surrounding a project that requires an assessment. Scoping should take place soon after the project has passed the Initial Review. Scoping identifies the potential impacts which are to be addressed in detail by the assessment. Scoping will usually initiate the public consultation/public participation process.

Vector: An organism which carries or transmits a pathogen.

Visceral: Of the main organs of the body.

FAO IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PAPERS

1

Irrigation practice and water management, 1972 (Ar* E* F* S*)

1 Rev.1

Irrigation practice and water management, 1984 (E)

2

Irrigation canal lining, 1971 (New edition, 1977, available in E, F and S in the FAO Land and Water Development Series, No. 1)

3

Design criteria for basin irrigation systems, 1971 (E*)

4

Village irrigation programmes - a new approach in water economy, 1971 (E* F)

5

Automated irrigation, 1971 (E* F* S*)

6

Drainage of heavy soils, 1971 (E* F S*)

7

Salinity seminar, Baghdad, 1971 (E* F)

8

Water and the environment, 1971 (E* F* S*)

9

Drainage materials, 1972 (E* F* S*)

10

Integrated farm water management, 1971 (E* F* S*)

11

Planning methodology seminar, Bucharest, 1972 (E* F*)

12

Farm water management seminar, Manila, 1972 (E*)

13

Water use seminar, Damascus, 1972 (E* F*)

14

Trickle irrigation, 1973 (E* F* S*)

15

Drainage machinery, 1973 (E* F*)

16

Drainage of salty soils, 1973 (C* E* F* S*)

17

Man's influence on the hydrological cycle, 1973 (E* F* S*)

18

Groundwater seminar, Granada, 1973 (E* F S*)

19

Mathematical models in hydrology, 1973 (E)

20/1

Water laws in Moslem countries - Vol. 1, 1973 (E* F*)

20/2

Water laws in Moslem countries -Vol. 2, 1978 (E F)

21

Groundwater models, 1973 (E)

22

Water for agriculture - index, 1973 (E/F/S*)

23

Simulation methods in water development, 1974 (E* F S*)

24

Crop water requirements, (rev.) 1977 (C* E F S)

25

Effective rainfall, 1974 (C* E* F* S*)

26/1

Small hydraulic structures -Vol. 1, 1975 (E F* S)

26/2

Small hydraulic structures - Vol. 2, 1975 (E F S)

27

Agro-meteorological field stations, 1976 (E F* S*)

28

Drainage testing, 1976 (E F S)

29

Water quality for agriculture, 1976 (E* F* S*)

29 Rev.1

Water quality for agriculture, 1985 (C** E F S*)

30

Self-help wells, 1977 (E*)

31

Groundwater pollution, 1979 (C* E* S)

32

Deterministic models in hydrology, 1979 (E*)

33

Yield response to water, 1979 (C* E F S)

34

Corrosion and encrustation in water wells, 1980 (E)

35

Mechanized sprinkler irrigation, 1982 (C E F S)

36

Localized irrigation, 1980 (Ar C E F S*)

37

Arid zone hydrology, 1981 (C E)

38

Drainage design factors, 1980 (Ar C E F S)

39

Lysimeters, 1982 (C E F S)

40

Organization, operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes, 1982 (C E F S*)

41

Environmental management for vector control in rice fields, 1984 (E F S)

42

Consultation on irrigation in Africa, 1987 (E F)

43

Water lifting devices, 1986 (E F)

44

Design and optimization of irrigation distribution networks, 1988 (E* F**)

45

Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems, 1989 (E)

46

CROPWAT - a computer program for irrigation planning and management, 1992 (E F S)

47

Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture, 1992 (E)

48

The use of saline waters for crop production, 1993 (E)

49

CLIMWAT for CROPWAT, 1993 (E)

50

Le pompage ťolien, 1994 (F)

51

Prospects for the drainage of clay soils, 1995 (E)

52

Reforming water resources policy, 1995 (E)

53

Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects, 1995 (E)

Availability: June 1995

Ar - Arabic
C - Chinese
E - English
F - French
P - Portuguese
S - Spanish
Multil - Multilingual
* Out of print
** In preparation

The FAO Technical Papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.


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