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Chapter 6: References

Recommended texts

Recommended texts

"Environmental Impact Assessment - Theory and Practice", edited by Wathern (1988) and "Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries", edited by Biswas and Qu Geping (1987) are two of the most useful books on the general philosophy of EIA and are a good basis for those wishing to gain a more in-depth understanding of EIA techniques.

The "ICID Checklist to Identify Environmental Effects of Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control Projects" (Mock and Bolton, 1993) is a valuable aid to screening, scoping and defining data requirements. Indeed, the layout in Chapter 4 generally follows that of the checklist which makes it an ideal companion volume.

The FAO series of Irrigation and Drainage Papers, currently about 50 in number, cover a wide range of topics pertinent to environmental aspects of irrigation. The information is comprehensive and technical and many volumes are available in several languages, most notably in English, French and Spanish.

The German development agency, GTZ, have published "Irrigation and the Environment", by Petermann (1993). This is a comprehensive two volume handbook, totalling about 500 pages, which gives very detailed technical information. An information package is planned shortly following the research by Petermann. This package is planned with a number of standardized sheets that may prove useful in EIA work.

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) have produced several useful volumes on EIA and water resources projects. The major donors such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and African Development Bank have prepared their own guidelines on EIA although these tend to relate mostly to internal procedures. They are important documents for those seeking external financing.

"The Environmental Assessment Sourcebook", World Bank Technical Paper No. 140 (1991) covers environmental issues relating to development in most sectors. It contains special sections on dams and reservoirs and on irrigation and drainage. Apart from providing information on the Bank's policies and procedures it gives general information on potential environmental impacts. Updates are issued from time to time. The Sourcebook is particularly useful if financial support is required from the World Bank. The World Bank Directive on Environmental Assessment (OD 4.01) describes the bank's policy and procedures on EIA at regional, sectoral and project levels, (1991).

PEEM, the joint WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control, published a technical guidelines series in which the following volumes are already in English, French and Spanish: Guidelines for the incorporation of health safeguards into irrigation projects (Tiffen, 1989), Guidelines for forecasting vector-borne disease implications of water resources development (Birley, 1989) and Guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis of vector control (Phillips et al., 1993). Under preparation are Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management by agricultural extension workers and Guidelines for monitoring health status during water resources development. The PEEM Secretariat is located at WHO in Geneva.

A number of governments and international organizations have developed guidelines or manuals on EIA. Some developing countries have produced guidelines for the EIA of water resources development (see references) which cover the irrigation sub-sector to some extent. Existing guidelines are often oriented towards local requirements but offer information which is of value to readers from all countries. A useful text of value to most Asian countries is the Guidelines for Sustainable Water Resources Development and Management by the Central Water Commission, India (1992).


ADB. Environment risk assessment: dealing with uncertainty in EIA. Environment Paper No. 7. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

ADB. 1992. Guidelines for health impact assessment of development projects. Environment Paper No. 11. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

ADB. 1992. Guidelines for the Health Impact Assessment of Development Projects. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

ADB. 1987. Environmental Guidelines for Selected Agricultural and Natural Resources Development Projects. Asian Development Bank, Manila, The Philippines.

AfDB. 1992. Environmental Assessment Guidelines. African Development Bank, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Ahmad, Y. and Sammy, G. 1988. Public Involvement: Guidelines to EIA in Developing Countries. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Ahmad, Y. and Sammy, G. 1985. Guidelines to Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Alhéretière, D. 1982. EIA and agricultural development. A comparative law study. Environment Paper No 2. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W. 1985. Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 (Revised). FAO, Rome, Italy.

Birley, M. H. 1989. Guidelines for forecasting the vector-borne disease implications of water resource development. PEEM Guidelines Series 2. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Biswas, A.K. and Qu Geping. 1987. EIA for Developing Countries. Tycooly Publishing, London.

Biswas, A.K. and Agarwala, S. B. C. 1992. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries. Butterworth-Heinemenn, Guildford, UK.

Blum, B. 1984. A Handbook on EIA for Public Decision Makers. UNEP, Paris, France.

Burbridge, P.R. 1988. Environmental guidelines for resettlement projects in the humid tropics. FAO Environmental Guidelines Paper 9. Rome, Italy.

Cernea, M. and Guggenheim, S. (eds.). 1993. Anthropological Approaches to Resettlement Policy, Practice and Theory. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Chambers, R. 1981. Rural Development - Putting the Last First. Longman, London, UK.

Chimbale et al. 1993. Schistosomiasis Control Measures for Small Irrigation Schemes in Zimbabwe. HR Wallingford Report OD 128. Wallingford, UK.

Craine, L.E. 1971. Institutions for managing lakes and bays. National Resources Journal II.

CWC. 1992. Guidelines for Sustainable Water Resources Development and Management. Central Water Commission, India.

Dugan, P.J. 1990. Wetland Conservation. A Review of Current Issues and Required Action. IUCN. The World Conservation Union, Cambridge, UK.

DVWK. 1993. Ecologically sound resources management in irrigation. DVWK Bulletin 19. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg/Berlin, Germany.

EBRD. 1992. Environmental Procedures. EBRD, London.

ERL. 1990. Environmental Assessment Procedures in the UN System. Environmental Resources Limited, London, UK.

ESCAP. 1987. Environmental Management for Sustainable Socio-economic Development. ESCAP, Geneva, Switzerland.

ESCAP. 1985. EIA Guidelines for Planners and Decision Makers. ESCAP, Geneva, Switzerland.

FAO. 1992. Les périmètres irrigués en droit comparé afraicain (Madagascar, Maroc, Niger, Sénégel, Tunisie). FAO, Rome, Italy (French only).

Feachem, R., McGarry, M. and Mara, D. 1977. Water, Wastes and Health in Hot Climates. John Wiley, London.

Goodland, R. and Daly, H. 1992. Environmental Assessment and Sustainability in the World Bank. World Bank, Washington D.C., USA.

Graham Smith, L. 1993. Impact Assessment and Sustainable Resource Management. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, UK.

Holling, C.A. 1978). Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley, London.

Hunter, J.M., Ray, L., Chu, K.Y. and Adekoi-John, E.O. 1993. Parasitic Diseases in Water Resource Development - The Need for Intersectoral Negotiation. WHO, Rome, Italy.

ICOLD. 1980. Dams and the environment. ICOLD Bulletin 35. Paris, France.

Mather, T.H. and That, T.T. 1984. Environmental management for vector control of rice fields. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 41. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Mekouar, M.A. 1990. The Environmental Impact of Economic Incentives for Agricultural Production: A Comparative Law Study. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Mock, J.F. and Bolton, P. 1993. The ICID Environmental Checklist to Identify Environmental Effects of Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control Projects. HR Wallingford, Wallingford, UK.

Munasinghe, M. 1993. Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development. World Bank, Washington D.C., USA.

OECD. 1986. Environmental assessment and development assistance. Environment Monographs No 4. OECD, Paris.

Pendse, Y.D., Roa, R.V. and Sharma, P.K. 1989. Environmental impact methodologies. Shortcomings and appropriateness for water resources projects in developing countries. Water Resources Development 5(4).

Pescod, M.B. 1992. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 47. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Petermann, T. 1993. Irrigation and the Environment. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.

Phillips, M., Mill, A. and Dye, C. 1993. Guidelines for cost effectiveness analysis of vector control. PEEM Guidelines Series 3. WHO, Geneva.

Pike, E.G. 1987. Engineering Against Schistosomiasis/Bilharzia. MacMillan, London.

Rhoades, J.D., Kandiah, A. and Mashali, A.M. 1992. The use of saline waters for crop production. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 48. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Tiffen, M. 1989. Guidelines for the incorporation of health safeguards into irrigation projects through intersectoral cooperation. PEEM Guidelines Series 1. WHO, Geneva.

Todd, D.K. 1980. Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley, London.

UN. 1994. Trends in EIA of Energy Projects. UN, New York, USA.

UNECE. Application of EIA principles to policies, plans and programmes. Environmental Series No 5. UNECE, New York.

UNECE. Policies and systems of EIA. Environmental Series No 4. UNECE, New York.

UNDP. 1992. Handbook and Guidelines for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. UNDP, New York.

Wathern, P. (ed.). 1988. Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice. Routledge, London.

WHO. 1982. Manual on environmental management for mosquito control, with special emphasis on malaria vectors. Pub. No. 66. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO. 1989. Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Technical Report Series No 778. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO. 1993. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Vol 1. Recommendations. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Winpenny, J.T. 1991. Values for the Environment. HMSO, London, UK.

World Bank. 1991. Environmental assessment source book. Vol 1, Policies, procedures and cross-sectoral issues. Technical paper 139. World Bank, Washington D.C., USA.

World Bank. 1991. Environmental assessment source book. Vol II. Sectoral guidelines. Technical paper 140. World Bank, Washington D.C., USA.

World Bank. 1991. Operational Directive 4.01: Environmental Assessment. World Bank, Washington D.C., USA

World Bank. 1993. World Development Report - Investing in Health. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Worthington, E.B. 1977. Arid Lands Irrigation in Development Countries. Environmental Problems and Effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

Wramner, P. 1989. Procedures for EIA of FAO's field projects. FAO, Rome, Italy.

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