Nematology in Iran
Infrastructure and training
Support to nematology
Conclusion and recommendation
There are three different climatic areas in Iran for the cultivation of crop plants: the northern area, which is a moist part of the country near the Caspian Sea where the climate is subtropical and where citrus, cotton, maize, rice, wheat, groundnut, kenaf, tobacco, soybean, olive, tea, poplar and fan-palm are grown; the central area, which is a cold and dry part of the country where the climate is temperate and supports cultivation of crops such as almond, apple, apricot, cherry, clover, maize, grape, lentil, pea, onion, pear, peach, pistachio, plum, pomegranate, potato, sugar beet, sunflower, tomato, barley, walnut and wheat; and the southern area, which is a warm and dry area of the country where the climate is nearly tropical and date-palm, citrus, banana, fig, mango and gombo can be cultivated if sufficient moisture is available.
Having such a range of climatic conditions, the nematode fauna veries considerably in different parts of the country. The first report of a plant-parasitic nematode (Heterodera marioni) in Iran was made in 1956 and in 1963 A.M. Omidvar established the first plant nematology laboratory in Iran. Since then other workers have been concerned with work on plant-parasitic nematodes and many articles have been written.
An M.Sc. degree course in crop protection is provided by the College of Agriculture at the University of Tehran. Dr Kheiri and Dr Eshtiaghi, both nematologists, are concerned with teaching and research. Research is carried out at the Department of Plant Nematology in the Plant Pest and Diseases Research Institute in Tehran. Other research centres and organizations are in Esfahan, Shiraz, Oromuieh, Kerman, Khorasan, Gorgan and Jiroft. Applied services and extension work are provided for farmers by the plant protection organization.
During the past 30 years a total of 142 species of plant-parasitic nematodes belonging to 41 genera and 15 families were collected and identified from the soil around the roots of different economic crop plants in Iran, but only 12 nematode species cause economic losses.
Economic nematodes in Iran
· Heterodera schachtii on sugar beet with 10 to 30 percent loss in yield;
· H. avenae on wheat with 10 percent loss in yield;
· Meloidogyne javanica (polyphagous) with 10 to 15 percent loss in yield;
· M. incognita (R 1-2) (polyphagous) with 10 to 15 percent loss in yield;
· Tylenchulus semipenetrans on citrus with 5 to 10 percent loss in yield;
· Ditylenchus dipsaci on alfalfa with 10 to 20 percent loss in yield;
· D. destructus on potato with 5 to 10 percent loss in yield;
· Anguina tritici on wheat with 5 to 10 percent loss in yield;
· Pratylenchus penetrans on apple and peach with 10 percent loss in yield;
· P. neglectus on potato and wheat with 5 percent loss in yield;
· Xiphinema index on grapevine with 5 percent loss in yield;
· Longidorus iranicus on fig, pomegranate and pistachio with 5 percent loss in yield.
Control of nematodes causing damage to crop plants in Iran is difficult and often expensive. Many important crops are damaged by the 12 species of nematodes listed above, some of which spread soil-borne viruses and allow secondary infestation by other fungal pathogens. Nematode populations may be checked and limited by using one of the following methods of control or a combination of them:
· plant quarantine and other regulatory control;
· farm hygiene and solarization;
· crop rotation and fallow against the sugar-beet nematode in Khorasan and Fars provinces in northeastern and southern Iran;
· biological control by using a bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans and a fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus. There are two projects in Tehran and Esfahan provinces;
· plant breeding: tomato, grapevine and pomegranate screening for resistance to the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita (Race 1-2) in Esfahan and Bandarabas is under investigation;
· soil disinfection and chemical control: in Iran, Nemagon, Basamid, Vapam, Nemafos, Di-Trapex and methyl bromide among other nematicides have shown good results in the control of root-knot nematodes in limited areas. Soil fumigation for control of sugar-beet cyst nematode and Temik (side-dressing) in Khorasan and Fars provinces were tested, results showed a good effect on yield increase;
· ploughing and flooding.
Iranian experts require training on methodology and control of sugar-beet cyst nematode.
In this respect we have not enough facilities or financial support from the government for the time being.
There is need for more consultation on quarantine problems between countries particularly on the golden nematode of potato, Globodera rostochiensis.
Abivardi, C. 1970. Occurrence of Pratylenchus hamatus on citrus in Iran and its sensitivity to two nematicides under laboratory conditions. PI. Dis. Reptr., 54: 1085-1087.
Abivardi, C. 1973. A stylet nematode Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus Cobb, 1913, infesting the common guava, Psidium guajava L. in Iran. Nematol. Medit., 1: 139-140.
Abivardi, C. & Sharafeh, M. 1973a. A preliminary report on the occurrence of some unreported plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Iran. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenpathol. Pflanzenschutz., p. 612-614.
Abivardi, C. & Sharafeh, M. 1973b. The alfalfa stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kuhn 1857) Filipjev 1936 as an important threat for cultivation of alfalfa in Iran. Nematol. Medit., 1: 22-27.
Abivardi, C., Izadpanah, K., Saffarian A. & Sharafeh, M. 1970. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with citrus decline in southern Iran. PI. Dis. Reptr., 54: 339-342.
Ahmadinejad, A. 1980. Wheat nematode Anguina tritici (Steiner) Filipjev and the importance of seed, its transmitter. Bull. PI. Prof. Orang., 28: 1-4.
Barooti, S. 1975. Prevalence and host range of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, in Esfahan area. Iran. J. PI. Path., 10:33.
Barooti, S. 1981. Record of two species of nematodes from Iran. Iranian Ent. Phyt. Appliq., 49: 27-30.
Esmailpour, M. 1984. Plant-parasitic nematode and fungi of Khorasan. Lab. Bull., 63(11).
Esmailpour, M. & Schafer, R. 1970.Auftreten von rubennematoden Heterodera schachtii in Iran. Iranian Ent. Phyt. Appliq., 29: 6-7.
Hojat-Jalali, A. 1974. On morphology and taxonomy Tylenchidanematodes from fruit trees of Karadj, Iran. University of Tehran. (M.Sc. thesis)
Izadpanah, K. & Safarian, A. 1968. Possible role of citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans. In the citrus decline in southern Iran. Proc. Iranian First Nat. Cong. PI. Med., p. 40-41.
Kalali, G. & Farivar-Mahin, H. 1979. Some studies on sugar-beet nematode in Khorasan. Iranian Ent. Phyt. Appliq., 47: 19-21.
Katcho, Z.A. & Allow, JM 1969. Citrus-root nematode in Iran. PI. Dis. Reptr., 53: 84.
Kheiri, A. 1970. Two new species in the family Tylenchidae (Nematoda) from Iran, with a key to Psilenchus De Man, 1921. Nematologica, 16:359-368.
Kheiri, A. 1972a. Tylenchus (Irantylenchus) clavidorus n. sp., and Merlinius camelliae n.sp. (Tylenchida: Nematoda) from Iran. Nematologica, 18: 339-346.
Kheiri, A. 1972b. Plant-parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Bio. Jaarboek Dodonaea, 40: 224-239.
Kheiri, A. & Barooti, S. 1983. Species of the family Criconematidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Iran. Iranian J. PI. Path., 19:3-5.
Kheiri, A. & Barooti, S. 1984. Species of Dorylaimida (Nematoda-Tylenchida) from Iran. Iranian J. PI. Path., 19: 3-5.
Kheiri, A. & Barooti, S. 1985. Occurrence of Rotylenchulus parvus in Iran with a note on differences between immature females of this genus and Helicotylenchus. Med. Fac. Land. Rijksuniv. Gent, 50: 3a.
Loof, P.A.A. 1984. Hemicycliophora species from Iran (Nematoda:Criconematoidea). Nematologica, 30: 22-41.
Minassian, V. & Moadab, H. 1970. The occurrence and distribution of the citrus-root nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, in Khuzestan, Iran. Iranian J. PI. Path., 6: 25-28.
Mojtahedi, H. & Barooti, S. 1976. The chemical control of root-knot nematode in Esfahan. Iranian J. PI. Path., 12: 45-46.
Mojtahedi, H., Sturhan, D., Akhiani, A. & Barooti, S. 1980. Xiphinema species in Iranian vineyards. Nematol. Medit., 8: 165-170.
Mojtahedi, H., Balali, G., Akhiani, A., Barooti, S. & Nadri, A. 1983. Tylenchorhynchid nematodes of Iran (Tylenchoidea: Nematoda). Iranian J. PI. Path., 19: 11-14.
Omidvar, A.M. 1963. The root-knot nematode. Iranian J. PI. Path., 9:1-32.
Omidvar, A.M. 1968. Plant-parasitic nematodes. Min. Agric. Tehran. 192 pp.
Sturhan, D. 1974. Untersuchungen liber die Nematoden fauna des Iran. Biolog. undesanstalt für Land und Fortwirtschaft, Jahresbericht, S., 104.
Sturhan, D. 1977. First record of the Persian sessile nematode, Cacopaurus pestis Thorne, in Iran. Nematol. Medit., 5: 125-126.
Sturhan, D. 1983. First records of the genus Meloidoderita (Nematoda: Criconematoidea) in Iran, Germany and the Azores. Nematologica, 29: 488-490.
Sturhan, D. & Barooti, S. 1983. Longidorus iranicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Systemic Parasitology, 5: 21-24.
Talatschian, P. & Akhiani, A. 1976. Occurrence of white tip disease in Iran. Iranian J. PI. Path., 12: 27. Talatschian, P., Akhiani, A., Grayeli, A., Shahmohamadi. M. & Tymoori, F. 1976. Survey on cyst-forming nematodes in Iran in 1975 and their importance. Iranian J. PI. Path., 12: 42-43.
Waele, D. & Hashim, A. 1984. Trichodorus orientalis n.sp., (Nematoda: richodoridae) for Jordan and Iran. Systematic Parasitology, 6: 63-67.