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4. Gender and postharvest processing technology

4. Gender and postharvest processing technology


Drying, UNIFEM Source Books Series, pp 64


abstract op folder van ITP


Storage, UNIFEM Source Books Series, pp 48


abstract op folder van ITP

Axtell, B.; Kocken, E.; Sandhu, R.

Cereal processing. Intermediate Technology Development Group, pp 54; Published in the series Food Cycle Technology Source Books, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM); Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.; London; UK


AB: Traditional and improved methods for harvesting, threshing, winnowing, shelling, drying, storing, milling, grinding and hulling maize, rice, sorghum and wheat are described. Secondary processing methods, such as baking or fermenting, are outlined and case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America are included. A checklist for those planning to design or develop a small scale commercial venture is provided.

Key words: cereal grains; cereal products; food grains; maize; rice; wheat; food processing; equipment; harvesting; threshing; shelling; drying; storage; milling; hulling; small businesses; appropriate technology; grain; postharvest treatment; processing; Africa; Asia; Latin America; Developing countries

Axtell, B.; Kocken, E.; Sandhu, R

Fruit and vegetate processing.

Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.; London; UK pp 59; Published in the series Food Cycle Technology Source Books, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).;


AB: Methods and equipment used for preserving fruit and vegetable products in developing countries are described and the hazards to avoid when setting up a small food processing business are outlined. Successful community-based enterprises are described in a number of case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Key words: fruit products; fruits; vegetable products; vegetables; food processing; equipment; small businesses; appropriate technology; community development; horticultural crops; fruit crops; processing; Africa; Asia; Latin America; Developing countries

Bruchhaus, E.M.; Rott, R

The milling myth: through lightened work to wellbeing and freedom.

Original title: Der Muhlenmythos: durch Arbeitserleichterung zu Wohlstand und Freiheit.

In: Entwicklungsprozesse und Geschlechterverhaltnisse uber die Arbeits- und Lebensraume von Frauen in Landern der Dritten Welt. SSlP-Bulletin. 1993, No. 63, pp 175-199;

Verlag breitenbach Publishers; Saarbrucken; Germany


AB: The extent to which motorized mills actually benefit rural women in Africa is discussed as well as the reasons for the failure of many mill projects. The advantages of unfashionable simpler technologies based on animal and water power as an intermediate stage between hand milling and diesel or electric powered machines are pointed out. The use women make of the time they save when they no longer have to spend up to 4 hours a day grinding grain is considered. Finally, methods of financing and amortizing mills are reviewed. Examples are drawn from West Africa and Burkina Faso.

Key words: Mechanization; mills; appropriate technology; female labour, milling; grain; rural development; West Africa; Burkina Faso

Villavicencio, R.; Aquino, R.; Aquino, J.

Independencia women seek independence: making Andean noodles.

In: I.L.E.I.A. newsletter/Informationcentre for Low External Input Agriculture 9(1993)3 pp 24-25


Description of experiments with small-scale production of noodles using the indigenous cereal "quinoa" instead of the wheatbased noodles by village women in Bolivia

Key words: postharvest processing; quinoa; development projects; women; Bolivia

Barrett, H.; Browne, A.

The impact of labour-saving devices on the lives of rural African women: grain mills in The Gambia.

In: Momsen, J.H. and Kinnaird, V. (eds), Different places, different voices, gender and development in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Routledge, London, pp 52-62.


Boeni, B.

Women solve a pressing problem: easing the work of making palm oil.

In: I.L.E.I.A. newsletter/Information centre for Low External Input Agriculture 9(1993)3, pp 22-23


Ways of improving food processing in the rainforest zone of Cote d'lvoire were studied. The aim was to define criteria for succesful development of such technologies for rural areas

Key words: postharvest processing; oil palm; local knowledge; women; Cote d'lvoire

Greeley, M.

Postharvest technologies: implications for food policy analysis.

In: EDI Development Policy Case Series, Analytical Case Studies. 1991, No. 7, pp 81; Economic Development Institute, World Bank; Washington, D.C.; USA


AB: This study examines the proposition that substantially more food could be made available by preventing food loss at the farm level. It comprises three independent papers on appropriate threshing and milling techniques that can substantially improve farmers' productivity and the value of their farms. The first weighs the potential increase in available food made possible by efficient postharvest technologies against the effects of these technologies on the welfare of poor rural people. The potential of that increase to eradicate hunger is also discussed. The second is a case study of the adoption of pedal threshers for rice in Bangladesh. It examines the social and economic effects of using the pedal thresher, which increases labour productivity. It necessitates a choice, however, between more jobs or greater productivity with fewer jobs. Similarly, the third examines the choices for rice milling in Bangladesh and the displacement of female wage labour associated with the introduction of mechanized milling. For the poorest rural women from landless households, the only employment option is working as wage labourers in neighbouring households processing rice into paddy. With the introduction of maleo-perated rice mills, the processing is cheaper and many fewer positions are available.

Key words: Female labour; food crops; postharvest losses; appropriate technology; rice; threshing machines; milling; mechanization; Foods; Farm machinery; rural development; South Asia; Developing Countries; Bangladesh

Hyman, E.L.

A comparison of labour saving technologies for processing shea nut butter in Mali.

World Development Oxford. 1991, 19: 9, pa 1247-1268;


AB: Shea nut butter (karite) is a major cooking fat in semi-arid parts of West Africa. Its preparation by the traditional process involves long and arduous work by women. This article evaluates several labour-saving technologies that have been developed and applied in Mali. A manual press has been developed by the Netherlands Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) with Germany's GTZ. It is suitable for small groups of women where the ability to pay for equipment is limited or shea nut supplies are uncertain and other oilseeds are available. Two more mechanized alternatives have been developed by other donors. The first, a prototype of an animal-driven grinder/kneader, was not accepted in one village in Mali since the people were familiar with a motorized altemative. The animal-driven unit also requires further technical development. The second, a motorized grinder and centrifuge system, may be well suited for a larger, artisanal-scale commercial enterprise. By itself, the motorized grinder may be appropriate for service pressing of shea kernels as well as grain in larger villages.

Key words: plant fats; Women; Labour intensity; Shea butter; processing; appropriate technology; small businesses; mechanization; rural development; West Africa; Developing Countries; Mali

Sage, C.

Small-scale brewing and rural livelihood: the case of chicha in Bolivia. In: Whatmore, S.;

Lowe, P.; Marsden, T. (eds): Rural enterprise: shifting perspectives on small-scale production; Fulton Publ. London, pp 58-77. Critical Perspectives on rural change series, no.3, BLDSC. Wye College, University of London.


no 1591 in CAB printed bibl. abstract

Hanley, M.L.

After the harvest, World Development (UNDP) 1991, vol 4(1) p.25-27


no 216 in KIT printed bibl abstract

Lockwood, M.

Rice processing in rural Bangladesh, Haryana Agric. Univ. Hissar, Haryana. India Appropriate Technology (UK), 1991, vol 17 (4) p 20-23.


no 278 in KIT printed bibl abstract

Rauch, T.; Bachmann, L.; Braune, S.; Ehrhardt, B.; Faltermeier, G.; Speit, R; Stormer, M.

Small-scale processing at rural centres in Malawi: possibilities of development and promotion. Schriftenreihe des Fachbereichs Internationale Agrarentwicklung, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany), 1990 no 131, pp 243


no 377 KIT printred bibl. abstract

Steenbergen, W.M.van; Renqvist, U.

[Food and food processing in the tropics] Voedsel en voedselverwerking in de tropen.

Royal Tropical Institute 1990, 103 pp


no 462 KIT printred bibl. abstract

Anand, S., and Padekar, V.S.

Introducing food processing technology in tribal areas: the challenge. In: India Appropriate Technology (UK) 1990, vol.17 (3) p 28-30


no 279 KIT printed bibl. abstract

Wentholt, W.

The acceptability of the Chorkor oven.

In: Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on fish technology in Africa. Abidjan, Cote d'lvoire, 25-28 April 1988, FAO Fisheries Report, no.400, supplement pp 332-341.


no 1217 CAB printred bibl. abstract

Bargel, G.

[What drives the mills? An example from Africa] Was treibt die Mühlen an? Ein Fallbeispiel aus Afrika.

In: Entwicklung + Ländlicher Raum, 1990, 24(4), p 23-25


nr 1221 CAB printed bibl. see abstract

Joss, S.

To save time: how the Nepalese women's development programme has reduced rural women's labour input in everyday tasks

Rural Development in Practice (UK), 1989, vol 1 (3), p 14-16


no 366 in KIT printed bibl. abstract


Women and the food cycle, UNIFEM Source Books Series, pp 86


abstract op folder van ITP

Adjebeng Asem, S.

Grating without drudgery,

In: Nigeria Appropriate Technology (UK), 1989, vol 16 (3) p.18-20


no 288 in KIT printed bibl. abstract

Gandar, M.C.; Udik, P.

Evaluation of hotboxes in rural and pert-urban areas.

Development Southern Africa, 1989, 6(2) p 216-226


no 1218 CAB printed bibl., abstract

Purushotham, P.

Promotion of an improved technology in rural industry.

National Bank News Review (Bombay), 1989, no 5(8) p 23-26.


no. 1241 in CAB printed bibl. abstract.

Ancheta, RR.

Arrowroot production and processing: a project on women in agriculture. In: Filipino women In rice farming systems. Manilla, Philippines, IRRI, pp 103-120.


nr 1248 in CAB printed bibl. abstract

Odama, J.S.; Helmuth, J.W.(ed); Johnson, S.R.(ed)

Balancing food production requirements and policies for economic growth.

1988 World Food Conference proceedings. Volume II: issue papers. pp 178-190, Iowa State University Press; Ames, Iowa; USA


AB: The main characteristics of food production in Nigeria are outlined in terms of farm production, postharvest handling, and nutrition requirements. The main issues involved in food policy formation are then discussed concentrating on the population and technology issues. A framework for a balanced food production policy is then proposed which encompasses: peasant farmers and women; cooperatives; incentives; resource allocations; food storage; productivity year-round; consistency; population control; and education. It is concluded that a more viable food policy for the Third World would be one that would emphasize the small farmers as the central motive force of both production and consumption of food. This can be effected by promoting economic growth and raising the real incomes of the peasant farmers. To realize this objective, public policies should be evolved such that substantial resources are shifted to the development of small-scale food crop farms, labour intensive farm support activities such as small-scale cottage industries, electricity supply and repair workshops, and competitive farm prices.

Key words: Agricultural policy; Population growth; Technology; Food production; food policy; economic growth; Nigeria

Maarse, L.M.; Schoot, C.M.E.van

Rural women in livestock production and rangeland use: observations in five selected villages of the Dhamar Montane Plains

In: Project-Communication (the Netherlands), 1989, no. 34, 60 p.; Aug

AB: The purpose of this report is to identify the tasks, role, activities and position of rural women in 5 villages in the Dhamar Montane Plains, Yemen Arab Republic. The first part describes how women experience the relationship between family members, the division of tasks and a number of daily routines. The second part focuses on 2 important areas of women's work: livestock and fuel collection. The various responsibilities and tasks concerning sheep husbandry, milk processing, the utilization of manure, fuelwood collection and food production are described. It is argued that the production activities in which women play a central role, are labour intensive and traditional. Consequently, production output is low and benefits are marginal. Innovations are recommended in the fields of fodder production, feeding, and milk and manure processing, which are to be incorporated in the Range and Livestock Improvement Project in the Montane Plains.

Key words: agricultural production; livestock; fuelwood; women's role; productivity; Arabian Peninsula, Yemen Arab Republic

Thomas-Emeagwali, G.; Lasisi, R.O.

The food crisis and agro-based technology: gari processing in Nigeria. In: Review of African Political Economy, 1988, no.43, pp 95-99


no 1212 CAB printed bibl. abstract

Longe, O.G.

The role of women in food production, processing and preservation in Nigeria

In: African-Notes (Nigeria).1988, no. 3(special issue) pp 27-35


AB: Not less than 45% of the rural population in Nigeria engaged in the production of both arable crops and livestock are women. In this article food supply from traditional farm holdings and women's involvement in production are discussed. Processing of crops, livestock products, fish and game animals, improving storage and extension of shelf life are activities dominated by women. Traditional methods used on different food items and their effects on the nutrient composition of the products are explored. It is suggested that, even though processing is on a small scale and the overall output may be considered low, food supply from this sector meets to a large extent the food needs of the people. Efforts should be geared towards enhancing productivity. To this end a number of recommendations are made: (a) the introduction of innovations to improve the traditional technology; (b) women should be offered extension services on new farming methods, developed seeds, fertilizer and herbicide applications and improved processing techniques; (c) adult literacy programmes; (d) credit facilities; and (d) encouragement to form cooperatives.

Key words: women's participation; agricultural production; food processing; food supply; production increase; traditional technology; development potential; Nigeria


The introduction of handmills in the Tarime district of Tanzania

In: Vraagbaak (the Netherlands), 1986, vol 14(2) pp 5-16; Jun


AB: In view of the need to reduce the work load of rural women in the Tarime district of Tanzania, handmills for the processing of food crops were introduced in 3 phases: (a) education approval and introduction; (b) evaluation by the women after the trial period; and (c) elaboration of a more coherent handmill programme. This article reports on the general setting, the introduction of handmills and discusses the way in which this technology affects the women within the economic, social, cultural and political relations in a local community.

Key words: food processing; hand tools; technology transfer; Tanzania

Altarelli Herzog, V.

Programmes for the establishment of village mills: what are the conditions for their success in the Sahelian rural environment?

Original title: Les programmes d'installation de moulins villageois: queues conditions pour leur reussite en milieu rural sahelien?.

Rome (Italy) pp 82


Keywords: mills; villages; women; Sahel; Development projects; equipment; cost analysis; finance

Nath, K.

Labor-saving techniques in food processing: rural women and technological change in the Gambia.

Working Paper, African Studies Centre, Boston Universty, pp 26, no 108, 1985

no 1203 van CAB printed bibl. for abstract see there.

Hye, H.A.

Mechanisation in agriculture and women in Bangladesh.

Journal of Social Studies, 1985, no.27, pp 78-100.

Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, Comilla, Bangladesh.


no.1227 in CAB printed bibl. abstract

Begum, S.

Women and technology: rice processing in Bangladesh.

In: Women in rice farming, Proceedings of a conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems, IRRI, Philippines, 26-30 September 1983. Aldershot, Hants, UK, pp 221-241.


no 1229 CAB printed library, abstract

Srivastava, J.C.

Harnessing technology for eliminating the drudgery of rural women engaged in rice production, processing and utilization.

In: Women in rice farming, Proceedings of a conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems, IRRI, Philippines, 26-30 September 1983. Aldershot, Hants, UK, pp 405-418.


no 1234 CAB printed library, abstract

Watts, S.J.

Rural women as food processors and traders: eko making in the llorin area of Nigeria.

In: The journal of developing areas, 19(1984)1 pp 71-82.


Case study of a labor intensive low-profit activity, the processing and selling of a maize meal snack, eko. key words: post harvest technology; women's roles; women; Nigeria

King-Akerele, O.

Traditional palm oil processing, women's role and the application of appropriate technology. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; African Training and Research Centre for Women, UN Economic Commission for Africa. pp 52


nr 1202 in CAB printed bibl, see there for abstract

Mukherjee, M.

Impact of modernisation on women's occupation: a case study of the rice-husking industry of Bengal,

In: Indian Economic and Social History Review, 1983, no 20(1) pp 2745.


no 1609 in CAB printed bibl. abstract

Zimmermann, S.D.

The cheese makers of Kafr Al Bahr: the role of Egyptian women in animal husbandry and dairy production.

Cairo [etc]: University of Leiden, pp 55 (Women and development series. Egypt)


Key words: small scale farming; livestock keeping; dairy production; women's roles; women; agriculture; Egypt

Fleuret, P.; Fleuret, A.

Nutrition, Consumption, and Agricultural Change

In: Human-Organization; 1980, 39, 3, fall, pp 250-260.


AB: Problems with indirect intervention strategies designed to raise the nutritional level of the poor in developing countries are analyzed in a review of research on modernization & malnutrition. It is noted that little work has been done on how newer methods of food processing & consumption contribute to malnutrition. Studies showing the adequacies of traditional diets in developing countries are discussed, 8 the following factors involved in nutritional development plans analyzed: changes in crop inventory & diversity as a result of commercialization, depletion of human energy through market-based agriculture & altered food preparation techniques, 8 changes in market composition that can raise the cost of important nutritious foods. In view of the declining nutritional status implied in these development changes, several issues for agricultural policymakers are considered: (1) analyses of dietary intake; (2) variation in income of rural food producers; (3) penalization of rural food producers; & (4) reduction of peasant control of food production through development strategies, especially where agricultural technology is altered. D. Dunseath (Copyright 1983, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Key words: Nutrition, Nutritional; Developing countries; Agriculture, Agricultural; Consumption, Consumptive

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