Manual of fumigation for insect control


Table of contents

by E.J. Bond

Research Centre
Agriculture Canada
London, Ontario
Canada

FAO PLANT PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION PAPER 54
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

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Contents


Acknowledgments

Preface

Introduction

1. Fumigation and pest management programmes

2. Principles of fumigation

Choice of fumigant
Evaporation of fumigants
Diffusion and penetration
Significance of residues in foods
Other effects on materials
Dosages and concentrations
Toxicity of fumigants to insects
Acquired resistance of insects

3. Safety precautions and protective devices

Threshold limits
Acute and chronic hazards
General precautions
First aid training
Medical supervision
Respirators (gas masks)
Detection of fumigants

4. Field determination of fumigants

Thermal conductivity analysers
Interference refractometers
Detector tubes
Colour indicators
Lamps
Halide meters
Infra-red (IR) analysers
Gas chromatographs

5. Fumigant residues

Nature of fumigant residues
Significance of fumigant residues
Factors affecting residue accumulation
Detection and analysis of residues

6. Chemicals used as fumigants

Methyl bromide
Phosphine
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene oxide
Ethylene dichloride
Carbon disulphide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloropicrin
Dichlorvos (DDVP)
Sulphuryl fluoride
Acrylonitrile
Minor fumigants

7. Fumigant mixtures

Acrylonitrile
Carbon disulphide
Chloropicrin
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene dichloride
Methyl bromide-phosphine
Methyl chloroform

8. Space fumigation at atmospheric pressure

Sealing Methods and Materials
Fumigation Chambers
Fumigation under sheets
Fumigation of large structures
Mill fumigation
Local fumigation
Fumigation of bagged goods in ships and barges
Fumigation of empty cargo spaces
Railway cars and other wheeled carriers
Individual package fumigation

9. Vacuum fumigation

Fumigants
Methods
Equipment

10. Fumigation of grain in bulk

Methods of grain fumigation
Selected literature

11.Fumigation and controlled atmosphere storage

Basic requirements
Procedures for establishing controlled atmospheres
Termination of treatment
Safety precautions
Problems associated with modified atmosphere storage
Choice of treatment
Fumigation, controlled atmospheres and forced aeration
Selected references

12. Glasshouse fumigation

13. Plant quarantine treatments

14. Experimental fumigations

Experimental treatment
Assessment of insect mortality
Fumigation failures
Fumigation and dust explosions

15. Training in fumigation

Fumigation schedules

Guide to schedules A and B
Schedule A. Bulk fumigation of grain in upright storage
Schedule B. Bulk fumigation of grain in flat storage
Schedule C. List of plants which have sustained injury from fumigation with methyl bromide
Schedule D. Methyl bromide fumigation of actively growing plants
Schedule E. Methyl bromide fumigation of foliated dormant plants
Schedule F. Methyl bromide fumigation of nonfoliated dormant plant material
Schedule G. Methyl bromide fumigation of orchids
Schedule H. Methyl bromide fumigation of fresh fruit at atmospheric pressure
Schedule I. Methyl bromide fumigation of fresh vegetables
Schedule J. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation of fresh fruit
Schedule K. Ethylene dibromide(EDB) fumigation of fresh vegetables
Schedule L. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) fumigation of fresh fruit and vegetables
Schedule M. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) fumigation of dormant nursery stock
Schedule N. Fumigation of flower bulbs and corms
Schedule O. Methyl bromide fumigation of cut flowers and greenery
Schedule P. Atmospheric and vacuum fumigation for the control of pests infesting packaged plant products
Schedule Q. Fumigation of mills, empty structures and tobacco warehouses
Schedule R. Local (spot) fumigants for mills
Schedule S. Fumigation of seeds
Schedule T. Fumigation for controlling rodents and other mammalian pests, snakes, birds, snails, ants' nests, wasps and termites

Appendices

Efficient utilization of fumigation sheeting
Conversion factors and relationships useful in fumigation work
General first aid for accidents with fumigants

References (A - E)
References (F - M)
References (N - Z)