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|Fumigant||Dosage per m3||Dosage per 1000 bushels1||Minimum exposure (days)||Remarks|
|Calcium cyanide||155 g||12 lb||7||May stain white maize and polished rice|
|Chloropicrin||26 g||2 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
|Mixture EDC75:CT25||0.44 1||4 gal||3||For maize x 1.5|
|Mixture CS216:CT84||0.27 1||2.5 gal||3||Mixture may contain 1 to 2 % SO(2)|
|Mixture EDB7:EDC30:CT63||0.21 1||2 gal||3||For maize x 1.5|
|Phosphine||1-2 g||35-70 g||4||7 days at 10-15°C
6 days at 16-20°C
5 days at 21-25°C
4 days at 26°C or above
|Surface application (gravity distribution)|
|Mixture EDC75:CT25||0.44 1||4 gal||7||For maize x 1.5|
|Mixture CS216:CT84||0.33 1||3 gal||7||For maize x 1.5|
|Mixture EDB7:EDC30:CT63||0.27 1||2.5 gal||7||For maize x 1.5|
|Carbon tetrachloride||0.55 1||5 gal||14||More often used in combination|
|Methyl bromide||26 2||2 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
|Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)||39 g||3 lb||1||Grain should be thoroughly aerated before removal|
|Mixture Chloropicrin 85: Methyl chloride 15||26 g||2 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
|Mixture ETO10:CO290||386 g||30 lb||1||Do not use on seed|
|Mixture CH3Br70:EDB30||13 g||1 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
1Bushels and gallons are in U.S. volumetric measuraments. All dosages, unless otherwise stated, are given for a grain temperature range of 21 to 25 °C(See Chapter 7 for other fumigant mixtures similar to those listed above).
|Fumigant||Dosage per m³||Dosage per 1000 bushels¹||Minimum exposure (days)||Remarks|
|Application by probe|
|Phosphine 1 to 2 g||35-70 g||4||7 days at 10-15°C
6 days at 16-20°C
5 days at 21-25°C
4 days at 26°C or above
|Surface application (gravity distribution)|
|Mixture EDC75:CT25||0.49 1||4.5 gal||7||For maize x 1.5|
|Mixture CS216:CT84||0.55 1||5 gal||7||For maize x 1.5|
|Mixture EDB7:EDC30:CT63||0.44 1||4 gal||3||For maize x 1.5|
|Methyl bromide||32.0 g||2.5 lb||1||Applied under gas tight sheet in South Africa.
Must be removed by aeration after 24 hours
|Methyl bromide||38.6 g||3 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
|HCN||38.6 g||3 lb||1||Should be thoroughly aerated before grain is moved.|
|Mixture Chloropicrin 85: Methyl chloride 15||38.6 g||3 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
|Mixture CH3Br70:EDB30||19.2 g||1.5 lb||1||Should be removed by aeration after 24 hours|
1Bushels and gallons are in U.S. volumetric measuraments. All dosages, unless otherwise stated, are given for a grain temperature range of 21 to 25 °C,unless otherwise stated.
As explained in the text, many species and varieties of plants are tolerant to methyl bromide, and those which have been injured are a small percentage of the total number tested.
Some plants may show temporary injury, such as leaf burn, leaf fall or loss of bloom, followed by complete recovery. Others are either killed outright or are so seriously injured that fumigation is out of the question. Therefore, the response is divided into these two categories.
The plants listed as having been injured while nondormant will generally be tolerant when dormant. On the other hend, plants injured when dormant would be even more susceptible to injury when actively growing. The references (a to j) given after each plant variety are listed at the end of this schedule. When the reference after an item is omitted, it will be found immediately below, with the last species or variety of the same genus.
For the most part, the plants listed here have sustained the injury in fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Plants are usually much more susceptible to injury in vacuum fumigation; for that reason it is recommended only under special circumstances, as in parts of Schedules F and G.
Further information on a wide variety of plant species is given in the "Handbook of Plant Tolerances to Methyl Bromide", USDA (1977).
A. NONDORMANT GROWING PLANTS
In this group of plants, injury has been observed following treatment at rates shown in Schedule D.
1. PLANTS SHOWING TEMPORARY INJURY AFTER TREATMENT, FOLLOWED BY COMPLETE RECOVERY
Acacia appears susceptible to temporary injury. The following species showed leaf fall, then recovery (c,d):
A. baileyana, A. decurrens, A. melanoxylon, A. verticillata
Aglaonema sinensis (a)
Aloe spp. (e)
Amphicome arguta (e) (see Incarvillea)
Araucaria excelsa (Norfolk Island Pine) (a)
Azara microphylla (c,d)
Banksia spp. (c)
Begonia fuchsioides (h)
Berberis spp. uninjured, except:
B. julianae, which should be fumigated when dormant (e)
Bouvardia var. Giant Pink (a)
Bouvardia humboldtii (a)
Bryophyllum spp. uninjured, except 3 species (e):B. aliciae, mature leaves lost.
B. miniatum, mature leaves lost
B. tubiflorum, lower leaves burned
Cactus spp. found tolerant by (a) and (e), but fumigation not recommended by (c)
Calathea vandenheckei (a)
Capsicum frutescens (red pepper) (c,d)
Cinchona spp. are tolerant, except:
C. officinalis, showed slight tip burn (e)
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (glory bower) (c, d)
Cotoneaster franchetii (b)
Cotyledon spp., occasional tip burn only (e)
Crassula arborescens (a)
Cytisus racemosus (broom). Other species tolerant (c,d)
Elaeagnus pungens (c,d)
Erica spp. (heath) (d)
Erythrina crysta-gallii (cockspur) (c,d)
Eupatorium ligustrinum, tip burn on very youngest leaf (e)
Euphorbia fulgens (scarlet plume), probably subject to leaf drop (a)
Fatsia japonica (c,d)
Ficus pandurata (fig) (d,e)
Fuchsia spp. (c,d,i)
Gardenia veitchii. Other species tolerant (a)
Genista monosperma (broom) (c,d) -
Geranium spp. (c,d)
Hibiscus spp. (c,d)
Hoheria spp. (c)
Howea forsteriana (a)
Hoya carnosa (wax plant) (c,d)
Jacaranda spp. (e)
Kitchingia (Kalanchoe) peltala (e)
Lantana spp. (lion's ear) (c,d)
Leonotis leonurus (c,d)
Leptospermum. All species (c)
Luculia. All species (c)
Maranta spp. (c,d)
Myrtus communis (myrtle) (c,d)
Nephthytis liberica (a)
Nerium oleander (c,d)
Nothofagus. All species (c)
Oncoba routledgei (e)
Osmanthus ilicifolius (aquifolium) (c,d)
Pandanus veitchii (screw pine) (c,d)
Philodendron cordatum, P. dublum (a)
Pittosporum spp. (c,d,e)
Pothos wilcoxi (f)
Psidium guajava (guava) (c,d,e)
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem cherry). Many other species not injured (c,d,e)
Spartium juncoum (Spanish broom) (c,d,e)
Spirea reevesiana (b)
Theobroma purpureum (e)
Viburnum odoratissimum (f). Many other species not injured (a)
Vitex lucens-puriri (c)
2. PLANTS KILLED OUTRIGHT OR SERIOUSLY INJURED
Abelia grandiflora (c,d)
Adiantum (maidenhair fern) (c,d)
Allamanda johnsoni (j)
Areca palm (c,d)
Asplenium nidus (bird's nest fern) (c,d)
Aster fruiticosus (c,d). Many other species tolerant
Begonia semperflorens (c , d)
Begonia tuberhybrida (c , d)
Billbergia alberti, B. nutans (a)
Camellia spp. seem to be tolerant, except C. thee, which has been seriously injured (b)
Cardiospermum integerrimum (heart seed) (e)
Celosia cristata (c,d)
Chamaecyparis spp. (false cypress) (c,d,f)
Chryeanthemum spp. may be fumigated when fully dormant (c,d,i)
Coleus blumei (c,d)
Cuphea hyssopifolia (c,d)
Cupressus arizonica, C. macrocarpa showed initial injury but soon recovered (c,d)
Cupressus sempervirens (cypress) intolerant
Dracacna warneckii (j)
Fremontia (Fremontodendron) californica (flannel bush) (c , d)
Griselinia littoralis (c,d)
Kalanchoe synsepala (e). Many other species tolerant
Lavandula pedunculata (lavender) (c,d)
Leucospermum. All species (c)
Monstera deliciosa (a)
Musa spp. (banana) (c,d)
Pelargonium hortorum (i)
Poinsettia (Euphorbia) spp. (c, d)
Pyracantha formosana (firethorn), P.yunnanensis (f). Some other species tolerant (e)
Retinospora ericoides, R. pisifera filifera, not injured (f)
Retinospora (Chamaecyparis) pisifera var. filifera aurea, and var. plumosa aurea (f)
Saintpaulia ionanthus (c,d)
Sedum adophii (stonecrop). Other species tolerant (a)
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia) (c,d)
Stephanotis floribunda (c,d)
B. FOLIATED DORMANT PLANTS
Injury has been sustained after treatments at rates shown in Schedule E.
1. PLANTS SHOWING TEMPORARY INJURY
Acer palmatum atropurpureum (Japanese maple) (c)
Daphne spp. (a)
Enkianthus campanulatus (a)
Hemerocallis spp. (day lily) (a)
Hydrangea spp. (a)
Hydrangea macrophylla (c , d)
Hydrangea paniculata (a)
Ligustrum ovalifolium (e)
Ligustrum quihoui (privet)
Ligustrum quihoui pendulum (b)
Philadelphus laxus (mock orange) (e)
Symphoricarpos chenaultii (a). Other species not injured
Tsuga canadensis pendula and T. canadensis sargentii (hemlock)(a)
2. PLANTS KILLED OUTRIGHT OR SEVERELY INJURED
Azalea var. Coral Bells, and var. Salmon Beauty (Salmon Queen) (c,d); these two varieties are quite exeptional. Azaleas generally are very tolerant (g)
Juniperus chinensis foemina (sylvestris)
Juniperus chinensis japonica
Juniperus chinensis sargentii. Partially or completely defoliated, but not killed (b)
Juniperis communis depresa plumosa
Juniperus japonica oblonga is subject to serious injury (b)
(a) Donohoe and Johnson (1939)
(b) English and Turnipseed (1946)
(c) Greig (1950-56)
(d) Harper (1942-57)
(e) Latta and Cowgill (1941)
(f) Livingstone and Swank (1941)
(9) Lounsky (1939)
(h) Mackie and Carter (1937)
(i) Richardson et al (1943b)
(j) Roark (1939)
For general information see also USDA (1976) Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual, Revised April 1976, with periodic updated additions.
The schedule is recommended for use only within the specific limits outlined below. However, in conjunction with the information on plant tolerance contained in Schedule C, it could be made the basis for experimentation on other groups of insects and varieties of plants.
Glasshouse or herbaceous plants infested with armoured scales, mealybugs, thrips, red spiders, whiteflies, aphids or leaf miners. This schedule may not be effective against soft scales and borers. For these, the vacuum fumigation treatments given in Schedule F may be attempted at the risk of plant injury.
For cyclamen mites use Schedule F. For orchids use Schedule G.
See Schedule C for list of plants sustaining injury.
Extensive experimentation on plant tolerance during the last 30 years has shown that many genera and species may be treated without injury. As a general rule, therefore, it may be said that any common glassshouse or herbaceous plant not listed among the exceptions in Schedule C may be subjected to these treatments.
Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum are not tolerant and another method of control should be employed.
Vacuum fumigation is not recommended for actively growing plants (see remarks above concerning Schedule F).
The following dosage schedule is based on Latta et al (1950). Treatments at temperatures above 30°C should be made only if unavoidable.
In conducting these treatments, the concentrations should not fall by more than 25 percent of the applied dosage in the first half hour and not by more than 50 percent during the two-hour period, e.g. for a treatment at 16 - 20°C with a dosage of 40 g/m³ the concentration, as determined by gas analysis, at 30 minutes should be 30 g/m³ and at 2 hours 20 g/m³ (USDA, 1976).
Atmospheric fumigation with methyl bromide with 2-hour exposure
|Dosage g/m³ (oz/1 000 ft³)|
|4 - 10||39 - 50||56|
|11 - 15||51 - 59||48|
|16 - 20||60 - 68||40|
|21 - 25||69 - 77||32|
|26 - 29||78 - 85||24|
|30 - 32||86 - 90||16|
A list of foliated dormant plants susceptible to injury is given in Schedule C.
Broadleaved evergreens. azaleas, rhododendrons, camelias, flex, etc. Coniferous evergreens: these are susceptible to injury and care must be taken to fumigate them when fully dormant. They are particularly sensitive at the time of breaking dormancy. Exception. Araucaria - use Schedule D.
Two schedules are given below; the first is for external infestation generally; the second for internal feeders and species or stages of insects which are difficult to kill, such as Brachvrhinus sp. Internal feeders include such species as the European pine shoot moth Rhyscionia
Atmospheric fumigation with methyl bromide
|Temperature||Dosage g/m³ (oz/l 000 ft³)||Exposure period (h)||Suggested minimum c x t product in free space of chamber (mg h/l)|
|4 - 10||39 - 50||40||3.5||80|
|11 - 15||51 - 59||40||3||72|
|16 - 20||60 - 68||40||2.5||64|
|21 - 25||69 - 77||40||2||56|
|26 - 29||78 - 85||32||2||48|
|30 - 32||86 - 90||24||2||40|
|Internal infestation2 (and insects difficult to kill, such as Brachvrhinus sp.)|
|4 - 10||39 - 50||64||3.5||126|
|11 - 15||51 - 59||64||3||114|
|16 - 20||60 - 68||64||2.5||102|
|21 - 25||69 - 77||64||2||90|
|26 - 29||78 - 85||48||2.5||84|
|30 - 32||86 - 90||40||2.5||80|
1Dosage schedule based on Latta et al (1950) and umpublished dataof
2Based on data of Carolin et al (1962) and umpublished dataof Monro.
Roots, crowns and perennials. Deciduous woody shrubs, bare-rooted fruit and shade trees. Latex-bearing plants.
Many species and stages of insects, including hibernating forms such as larvae of the oriental fruit moth Grapholitha molesta (Busck) in hibernaculae.
Cyclamen mites and possibly other species of leaf-feeding mites.
Brachyrhinus larvae are difficult to kill and 30 minutes should be added to the exposure period for atmospheric treatment below.
If available, vacuum fumigation may be more effective against internal insects. The schedule given for vacuum fumigation may also be generally applied for fully dormant nonfoliated material.
Fumigation with methyl bromide1
|Temperature||Dosage g/m³ (oz/l 000 ft³)||Exposure period (h)||Suggested minimum c x t product in free space of chamber2 (mg h/l)|
|Atmospheric (for insects on the surface)|
|4 - 10||39 - 50||56||4||128|
|11 - 15||51 - 59||48||4||116|
|16 - 20||60 - 68||40||4||104|
|21||69 and above||32||4||92|
|Vacuum3 (for internal feeding insects)|
|4 - 10||39 - 50||48||3.5|
|11 - 15||51 - 59||48||3|
|16 - 20||60 - 68||48||2.5|
1 Derived from various sources
2 Based on unpublished data of Monro
3 Dosage schedule based on Latta et al (1950).Vacuum is sustained at 100 mm Hg (4 in) during entire period of treatment.
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