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ATIBT/FAO 1999. Road infrastructures in tropical forests: Road to development or road to destruction ? This publication draws attention to the role of forest roads and the importance they play in the social and economic development of tropical forest countries and to the danger, which forest roads can present for the environmentally sound management of forest ecosystems. 64 pp, English/French. Contact

Bruenig, Eberhard F., 1998. Conservation and management of tropical rainforests: an integrated approach to sustainability, CAB International, 339 pp, English

FAO 1998 Environmentally sound road construction in mountainous terrain applying advanced operating methods and tools by Norbert Winkler, Forest harvesting case study No. 10, FAO Rome, English. Contact

FAO 1998. Reduced impact timber harvesting in the tropical natural forest in Indonesia by Elias, Forest harvesting case study No. 11, FAO Rome, English. Contact:

FAO 1999. Austria expert meeting on environmentally sound forest operations for countries in transition to market economies, Proceedings of the September Expert Meeting held in Ort/Gmunden, Austria in 1998. FAO Rome, English. Contact:

FAO 1999 Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific, Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission, The Code is a useful reference for foresters, policy makers, and industry leaders. Rich in diagrams and sample documents, it provides practical guidance on important aspects of forest harvesting. 133 pp, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 10200 Thailand, English. Contact

FAO 1999. Environmentally sound forest infrastructure development and harvesting in Bhutan by Norbert Winkler, Forest harvesting case study No. 12, FAO Rome, English. Contact:

FAO 2000. FAO Model Code of Forest Harvesting Practice by Dykstra and Heinrich, FAO Rome, Chinese. Contact: (previously published in English, French and Spanish)

FAO/ECE/ILO 1999. Forestry training for target groups that are hard to reach. Seminar Proceedings Joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Technology, held at La Bastide-des-Jourdans, France in April 1999. France, English/French . Contact:

FEG 1999. Forestry Engineering for Tomorrow, proceedings of the June 1999 conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, Forest Engineering Group, Institution of Agricultural Engineers, email:

Higman, Sophie, et al. 1999. The Sustainable Forestry Handbook. ISBN 1853835994, 289pp, English. See

Karsky, D.; Patterson, D.; Jasumback, T. 1999. Evaluation of the Trimble ProXRS GPS receiver using satellite real-time DGPS corrections. 4 pp. USDA Forest Service, Tech. & Dev. Center, Fort Missoula, Missoula, MT 59801 USA, English. dkarsky/

Kellogg, Loren, 1999. Timber Harvesting and Transport Technologies for Forestry in the New Millenium, proceedings of conference in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. 206 pp. The three theme topics are: Improving timber utilization and economics, Worker training programs and ergonomics, and Implementing environmental assessments.

Lee, J.W.; Park, B.J. 1998. Performance analysis of earthwork using excavator in the case of forest road construction. Journal of Korean Forestry Society, v. 87(1) p 82-89. English summary.

Moore, Patrick, 1999. Green Spirit - Trees are the Answer 150 pp. Vancouver, B.C., Canada, English

Olsen, E.D.; Hossain, M.M.; Miller, M.E. 1998. Statistical comparison of methods used in harvesting work studies. Res. Contrib. 23. 41 p. Oregon State University, Forest Research Lab, Corvallis, OR 97331-9877 USA.

Page-Dumroese, Deborah S. 1999. Best method for determining soil bulk density. Journal of Forestry 97(5):Focus 7.

Suhr, Jim L. D., 1999. The Choosing By Advantages Decisionmaking System, ISBN 1-56720-217-9, 304 pp. English. Most decision-making methods in use today are flawed and result in less than optimal results. Choosing By Advantages (CBA) is a tested and effective system for determining the best decision by looking at the advantages of each option. It is an easy to use process that will be valuable to businesses, government agencies and individuals. CBA is surprisingly simple to follow and will improve one's ability to create the best possible results in any given situation. See

More publications by research institutes

It appears, based on the information received here in Rome, that the three premier sources of forest harvesting information and research in the world are:

  • FERIC: Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada See the website for individual email addresses.

  • New Zealand Forest Research: Now incorporating LIRO (New Zealand Logging Industry Research Organisation) The email format for individuals

  • SKOGFORSK: Forestry Research Institute of Sweden The email format for individuals is:

    The following summaries provide a sample of recent papers by these three organizations and contact points for more information.

    Improving Cable Extraction Efficiency. One aspect of cable logging needing attention is the efficiency of the extraction phase. Liro studied the effects of three operational decisions on extraction efficiency. These decisions related to:

    Rien Visser, Shane McMahon, Tony Evanson and Warwick Palmer in Liro Report Vol. 24 No. 16 1999

    CTI on logging trucks improves both mobility and tractive effort. It is estimated that the closure of roads during the spring thaw costs the Swedish forest industry more than US$50 million a year in increased storage costs and resultant quality losses in the timber.

    SkogForsk has conducted trials with a central tyre inflation (CTI) system fitted on a logging truck and trailer. The system allows the driver to vary the tyre pressures while the vehicle is moving. In the trials, the CTI-equipped rig made 30 passes over a road that would normally have been closed for the thaw, without causing excessive rutting. A conventional rig with normal tyre pressures caused serious rutting of the road in just six passes. Paul Granlund and Gert Andersson in SkogForsk Results 9802

    Significant benefits of CTI-equipped timber trucks. If a suitable number of timber-haulage vehicles in Sweden were equipped with CTI, not only could haul costs be reduced but the volume of timber needed to be stockpiled in readiness for the spring thaw would also be smaller.

    Because of extensive snow breakage, 4 000 tonnes of timber were extracted to the side of one forest truck road. The highway authority granted a dispensation for one truck equipped with CTI to carry full payloads on the road. A standard truck would have taken 260 trips to transport all the timber on the road. The CTI-equipped truck needed only 95 trips. Moreover, no visible rutting damage was done to the road. Paul Granlund, Torbjörn Eliasson and Benny Ersson in SkogForsk Resultat No. 4  1999

    Wood flow problems in Swedish forestry. All countries are facing increasing international competition. Improvement of wood flow towards integration of supply lines from forest to customer has become a key issue. Both the costs and the environmental impact of producing, transporting and processing wood must be reduced. The problems range from planning at the strategic level through to the operational level. Problem definition and modelling and solution suggestions are presented. The model has been tested on real-world data. Summary results from the tests are presented in the report. Dick Carlsson, SkogForsk, Mikael Rönnqvist, Division of Optimization, Linköpings University in SkogForsk Report 9901

    Remote sensing in forestry planning. Computers are becoming both more powerful and cheaper to buy. Geographical information systems (GIS) are increasingly user friendly. This creates a growing demand for digital data from remote sensing. SkogForsk has compiled details of all the sources of remote sensing data (aerial photos and satellite images) that are available on the market.

    The techniques were assessed in which such information can be used in forestry planning today and in the foreseeable future. Johan Bergström, SkogForsk and Fredrik Walter, Center for Image Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Uppsala University in SkogForsk Resultat No.8  1999

    Smarter route planning for forwarders benefits both profitability and the environment. Extraction by forwarder in Sweden accounts for about 10% of the cost of raw materials to the forest industry. It is possible, by combining technology such as GPS with optimization programs, to find better routes for forwarders. A recent study indicates that the extraction cost could be reduced by as much as US$31 million a year. Optimized route planning for forwarders also offers environmental benefits, such as lower fuel consumption, reduced emissions and less damage to the ground.

    The technique studied involved equipping a forwarder with a GPS unit which automatically displays the positions of all piles of timber. Per-Åke Arvidsson, Per Eriksson and Ingemar Eriksson, SkogForsk Mikael Rönnqvist, Andreas Westerlund and Peter Igeklint, Division of Optimization, Department of Mathematics, Linköping University in SkogForsk Resultat No.22  1999

    Reduction of trail density in a partial cut with a cut-to-length system. This Alberta Canada study examined the effect of increased forwarder trail spacing and the use of ghost trails. Harvester production was similar in both treatments. Forwarder productivity, soil disturbance and stand damage increased with the use of ghost trails. S.M. Sambo in FERIC Technical Note 293 August 1999

    A new approach to thinning: Integrated off-ground handling reduces damage and increases productivity. A new system known as integrated off-ground handling (OGH) is being introduced in thinning operations.

    Trees are cut selectively and, still upright, are lifted straight into the striproad where, parallel to the direction of the road, they are lowered into the harwarder's (integrated harvester-forwarder) load space for immediate processing. The loading operation has therefore been eliminated altogether. The problems and the potential of the system are discussed. Ulf Hallonborg, SkogForsk, Stefan Bucht and Stefan Olaison, Sydved AB in SkogForsk Resultat No 23  1999

    Supporting stems during bucking reduces splits and is profitable-despite lower productivity. Bucking splits, which occur during bucking (cross-cutting) by harvesters, are a serious problem. The harvester feeds the tree, allowing the butt end to hang free. This gives rise to heavy stresses in the stem, which can result in splits occurring at the bucking points. They are difficult to detect when the stem is fed through the head and often first show after the sawn timber has been dried.

    Even if the incidence of splitting is as low as 20%, it still pays to provide support for the longest and most valuable logs. Ulf Hallonborg and Berndt Nordén in SkogForsk Resultat No.11  1999

    Correct technique reduces bucking splits. Often between 40 and 70% of the bucked logs are split. Moreover, the incidence is highest in the most valuable logs. The measures that can be taken include:

  • Supporting the free end of the log.

  • Waiting for an unsupported log to stop swinging.

  • Ensuring that the saw chain is kept sharp.

  • Maintaining a high saw-chain speed.

    A new solution is being introduced, which could result in almost split-free bucking. That is automatic lowering of the boom and processing unit during bucking. Ulf Hallonborg and Paul Granlund in SkogForsk Resultat No.19  1999

    Effect of tree size and stand density on harvester and forwarder productivity in commercial thinning. Statistical analyses revealed that tree size, but not stand density, affected harvester and forwarder productivity. Brian Bulley in FERIC Technical Note 292, July 1999.

    Evaluation of Pulp Top Piece Extraction in Ground-Based Operations. This report summarized the effects of top piece extraction. The analysis shows the following:

    The definition of a single minimum pulp specification is impracticable due to the effects of site, crop, tree breakage, extraction productivity and pulp demand. Shane McMahon in Liro Report Vol. 24 No. 15 1999

    Bioenergy fuel extraction from stands with cleaning backlog. The study took place in a 25-year-old plantation of Norway spruce in which there was a heavy overgrowth of birch. The wood removed had a mean diameter of just over 5 cm and a height of 3.5-16 m.

    The total logging cost was approximately US$15/m3 (loose volume). The revenue from the fuelwood was about US$13/m3. Thus, extraction of the fuelwood cost US$2/m3 or less than US$475 per hectare. The estimated cost of conventional cleaning would have been about the same. Per Eriksson and Berndt Nordén in SkogForsk Resultat No.7  1999

    Harvesting bioenergy fuel in thinning causes substantial increment losses. The forest owner must take account of the increment losses when assessing the commercial viability of extracting bioenergy fuel in conjunction with thinning. Staffan Jacobson, SkogForsk and Mikko Kukkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute in SkogForsk Resultat No.13  1999

    Growth losses due to harvesting of wood fuel costs money-an attempt to quantify the cost of future increment losses. New research findings show that the extraction of wood fuel from the forest is detrimental to future growth. The resultant net cost in final fellings was US$0-110 per hectare. The calculation took into account the additional profit that it is assumed the owner gets from the regeneration, since the extraction of wood fuel probably results in a higher seedling-survival rate and lower costs for planting and subsequent cleaning. Staffan Mattsson in SkogForsk Resultat No.14  1999

    Labour Inspectorate follow-up of the OCH Project: The Swedish forestry industry is headed in the right direction-but the fight against repetitive stress injuries will continue. The results of the OCH project have been positive. For example: more machine operators now work in set teams where tasks are rotated between members. Weine Andersson, Labour Inspectorate in Umeå in SkogForsk Resultat No.10  1999

    Ergonomic guidelines for forest machines. The purpose of Ergonomic guidelines for forest machines is to provide guidance on ergonomic matters for manufacturers, buyers and users of forest machines in the hope that it will encourage the development of safe forest machines that are easy to use and maintain. The topics covered include: Cab access, working posture, visibility, operator's seat, controls, noise, vibration, climate control in the cab, gases and particulates, lighting, maintenance, brakes and operator safety. SkogForsk

    Three heavy-duty forwarders tested: ergonomics and maintenance. In October 1998, SkogForsk conducted a series of trials with the three largest forwarders on the market in Sweden: the Rottne SMV Rapid, the Timberjack 1710 and the Valmet 890. Regarding ergonomics, there were no significant differences between the machines-all three had serious shortcomings. Goran Erikson and Dag Myhrman in SkogForsk Resultat No.5  1999

    Three heavy-duty forwarders tested: drawbar pull, brakes, rolling resistance and fuel consumption In these trials, the Timberjack machine developed the highest drawbar pull and had the most-effective brakes, whereas the Valmet recorded the lowest fuel consumption. Björn Löfgren, Paul Granlund and Torbjörn Brunberg in SkogForsk Resultat No. 2  1999

    Optimizing forwarder payloads. Many heavy-duty forwarders do not exploit their full potential to carry the maximum permissible payload. Because the density of timber varies widely between assortments and from season to season, some form of load-weighing facility is needed.

    There are two methods at present for weighing timber on forwarders: load cells in the bunks and loader-mounted sensors that record the weight continuously during loading. Torbjörn Brunberg in SkogForsk Resultat No.1  1999

    Rehabilitation of Logging Extraction Tracks. Logging extraction tracks can occupy up to 15 percent of the potentially productive land area of a forest. The main issues for tree growth on skid trails are compaction and nutrient deficiency. Significant differences among six skid trail treatments were observed at three trials. Peter Hall in Liro Report Vol. 24 No. 6 1999.

    Software: Yield and Calc - Windows programs for yield calculation and system analysis by SkogForsk.

    The Yield program is used to calculate the yield of sawlogs, pulpwood and forest-energy wood. The user can influence the distribution and accuracy of the assortments by choosing different bucking breaks and empirical exploitation percentages.

    The Calc program is used to calculate the cost per hour and per unit output for different machines. A choice of nine units of measurement is available. Both costs and revenue for the machine systems can be computed. Contacts: Yield: John Arlinger Calc: Magnus Thor or Berndt Nordén

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