1 PROPOSAL CONTENT AND EVALUATION CRITERIA
Importance and Significance of the Work
This proposal is one of eight research plans comprising the initial research programme of the Brackishwater Station (BS) of the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI). These proposals have been prepared within the overall framework of the original Five Year Research Plan envisaged for the BS, but additionally take into account the present lack of experimental and laboratory facilities due to the delay in acquiring the selected site in Paikgacha. The proposed work should be conducted in the field using existing FRI staff who have already been assigned to the BS plus additional staff specifically recruited for the BS.
Since some access to laboratory facilities will be necessary, it is recommended that, until such time that construction of the BS is completed and it becomes fully operational, project staff will be based at the FRI headquarters at Mymensingh under the supervision of the CSO appointed for the BS.
The proposed three year study of the impact of brackishwater aquaculture development on the mangrove environment and the various activities supported by this resource in the Sundarbans should commence as soon as the necessary project staff are available.
Fisheries production in Bangladesh is extremely important to the economy. Although the capture and culture fisheries contribute about 2.9% of the GDP and 9% of foreign exchange earnings, fisheries products account for 6% of the total per capita protein intake and about 80% of the per capita animal protein intake. The estimated total fisheries production in Bangladesh during 1983–84 was 751,000 t. The production from inland waters was about 577,000 t (77%), of which 118,400 (21%) was contributed by aquaculture. In recent years fisheries production has declined from about 822,000 t in 1974– 75, whilst daily per capita fish consumption has fallen from 33 g in 1963–64 to 21 g in 1983–84 (a decrease of 36%).
Even if per capita fish consumption is to be maintained at the current level, fisheries production will need to be increased to 1,100,000 t by the year 2005 in order to keep pace with the projected population growth. If daily per capita fish consumption is to reach 38 g (recommended by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science) then production will have to be increased to 1,900,000 t. This represents an increase of about 150% above present fisheries production levels. The Government of Bangladesh has therefore introduced an ambitious fisheries development programme in the Third Five Year Plan, to increase production from both inland and saline waters for both domestic consumption and for export (Rahman, 1986; Anon, 1985d).
The Brackishwater Station (BS) is being established by the Fisheries Research Institute to conduct research into the cultivation of brackishwater species to help meet both domestic and export requirements (Anon, 1986e, 1986g, 1987a, 1987b, 1987c; Karim, 1986a; Farmer, 1988; Muir, 1989). At the present time brackishwater aquaculture is virtually limited to shrimps of the genera Macrobrachium and Penaeus. Penaeid shrimps (mostly Penaeus monodon) currently provide an increasing source of foreign currency through exports to the USA, Europe and particularly Japan. Brackishwater aquaculture production for local consumption is minimal. Smaller, commercially less important penaeid shrimps (Metapenaeus brevicornis and Metapenaeus monoceros) and some Macrobrachium rosenbergii are consumed locally. Small quantities of mullet (Mugil spp) are also produced as a by-product or secondary crop in some shrimp ponds.
Shrimp culture in Bangladesh started to develop in the early 1970s. At that time there was little local demand and the price of shrimp was consequently very low. The potential of farmed shrimp as a hard currency earner was quickly realised by the private sector, and within 10 years more than 26,000 ha of shrimp ponds were under cultivation. During this period the shrimp farming industry received little or no support from the Bangladesh Government. Only since 1980 with the introduction of the Second Five Year Plan (1980–85) has brackishwater aquaculture been given official recognition by the Government.
The Directorate of Fisheries has estimated that by the beginning of 1986 more than 115,000 ha had been turned over to shrimp farming activities in the whole of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming takes place in the districts of Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Barisal, Patuakhali, Bhola, Chittagong and Cox's Bazar. The two most important areas lie in the Khulna-Satkhira area to the north of the Sundarbans (ca 90,000 ha) and in the vicinity of Cox's Bazar (ca 24,000 ha). According to the Third Five Year Plan (1985–90) shrimp production is expected to increase from 9,000 t in 1984–85 to 34,000 t by 1989–90.
Market Demand and Economic importance
The local demand for fish is likely to approach 1.9 million t yr-1 by the year 2005. Some of this demand will have to be met by increasing the production from existing inland waters through the introduction of improved husbandry and water management practices, however, other sources of fish will need to be sought. Bangladesh has about 2,500,000 ha of coastal tidal lands, of which about 2,167,000 ha may be suitable for aquaculture. There is therefore an enormous potential for increasing fish production through brackishwater aquaculture. So far these coastal tidal lands contribute very little to the domestic consumption of fish, although they are already an important and increasing source of foreign exchange through farmed shrimp exports.
The local demand for farmed shrimp in Bangladesh is poor since very few Bangladeshis eat shellfish. However, the international market is extremely important and a major source of hard currency for Bangladesh. It has been projected that the export value of shrimp will have increased from about US$ 57 million in 1984–85 to around US$ 225 million in 1989–90. Most of the shrimp produced in Bangladesh is exported to Japan. Recent export prices for shrimp shipped to Japan are shown in Table 1.
Less emphasis has been placed on the freshwater shrimp market by shrimp processing and exporting companies. This may be a reflection of the preference for marine shrimp in Japan, which is currently the main market for Bangladeshi shrimps. There are increasing market opportunities for both freshwater and brackishwater shrimp in Europe, whilst the US market can still absorb additional imports of good quality brackishwater species (Rackowe et al, 1983).
Table 1. Shrimp export prices (C & F Tokyo) January 1989.
|International market size|
|Equivalent harvest size|
(whole shrimp kg-1)
Most shrimp farms in Bangladesh are operated on a very extensive basis, relying on natural productivity and little or no management. Current production levels generally lie within the range of <50 kg ha-1 yr-1 to >300 kg ha-1 yr-1, although the majority of shrimp farms are operating towards the lower end of the scale. A few enterprising farmers are claiming production levels of 900 kg ha-1 yr-1 or more.
In the long term there is enormous potential to increase the total production of shrimp in Bangladesh. This can be achieved in two ways: first by encouraging the introduction of more intensive shrimp farming methods whereby average production could be increased to >600 kg ha-1 yr-1 (Table 2), and secondly by developing freshwater shrimp farming which has the potential of being even more important economically than brackishwater shrimp farming.
Much of the area currently used for brackishwater shrimp production in the vicinity of Khulna and Satkhira, could be utilised for the production of both brackishwater shrimp during the dry season and freshwater shrimp during the rainy season. The latest estimate (1986) of the area of land under shrimp production is 115,000 ha. This leaves an enormous potential for increasing not only brackishwater and freshwater shrimp production for export, but also brackishwater fish production for local consumption.
It is, however, essential that the importance of the Sundarbans to both the capture and culture fisheries is fully appreciated and that these forests should not be cleared for the construction of fish and shrimp ponds. This is issue is the subject of the present proposal.
Table 2. Characteristics of different levels of intensification of brackishwater shrimp farming. [In practice, the distinction between categories is artifical. A continuum exists between the lowest and highest levels of production.]
|Feed||natural only||natural plus supplementary feed||formulated feed (complete diet)|
|Water supply||tidal||tidal or pumped||pumped|
|Aeration||none||none||paddles or blowers|
|Stocking density (ha-1)||1,000–10,000||10,000–50,000||50,000–200,000|
|Tambak area (ha)||2.0–15.0||1.0–4.0||0.1–1.0|
|Yield (kg ha-1 yr-1)||100–500||600–4,000||5,000–15,000|
|Unit cost (US$ ha-1)*||1,000–2,000||3,000–5,000||8,000–12,000|
|Gross income (US$ ha-1)||1,000–5,000||6,000–40,000||50,000–150,000|
* Approximate construction cost for a bare site.
Overview and description
Brackishwater aquaculture has become increasingly important throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, especially in the cultivation of penaeid shrimp for export to Japan, North America and Europe. Both brackishwater and freshwater shrimp farming are still major growth industries in many parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Rackowe et al, 1983) and represents an extremely valuable element in the economy of many developing countries as a major source of foreign exchange.
Shrimp culture activities have traditionally been dependent on sources of wild or natural fry collected from coastal nursery areas in the case of brackishwater (penaeid) shrimp or river systems in the case of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium), although there has been an increasing dependence in some countries on hatchery reared fry. Brackishwater shrimp and freshwater shrimp display quite different life cycles, which need to be taken into account when considering the exploitation or even the assessment of these resources.
Penaeid shrimps are found thoughout the tropics and sub-tropics in coastal and estuarine waters. The life cycle of most penaeid shrimps follows the same general pattern. The adults spawn offshore and each female can produce up to 500,000 eggs. The minute eggs hatch very quickly after being released directly into the water. The planktonic larvae pass through a number of distinct stages (up to six naulius stages, three protozoea stages and three mysis stages) before metamorphosis. The late larval stages and postlarvae migrate towards the coast seeking lower salinity conditions in estuarine and mangrove areas before settling on the bottom. The postlarvae grow rapidly as a result of the enormous biological productivity in these coastal ecosystems.
After spending one to two months living in these rich nursery grounds the young shrimps gradually migrate away from the coast where they eventually mature and spawn to complete the life cycle. Widespread destruction of coastal mangroves throughout the tropics and sub-tropics has led to very substantial decreases in the landings of shrimp fisheries in affected areas, and shortages of shrimp fry for stocking shrimp farms.
Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium spp) are found throughout the tropics and sub-tropics in most inland freshwater areas including lakes, rivers, swamps, irrigation ditches, canals and ponds, as well as in estuarine areas. Most species require brackishwater during the initial stages of their life cycle, although a few species are able to complete their life cycle in inland saline and freshwater lakes. Some species prefer clear riverine conditions, whilst others (including Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are found in extremely turbid conditions.
Most Macrobrachium spp display a reversal of the migration pattern common to most penaeid shrimp. As the adult shrimps reach sexual maturity they migrate downstream into more saline conditions (≤12 ‰). As is the case amongst all the Palaemonidae the eggs are carried on the pleopods unlike penaeid shrimps. Macrobrachium spp normally produce only 5,000–100,000 eggs. The eggs hatch under brackishwater conditions and the larvae take several weeks to pass through 8–11 distinct larval stages before completing their metamorphosis.
The postlarvae begin to migrate upstream into freshwater conditions one to two weeks after metamorphosis and are soon able to swim and crawl against rapidly flowing currents. They are able to climb vertical surfaces and cross land provided that there is abundant moisture available (New & Singholka, 1985).
As yet there have been no thorough investigations on the magnitude of the brackishwater and freshwater shrimp fry resources of Bangladesh, although it recognised that the main collection centres are Satkhira, Khulna and Cox's Bazar (Funegaard, 1986). It is believed that the Sundarbans provide the main nursery areas for brackishwater shrimp in Bangladesh and neighbouring West Bengal (India). Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to the need to protect coastal mangrove forests as vital nursery grounds for penaeid shrimp (Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976; FAO, 1982; Goulding 1980), although less importance has been attached to the protection of freshwater shrimp fry resources.
The Sundarbans comprise the world's largest single saline forest and extend to about 1.0 million ha (10,000 km2), of which about 587,000 ha lie in southwest Bangladesh and a further 419,000 ha in West Bengal (FAO, 1984; Silas, 1987; Mahmood, 1987). It is a complex estuarine ecosystem, dominated by high forest cover and entirely influenced by regular tidal inundation. A smaller tract (8,500 ha) of natural mangrove forest, the Chakaria Sundarbans, used to exist in the delta of the Mathamuhuri river in the Chittagong district.
Since 1980, the Chakaria Sundarbans have been largely destroyed due to the irresponsible permanent flooding of this land for shrimp farming activities (see Chowdhury, 1987). A narrow belt of mangroves also fringe the Naf estuary and offshore islands, comprising a further 1,800 ha. In recent years the Forestry Department has been engaged in an active programme of mangrove planting and more than 35,000 ha have now been planted (Dalmacio & Bajracharya, 1989), particularly in the islands lying in the central part of the Padma-Meghna (Ganges-Brahmaputra) delta.
The fauna and flora of the Sundarbans (East and West Bengal) have been described by Prain (1903), Chaffey and Sandom (1985), Chaffey et al (1985), Karim and Khan (1980), and Blower (1985). The Sundarbans comprise a large number of heavily forested and swampy deltaic islands, which support amongst others: Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris), axis deer (Cervus axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). Since the beginning of this century five major species have become extinct in the Sundarbans: hog deer (Axis procinus), wild water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and the mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris).
The vast network of tidal creeks and waterways that intersperse the Sundarbans are inhabited by at least four species of dolphin, otters, and numerous species of birds, fish, shrimps, crabs and molluscs (Mahmood & Khan, 1980; Khan, 1982; Ahmed, 1981, 1984; FAO, 1984).
Two centuries ago the Sundarbans were much more extensive than they are now, although the history of their exploitation is not well documented. Much of the area within the districts of Khulna, Barisal, Patuakhali and Chittagong were at one time covered by mangrove forest. Although shrimp culture is officially prohibited within the Sunderbans, numerous shrimp farms have been established along its borders and in neighbouring areas. It is also believed that some encroachment of the mangrove forest by shrimp farms may have already taken place illegally in some areas. A preliminary assessment of the impact of shrimp farming on the mangroves of Bangladesh has been prepared by Mahmood (1987).
Traditional products from exploitation of the Sunderbans include: poles and round timber, mostly sundri (Heritiera fomes); firewood; thatching and house building materials (Nypah fructicans and Phoenix paludosa); molluscs shells to manufacture lime for consumption with areca nuts and betel leaves; honey and beeswax. More recently trees have been felled for sawn timber, and the manufacture of wood pulp, matches, hardboard and pallets.
It appears that the Sundarbans are continuing to be over-exploited for timber (Chaffey et al, 1985) and are further threatened by other activites such as shrimp farming. It is therefore essential that the environmental impact of aquaculture development on the Sundarbans should be properly assessed without further delay.
Although there is an enormous potential for the development of both freshwater and brackishwater shrimp farming in Bangladesh, there is relatively little scientific literature available in respect of the shrimp resources of Bangladesh. It is therefore very important that the impact of brackishwater aquaculture on the Sundarbans should be assessed before further attempts are made to exploit this resource on a non-sustainable basis (ie by clearing or flooding the forest for pond construction) in the development of the export-oriented shrimp farming industry. The greatest economic benefit to Bangladesh will be achieved by expoiting the Sundarbans as an integrated resource (forest products, capture fisheries, aquaculture, agriculture, wildlife conservation and tourism) on a sustainable basis.
Current Status of Shrimp Culture in Bangladesh
As has already been described, there is currently relatively little brackishwater aquaculture in Bangladesh in comparison with the potential for future development. Virtually all brackishwater production at the present time is directed towards the farming of penaeid shrimp.
Most shrimp farming has developed within polders created by the Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) in low-lying coastal flood plains. These activities have been started without the consent of the BWDB, and one of the major concerns has been the creation of unauthorised sluice gates or channels through the perimeter dykes of the polders. Only those areas that are low enough to permit inundation of the land by at least 0.5 m of water at spring tides have generally been used for shrimp farming (Karim, 1987).
Only two species are deliberately stocked in ponds: Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Of these P monodon is by far the more important. Other species of penaeid shrimps are also cultivated, through the accidental introduction of their fry when the ponds are filled or water exchange takes place. These include: Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus monoceros and Metapenaeus brevicornis.
Shrimp farming in Bangladesh relies entirely on the supply of wild fry for stocking purposes. It has been estimated that 1–3 billion fry of P monodon were harvested in 1985. The main collection centres are Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar. At present, most fry collection for P monodon is conducted within the rivers and creeks of the coastal flood plain. It has been suggested that there may be a huge unexploited resource within the Sundarbans.
Collection of shrimp fry is carried out using either a fixed bagnet (behundi jal) which relies on tidal streams in small rivers and creeks to carry postlarval shrimp into the codend, or alternatively triangular (or less frequently rectangular) nets which are pushed or pulled along the bed of the river or creek. In Cox's Bazar shrimp fry collection is also carried out along the beach. In the Khulna-Satkhira area the peak season for shrimp fry is February-May, whilst at Cox's Bazar it is April-June.
Shrimp fry collectors transfer their catches to earthenware bowls which are then carried back to the villages where the fry are sorted and counted by children using white enamelled plates. This undoubtedly results in a very large wastage of fry of both penaeid shrimps and other commercially important species including fish. The shrimp fry then pass through a chain of middlemen before reaching the shrimp farmers, during which the fry are usually transported in 20–30 l aluminium vessels using every conceivable form of transport. Shrimp fry mortality is believed to be very high, due to extreme water temperature and salinity fluctuations, low dissolved oxygen levels, and even the use of table salt in the mistaken belief that this wll provide the correct salinity for the fry.
The price of P monodon fry in the Khulna-Satkhira area has risen dramatically from about Tk 40–50 in 1980 to Tk 400-600 per thousand (postlarvae of ca 15 mm total length) in 1988. The price of shrimp fry is much lower in the vicinity of Cox's Bazar being only Tk 40–100 per thousand for fry of a similar size.
Macrobrachium fry (postlarvae and juveniles) are collected in the Khulna region for stocking freshwater or low salinity brackishwater shrimp farms. There are no estimates available on the number of fry collected annually. Fry are available in the Khulna area from April onwards with the peak demand occurring in July. The price of Macrobrachium fry in the Satkhira area in 1986 was Tk 500–1,000 per thousand (25–50 mm total length), although at Paikgacha prices were only half this figure. Hatchery reared Macrobrachium fry produced in Cox's Bazar were being sold in 1988 for Tk 440 per thousand (15–20 mm total length).
In the Khulna-Satkhira area the shrimp farming pattern, often in rotation with agriculture, reflects the ambient seasonal salinity fluctuations in response to the monsoon:
January-July [high salinity season]:
August-December [low salinity season]:
In the Cox's Bazar area this pattern may be reversed due to the generally higher ambient salinities. Therefore some farmers produce salt during the the dry season and brackishwater shrimp during the rainy season.
Most of the shrimp farming is carried out within larged dyked areas (polders or ghers). Transplanted aman rice can be grown from August-December, when water and soil salinities are low. Agricultural crop production from January to July is difficult due to the shortage of freshwater and increased salinities in the soil. Acid sulphate soils may also present special problems in some areas.
Before the recent and rapid growth of shrimp farming, the land used to be left fallow during the dry season and used instead for grazing cattle and water buffalo. Animal dung remaining on the land, if not collected for fuel, would help to increase the production of aman rice in the following rainy season. The loss of grazing has resulted in very serious conflicts in land use in some areas.
Until recently all shrimp farmers, either individually or in groups, have leased land within BWDB polders. In some cases the land has been seized from the rightful leaseholders by force. The BWDB perimeter dykes are deliberately breached and wooden sluice gates or reinforced concrete culverts installed before repairing the dykes. The ponds, which may extend up to 500 acres (200 ha) or more, are usually allowed to remain dry during January after havesting the rice. The stubble is left in place. The ponds are then flooded during spring tides.
Since the early 1980s the Government of Bangladesh has played an active rôle in improving the level of shrimp farming husbandry and technology. Screens to prevent the entry of predators and competitors have become much more widespread, in combination with the selective stocking of fry. Simple nursery production methods have been introduced in some cases through the construction of a shallow nursery pond within the confines of each growout pond. Pond preparation, liming, fertilisation, pest control, nursery production, supplementary feeding and water management have only started to be introduced during the last five years, and even now are employed in only a few areas.
Recently P monodon production has been increased by the more enterprising farmers from <50 kg ha-1 yr-1 to >300 kg ha-1 yr-1. In the case of the Allah-Wala shrimp farm at Cox's Bazar, production of up to 900 kg ha-1 yr-1 was claimed during 1988.
There are plenty of signs that shrimp production levels in Bangladesh will continue to rise as a result of the gradual introduction of more intensive practices. At the present time, however, most farms are operated on an extensive basis, with relatively few examples of semi-intensive production.
A major constraint to the future growth of the shrimp farming industry is likely to be the supply of wild fry of both freshwater and brackishwater species for stocking purposes. As yet, no survey of the extent and abundance of the shrimp fry resources has been attempted, although this is the subject of a closely related research proposal that has been prepared for the BS:
Survey and Assessment of Shrimp Fry Resources: code no O-01.
This subject is of direct relevance to the future exploitation of the Sundarbans, and in particular the environmental impact assessment of aquaculture proposed here.
Previous Research in Bangladesh
Some research on the development of brackishwater shrimp cultivation has already been completed at Chittagong University (sponsored by BARC) and the Directorate of Fisheries.
Directorate of Fisheries:
A forest inventory of the Sundarbans, including wildlife conservation and related issues. [ODA]
The first of the public sector shrimp farming activities in Bangladesh was the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP) shrimp farm at Satkhira. This semi-intensive demonstration and research unit has recently been taken over by the Gramin Bank and is now known as the Satkhira Shrimp Farm.
Very little by way of practical research results is available on the subject shrimp farming, but there is a very large source of information on the Sundarbans (Blower, 1985; Chaffey et al, 1985; Chaffey & Sandom, 1985; Brammer et al, 1988).
Present Status of Research in Bangladesh
Research on shrimp culture and related topics is currently being undertaken or alternatively being planned by the Fisheries Research Institute, the Directorate of Fisheries and Chittagong University. In most cases this work has only started recently and few research results are available. Some of this work is sponsored by BARC, whilst the rest is supported by ADB, FAO/UNDP and the World Bank.
The various projects are summarised below:
Fisheries Research Institute:
Directorate of Fisheries:
Integrated resource study on the Sundarbans. [Planned.]
Studies on growth and quality of shrimp and mullet wth supplementary feeds (1986 onwards).
The largest of the Government shrimp farming projects is the IDA shrimp Culture Project which is being adminstered by the Directorate of Fisheries. The Project comprises two parts: one near Khulna and another south of Cox's Bazar. The budget for the entire project is 117 crore Taka (US$ 36.5 million). The six year Project (1985/86 to 1990/91) involves the development of 3,500 acres (1,405 ha) of shrimp-cum-paddy farming in the Khulna area, most of which will be leased to individual farmers as 10 acre (4 ha) ponds. This part of the Project will also operate a demonstration farm and a hatchery, and provide an extension service for the leaseholders and other local farmers.
The second part of the IDA Shrimp Culture Project based at Cox's Bazar will comprise a penaeid shrimp hatchery and 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of shrimp ponds at Rampura within an existing polder with a perimeter of 39 miles (62 km). Single 10 acre (4 ha) ponds will be leased to individual shrimp farmers. A further 12,000 acres (4,900 ha) have been earmarked for subsequent development by the private sector. Some of the project area was originally covered with shrubby mangroves. In the long term it is planned to establish a total of nine private hatcheries. A 22 acre (9 ha) demonstration farm and training centre will be built soon on a site already selected at Teknaf.
The ADB shrimp farming project at Rampura, also near Cox's Bazar, comprises a 50 acre (20 ha) demonstration shrimp farm for penaeid shrimps and a further 1,715 acres (700 ha) for private farmers. Some of this project area was also originally covered with shrubby mangroves. The concept is the same as for the IDA project in that single 11 acre (4 ha) ponds will be leased to 115 individual shrimp farmers. The demonstration farm comprises 13 growout ponds of 13.4 ha each and four smaller nursery ponds.
As soon as the Brackishwater Station of the Fisheries Research Institute has been constructed and becomes fully operational, the FRI will play an increasingly important national role in conducting research into brackishwater aquaculture and its impact on the natural environment.
2 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
The overall purpose of this research project is to assess the environmental impact of aquaculture on the mangrove environment in Bangladesh and formulate appropriate policies and guidelines for the sustainable exploitation of the Sundarbans both in terms of the conservation of shrimp nursery grounds and the availability of shrimp fry for recruitment to the shrimp fishery in the Bay of Bengal and for stocking brackishwater shrimp farms in the coastal flood plains. Parts of this project will be relevant to the three closely related projects which have been proposed to investigate the shrimp fry resources of Bangladesh and improve their collection and transportation. These projects are:
Unless otherwise stated the use of the term ‘Sundarbans’ in subsequent sections of this proposal includes all natural mangrove forests in Bangladesh. The study area is indicated in section 6 ANNEXE.
Definition of Objectives
Objective: To identify and define the objectives relevant to the exploitation of the Sundarbans in terms of sustainable national economic development and various social, cultural and aethetic issues.
Objective: To describe the historical development of the exploitation of the Sundarbans from its earliest records.
Objective: To describe and define the environment and resource capabilities of the Sundarbans both prior to the advent of the shrimp farming industry in Bangladesh, and at the present time.
Objective: To describe and define all types of exploitation in the Sundarbans both before the advent of the shrimp farming industry, and at the present time.
Objective: To identify and quantitify the impact of past (as far as is possible) and current levels of all types of exploitation in the Sundarbans.
Objective: To formulate alternative exploitation and management strategies for possible future implementation in the Sundarbans.
Objective: To identify and quantitify the impact of each proposed alternative strategy on the Sundarbans.
Evaluation and Selection
Objective: To select the most appropriate strategy or strategies based on the evaluation of the trade-offs among the various objectives.
Objective: To formulate specific recommendations for the future protection and sustainable exploitation of the Sundarbans as an integrated resource, with particular reference to the shrimp fishery and shrimp farming industry.
Objective: To prepare a final report consisting of a description of the work undertaken during the course of the project, the methodology, the results and their subsequent analysis and interpretation, together with recommendations for the future management and exploitation of the Sundarbans with particular reference to shrimp nursery grounds and their exploitation.
Objective: To provide overall technical and administrative control of the research project, co-ordination with other projects, other sections of FRI and other Government agencies, and the preparation of concise quarterly progress reports covering both research and administrative issues.
3 WORK PLAN SUMMARY
Work Plan Summary
This project has been designed to provide basic data for the future research programme of the BS once the laboratory and experimental facilities are fully operational. This project will provide an important data base for the future development of the shrimp farming industry in Bangladesh and the protection and rational exploitation of the shrimp nursery grounds in the Sundarbans on a sustainable basis.
The first six months of the project will be spent collating all the available data on the Sundarbans and the preparation of an historical review of the development of their exploitation from the earliest records. This will then be followed by a 12 month survey of the existing environmental conditions and current exploitation practices.
The current levels of exploitation will then be assessed and alternative exploitation and management strategies developed. These will then be re-assessed in terms of their impact on the Sundarbans as a whole. Following the prediction of the impact of each of these alternative strategies, they will be evaluated on the basis of the original objectives and the most appropriate management and exploitation strategy selected.
Recommendations will be prepared for the future protection and sustainable exploitation of the Sundarbans as an integrated resource, with particular reference to the shrimp fishery and shrimp farming industry.
The implementation of this project will additionally provide an excellent opportunity for research and technical staff recruited for the BS to gain useful field experience in survey and research activities prior to the BS becoming fully operational. This should make the process of commissioning the BS and implementing the full research programme a much easier task for the appointed CSO. The project can also be used to provide ad hoc training for technical and support staff during its three years' duration.
The scheduling of the major project activities or tasks is summarised in Table 3. Ideally the project should make use of the output of project no O-01 (Survey and Assessment of Shrimp Fry Resources0), in terms of the distribution of brackishwater shrimp fry. This impact assessment project should therefore be started after the shrimp fry resources project has commenced.
In view of the special nature of this project and the need for continual interaction between tasks, the duration of each of the tasks and their timing will be subject to modification during the course of the study. It will, however, be the responsibility of the principal investigator to ensure that the entire project is satisfactorily completed within the allotted period of three years.
Table 3. Activity chart (time scale: units of 2 months).
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3|
|Work plan preparation||-|
|Evaluation & selection||--||--|
- Project activity/task.
* Reporting dates.
4 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES
The methodology and procedures to be utilised in this project have been kept as simple as possible in order to permit the completion of the project without the need for the specialised facilities which will eventually become available at the BS. There will, however, be some need for laboratory work and it is proposed that this should be undertaken at the FRI Freshwater Station's laboratories at Mymensingh.
The project will assess the impact of aquaculture on the mangrove environment (Sundarbans) and produce recommendations for the protection and sustainable exploitation of the brackishwater shrimp nursery grounds for both the shrimp fishery in the Bay of Bengal and the shrimp farming industry in the coastal flood plain.
In view of the special nature of this project, it should be noted that the specific duration of each of the tasks and their precise timing will be subject to some modification during the course of the study. However, since most of the tasks overlap to a large degree, there should be no difficulty in completing the project within the allotted time of three years.
Preparation of the Work Plan
At the start of the project the principal investigator should translate the project proposal into a written and detailed work plan which should be approved by the CSO of the BS before the research investigations get underway. This work plan should define the following elements: project objectives; detailed methodology; equipment and consumable requirements; logistic support requirements; areas requiring co-operation or co-ordination with other projects or sections of FRI; staff assignment and manpower requirements, and reporting deadlines. A period of one month has been allowed for the preparation of the work plan and its approval by the CSO of the BS.
Before commencing the main survey components of the project, a thorough review of the literature should be made. The bibliography appended to this proposal not only includes references for those citations incorporated in the text, but also recommendations for background reading. The FRI Library and Documentation Centre should obtain as many as possible of these references before that start of the project. These should be reviewed and digested by the principal investigator and his scientific staff at the beginning of the project. A period of four months has been allowed for the completion of this task in view of the large volume of literature which needs to be consulted.
Definition of Objectives
The objectives for the exploitation of the Sundarbans should be carefully defined at a very early stage in the project. These objectives should include not only the requirements of the shrimp farming industry, but all other sectors which are currently involved directly or indirectly with the exploitation of the Sundarbans. The final list of objectives should be comprehensive, but also clear and concise. A period of up to one month has been allowed for this task.
It is very important to commence an environmental impact study with a full review of the historical data. The review should cover not only the Sundarbans in southwest Bangladesh, but also in West Bengal, since ecosystems and their component fauna and flora do not adhere to political boundaries. Activities in the eastern part of the Sundarbans (Bangladesh) will affect the western part (India) and vice versa. It is therefore important that the ecosystem as a whole should be the subject of this study.
In this particular case there are in effect two separate baselines which will need consideration during the course of the study:
Situation prior to the start of the shrimp farming industry in Bangladesh
Since the project will attempt to assess both the future impact of aquaculture on the magrove environment, and the impact which has already taken place as a result of this activity, it is necessary to consider these two baselines separately. A period of two months has been allocated to the preparation of a review of the historical development of the exploitation of the Sundarbans.
The existing environmental situation should be defined and described in detail, with a complete inventory of the environmental conditions, resources and human activities within the Sundarbans as a whole (Bangladesh and West Bengal). The inventory should include any or all of the following categories as appropriate:
This list is not necessarily exhaustive and other items should be added during the course of the project. This and the following task should be carried out simultaneously during a period of 12 months. It is anticipated that several visits to the Sundarbans at different times of the year will probably be necessary in order to complete this task.
Current Activities and Exploitation
This task will be carried out simulataneously with the description of the existing environmental situation during a period of 12 months and will identify and describe in detail all the past and current types of human activity and exploitation of natural resources in the Sundarbans. It is anticipated that several visits to the Sundarbans at different times of the year will probably be necessary in order to complete this task.
A period of six months has been allowed for the assessment of the impact of each type of human activity and exploitation of the natural resources of the Sundarbans. It is recommended that a matrix approach is applied in order to identify all the potential and actual cross-linkages between the different human activities and the various aspects or characteristics of the environment (see Interim Mekong Committee, 1982). Network analysis should then be used to relate ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ in the final environmental impact assessment. This process should be re-iterative in order to allow feed-back between the various tasks of the project. The project tasks have been deliberately scheduled to overlap to permit this process during the course of the project.
Based on the description of the present environment including human activities and exploitation of natural resources in the Sundarbans, one or more alternative strategies should be formulated to achieve the desired objectives defined at the beginning of the project. A period of eight months has been allowed for this task.
A period of six months has been allowed for the re-assessment of the environmental impact of any proposed alternative strategies. This should again be based on a matrix approach followed by network analysis.
Evaluation and Selection
Following the re-assessment of the various alternative strategies, these should be evaluated against the original objectives defined at the beginning of the project, and especially in terms of any trade-offs which may exist between different objectives. On the basis of this evaluation, the ‘best’ alternative should be chosen. The evaluation procedure should be as objective as possible, and it may therefore be appropriate to assign weighted numerical values to the impacts in order to rank the alternative strategies. A period of four months has been allowed for the completion of this task.
Two months have been allowed for this final technical task of the project. This will consist of the preparation of specific workable recommendations for the implementation of the selected strategy for the future sustainable management and exploitation of the Sundarbans as an integrated resource with particular reference to the shrimp farming industry.
Specialist Equipment Requirements
The following specialist equipment and supplies will be required:
The project will require the following manpower:
|- Principal investigator (team leader)||1|
|- Field/laboratory technicians||2|
|- Boat operator (part-time)||1|
* Should have considerable experience of both fisheries and mangrove ecosystem, and environmental management and impact assessment.
The budget estimates will be prepared by BS/FRI staff at a later stage.
The principal investigator (team leader) will be responsible for the day to day technical and administrative management of the project under the overall direction of the CSO of the BS. Until such time that the BS is fully operational, laboratory and administrative support will have to be provided by the FRI at Mymensingh.
Assignment of individual work tasks and the timing of those tasks will be the responsibility of the principal investigator in collaboration with the CSO of the BS and the principal investigators of other projects. Since the BS will not be operational for some time, the project will need to utilise laboratory facilities of the FS at Mymensingh. The success of the project will therefore be dependent in part on the degree of co-operation between BS and FS scientific staff.
Efficient co-ordination between the CSOs of the BS and FS will permit the shared use of facilities and equipment until such time that the BS becomes fully operational. Where project staff are not required on a continucus basis, they should be temporarily assigned to other projects in order to make the most effective use of their time. It may be possible to combine field sampling and other field work with related projects in order to use FRI and BS resources as efficiently as possible.
The principal investigator will be responsible for the initial planning of the field investigations, monitoring of the data collection and analysis, and in conjunction with the other members of the team, interpretation of the results and report preparation. The principal investigator should meet with his project team on a weekly basis to ensure schedules are being met and to resolve problems or other project-related issues.
Quarterly progress reports and a final project report should be prepared by the principal investigator with assistance from the other team members. The responsibility for the quality of the quarterly and final reports and their submission on time will be the responsibility of the principal investigator alone. It must, however, be recognised that administrative support to achieve this end will need to be provided by the FRI until such time that the BS is fully operational, after which it will become the responsibility of the CSO of the BS.
The CSO of the BS will also be responsible for reviewing the progress and final reports and making sure that the individual activities of the project have been completed properly and on time. Delays and other problems affecting the success of the project should be identified as early as possible so that corrective action can be taken.
[It should be noted that the bibliography contains not only those references cited in the text of this proposal, but also suggestions for additional background reading prior to the start of the project.]
Ahmed, M K, 1981. Behundi net fishery in the brackish water area of Satkhira with emphasis on bionomics and mortalities of shrimps. Research Report of the Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Chandpur, (3): 42 pp.
Ahmed, M K, 1984. Behundi net fishery in the brackish water area of Patuakhali with emphasis on bionomics and mortalities of shrimps. Research Report of the Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Chandpur, (8): 36 pp.
Ali, M L, 1983. Shrimp farm survey in coastal area of Bangladesh. Fishery Resources Survey System, Directorate of Fisheries, 6 pp. [Mimeographed.]
Anonymous, 1979. Draft final report, Annexe B. Proposed fisheries components for an agricultural credit project. Agricultural Credit Studies Project. Prepared by Nathan Associates, USA on behalf of the Bangladesh Bank, Dhaka.
Anonymous, 1984a. National Water Plan Project. Second interim report, vol VII - Fisheries. Master Plan organisation, Ministry of Water Development and Flood Control, Bangladesh. Prepared by Harza Engineering Co Int.
Anonymous, 1984b. Bangladesh coastal aquaculture project engineering study. Draft report, Vol 1. Prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of the World Bank.
Anonymous, 1985a. Delta Development Project: Bangladesh-Netherlands Joint Programme under the Bangladesh Water Development Board. Shrimp culture in the semi-saline zone of the delta. Technical report no 13, volume I, 60 pp. Arnhem and The Hague, The Netherlands.
Anonymous, 1985b. Delta Development Project: Bangladesh-Netherlands Joint Programme under the Bangladesh Water Development Board. Shrimp culture in the semi-saline zone of the delta. Technical report no 13, volume II, 102 pp. Arnhem and The Hague, The Netherlands.
Anonymous, 1985c. Report on tidal areas study. Draft report prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services & Associates Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of FAO.
Anonymous, 1985d. List of projects for the Third Five Year Plan. Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh.
Anonymous, 1985e. Report on engineering study. Vol 1: Bangladesh coastal aquaculture project. Prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of the World Bank.
Anonymous, 1985f. Twenty year fishery development plan for Bangladesh. Prepared by John C Marr & Associates on behalf of FAO/UNDP.
Anonymous, 1986a. Bangladesh Second Aquaculture Development Project. Preparation report. Prepared by Aquatic Farms Ltd, Hawaii, USA on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh and the Asian Development Bank.
Anonymous, 1986b. Draft feasibility report on package 1: Khulna Coastal Embankment Rehabilitation Project (TA no 665-BAN). Vol I. Prepared by Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC), Seoul, South Korea in association with Associated Consulting Engineers (Bangladesh) Ltd.
Anonymous, 1986c. Draft feasibility report on package 1: Khulna Coastal Embankment Rehabilitation Project (TA no 665-BAN). Vol III. Prepared by Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC), Seoul, South Korea in association with Associated Consulting Engineers (Bangladesh) Ltd.
Anonymous, 1986d. Socio-economic impact and constraints of shrimp farming in Bangladesh. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, project proposal no 4, 59 pp.
Anonymous, 1986e. Brackishwater Aquaculture Research Station (BARS): design - phase 1. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 3, 22 pp.
Anonymous, 1986f. Research plans for nutrition and feed technology. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 4, 146 pp.
Anonymous, 1986g. Research plans for the Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 5, 24 pp.
Anonymous, 1987a. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh. Five Year Masterplan: General research plan. FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010. Arnhem: Euroconsult BV, 149 pp.
Anonymous, 1987b. Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS): design - phase 2. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 13, 125 pp.
Anonymous, 1987c. Five Year Masterplan: Equipment and civil works (final version). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 14, 26 pp.
Anonymous, 1987d. Advice on literature. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 15, 50 pp.
Anonymous, 1988a. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Fisheries Research Institute (FRI): Revised project. Mymensingh: Fisheries Research Institute, 112 pp.
Anonymous, 1988b. Project of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Integrated resource development of the Sundarbans reserved forest. UNDP project document, BGD/84/056/A/01/12, 27 pp plus annexes.
Anonymous, 1988c. Regional overview, status of facility and coastal aquaculture research proposals. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 19, pag var.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1986. 1986 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, 1048 pp.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1985. Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh 1984–85. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, 654 pp.
Blasco, F, 1975. The mangroves of India. Institut Français de Pondichery, Travail de la Section Scientifique et Technique, 14: 175pp.
Blower, J H, 1985. Wildlife conservation in the Sundarbans. Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, Bangladesh. Overseas Development Administration, Land Resources Development Centre, UK, 39 pp.
Brammer, H, J Antoine, A H Kassam & H T van Velthuizen, 1988. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh for agricultural development. UNDP/FAO project no BGD/81/035. [Issued in seven parts with numerous volumes. The data base established by the study is available at BARC.]
Buringh, P, 1979. Introduction to the study of soils in tropical and subtropical regions. Centre Agricultural Publications and Documentation (PUDOC), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Chaffey, D R, F R Miller & J H Sandom, 1985. A forest inventory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Main report. Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, Bangladesh. Overseas Development Administration, Land Resources Development Centre, UK, 196 pp.
Chaffey, D R & J H Sandom, 1985. A glossary of vernacular plant names and a field key to trees. Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, Bangladesh. Overseas Development Administration, Land Resources Development Centre, UK, 23 pp.
Chapman, V J (ed), 1976. Ecosystems of the World. I: Wet Coastal Ecosystems. New York: Elsevier.
Cholik, F & A Poernomo, 1987. Development of aquaculture in mangrove areas and its relationship to the mangrove ecosystem. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 93–104. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Chowdhury, A Q, 1986. Fishermen community and development of closed water fishery in Bangladesh. [Mimeographed.]
Chowdhury, A Q, 1987. Management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture in mangrove systems. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 44–45. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Cross, T, 1984. Mangroves - Where money grows on trees. Calypso Log, 11 (4): 12–15.
Dalmacio, M V & K M Bajracharya, 1989. Back to office report from a tour of Noakhali Coastal Afforestation Division. Government of Bangladesh, Forestry Department, 19 pp.
Dost, H & N van Breeman (ed), 1982. Proceedings of the Bangkok Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, ILRI Publication (31): 450 pp.
Euroconsult BV, 1985. Government of Bangladesh and FAO/UNDP. Second Agricultural Research Project - Fisheries Component. FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010. Technical assistance report no 1 (revised version). Arnhem: Euroconsult BV, 90 pp.
FAO, 1982. Management and utilisation of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Environmental Paper, (3): 160 pp.
FAO, 1984. Technical co-operation programme, integrated development in the Sundarbans. FAO report FO:TCP/BGD/2309, 28 pp.
FAO, 1987. Papers contributed to the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986 and country status reports on inland fisheries presented at the Third Session of the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission Working Party of Experts on Inland Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 248 pp. [Individual papers are cited separately.]
Farmer, A S D, 1986. The socio-economic importance of mangroves to coastal farmers and fishermen - AZAM public lecture. Kuching: Angkatan Zaman Mansang and State Planning Unit (Sarawak), 13 pp.
Funegaard, P, 1986. Shrimp seed - Any to sell? Come to Satkhira, Bangladesh. FAO Bay of Bengal News, no 22.
Garcia, S & L le Reste, 1981. Life cycles, dynamics, exploitation and management of coastal penaeid shrimp stocks. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, (136): 612 pp.
Goulding, M, 1980. The Fishes and the Forest. Berkley: University of California Press, 280 pp.
Gowan, J I, 1926. Flora of the Chakaria Sundarbans. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, (1926): 197–226.
Gulland, J A & B J Rothschild (ed), 1984. Penaeid Shrimps: Their Biology and Management. Farnham, Surrey: Fishing News Books Ltd, 312 pp.
Interim Mekong Committee, 1982. Environmental Impact Assessment: Guidelines for Application to Tropical River Basin Development. Bangkok: Mekong Secretariat (Interim Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin), 123 pp.
Islam, A K M N, 1973. The algal flora of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 2 (2): 11–36.
Jara, R S, 1987. Utilization and management of mangrove resources. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 105–124. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Jayasekara, A M, 1987. Management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture in mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 1–9. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Kapetsky, J M, 1987. Conversion of mangroves for pond aquaculture: some short-term and long-term remedies. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 46–66. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Karim, A & M A A Khan, 1980. Phytosociological studies of mangrove forests of Chakaria Sundarbans. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 9 (1–2): 17–28.
Karim, M, 1986a. Site selection for the Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 11, 44 pp.
Karim, M, 1986b. Integrated farming of shrimp, fish, paddy and goat at Satkhira. FAO Bay of Bengal report, Madras, India.
Karim, M, 1986c. Brackishwater shrimp culture demonstration in Bangladesh. SIDA/FAO Bay of Bengal Programme, Madras, India, report BOBP/REP/35, 40 pp.
Karim, M, 1987. Brackishwater aquaculture in Bangladesh: A review. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 12, 36 pp.
Kibria, C, 1983. Prawn and shrimp resources of Bangladesh, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Kibria, G, 1985. Shrimp fisheries of Bangladesh. ICLARM Newsletter, 8 (3): 11–12.
Khan, M A R, 1982. On the distribution of mammalian fauna of Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Forestry, Sishu Academy, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp 560–575.
Kurian, C V & V O Sebastian, 1976. Prawn and Prawn Fisheries of India. Delhi: Hindustan Publications Corporation, 280 pp.
Leh, C M U & A Sasekumar, 1976. Feeding ecology of prawns in shallow waters adjoining mangrove shores. Paper presented at the Asian Symposium on the Mangrove Environment: Research and Management, Kuala Lumpur, 18 pp.
Mahmood, N, 1987. Effects of shrimp farming and other impacts on mangroves of Bangladesh. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 46–66. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Mahmood, N & Y S A Khan, 1980. On the occurrence of postlarvae and juvenile penaeid prawn at Bankkhali estuary and adjacent coastal area of Cox's Bazar with notes on their utilization in aquaculture. Final report. University Grants Commission, Dhaka, 26 pp.
Majumder, M R, 1983. Shrimp culture status and extent in Cox's Bazar area, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Meltzoff, S K & E Li Puma, 1986. The social and political economy of coastal zone management: Shrimp mariculture in Ecuador. Coastal Zone Management Journal, 14 (4): 349–380.
Michael, R G (ed), 1987. Managed Aquatic Ecosystems. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 300 pp.
Motoh, H, 1977. An annotated list of scientific and English common names of commercially important penaeid prawns and shrimps. SEAFDEC Technical Report no 2, 15 pp.
Muir, J F, 1989. Finalisation of engineering plans, Brackishwater Research Station, FRI, Paikgacha. FAO/FIRI report, 5 pp.
New, M B & S Singholka, 1985. Freshwater prawn farming: A manual for the culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, (225): 118 pp. [Revision 1.]
Ong J-E, 1987. Ecological research needs in relation to the impacts of various uses on the mangrove ecosystems of the Indo-Pacific region. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 83–92. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
PCARR, 1978. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mangrove and Estuarine Area Development for the Indo-Pacific Region. Philippines Council for Agricultural and Resources Researc, Manila.
Pedini, M, 1981. Penaeid shrimp culture in tropical developing countries. FAO Fisheries Circular, (732): 14 pp.
Penn, J W, 1983. An assessment of potential yields from the offshore demersal shrimp and fish stocks in Bangladesh waters (including comments on the trawl fishery 1981/82). FAO/UNDP report FI: DP/BGD/81/034, 29 pp.
Pollock, B R, 1987. Management of fisheries and aquaculture in mangrove ecosystems in Australia. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 125–128. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
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Prain, D, 1903. Flora of the Sunderbans, Calcutta. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, 11 (4): 231–370.
Quadar, O, M A H Pramanik, F A Khan & F C Polcyn, 1986. Mangrove ecosystem study of Chakoria Sunderbans at Chittagong with special emphasis on shrimp ponds by remote sensing techniques. In: Marine Interfaces Ecohydrodynamics, edited by J C J Nihoul. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 42: 645–654.
Rackowe, R, H Branstetter, D King & G Kitson, 1983. The international market for shrimp. ADB/FAO Infofish Market Studies, 3: 79 pp.
Rahman, M A, 1986. Socio-economics of aquaculture development. Country paper - Bangladesh. Paper presented at the Workshop on Socio-Economics on Aquaculture Development sponsored by NACA, 28–31 October 1986, Bangkok, Thailand.
Samarakoon, J I, 1987. Fisheries in aquaculture in estuaries, lagoons and mangroves in the context of coastal zone management in Sri Lanka. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 10–20. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Silas, E G, 1987. Management of mangrove associated fisheries and aquaculture in the Sunderbans, India. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 21–43. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Simpson, H J & M Pedini, 1985. Brackishwater aquaculture in the tropics: The problem of acid sulphate soils. FAO Fisheries Circular, (791): 32 pp.
Singh, T, 1987. Mangroves and aquaculture - Striking a balance. Infofish International, 1987 (5): 20–22.
Smith, W G, 1982. The tidal study area. A preliminary report. Fisheries Resources Survey System FAO/UNDP, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
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Thorhaug, A, 1987. Restoration of mangroves and seagrasses and attendant economic benefits for fisheries and mariculture; management, policy and planning. Paper presented at the Workshop on Strategies for the Management of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Mangrove Ecosystems, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 June 1986. FAO Fisheries Report, (370): 142–159. [Part of FAO, 1987.]
Wickens, J F, 1976. Prawn biology and culture. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 14: 435–507.
Yunker, M P & E D Scura, 1985. An improved strategy for building brackishwater culture ponds with iron pyrite soils in magrove swamps. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4–7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, edited by Y Taki, J H Primavera & J A Llobrera, p 171. [Abstract only.]
Location of the study Area
Figure 1. Location of the study area covered by the impact assessment of aquaculture on the mangrove environment.