ASEAN/SF/86/Manual No. 1
MANUAL OF RUNNING WATER FISH CULTURE
Sri Hartati Suprayitno
NOTICE OF COPYRIGHT
The copyright in this publication is vested in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, by any method or process, without written permission from the copyright holder. Applications for such permission with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction desired, should be made through and addressed to the Chief Technical Adviser, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, P.O. Box 1184, MCC, Makati, Metro Manila or 3rd Floor, Arcadia Building, 860 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines.
During its existence in 1972–1985, the FAO/UNDP South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme published a series of five manuals on major fisheries subjects. In 1986 the facilities of this Programme were taken over by the ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project. This new project although more limited in its scope continued the publications of the fisheries report series by the Programme especially those useful for the development of small-scale fisheries in the ASEAN Region. These include the working papers, general reports, contributed papers and manuals.
The practice of fish culture in running water environment has drawn considerable interest in the ASEAN Region within recent years. This manual, the sixth in this series is prepared by Ms. S.H. Suprayitno, consultant from the region. It is hoped that it can serve as guide to fisheries extension workers and fish farmers in this new, very interesting and growing venture.
Chief Technical Adviser
ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project
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2. SITE REQUIREMENT
2.6 Other requirements
3. LAYOUT AND DESIGN
3.1 General water distribution system
3.2 Water inlet and outlet
3.3 Layout and design
3.3.1 Rectangular-shaped pond
3.3.2 Triangular-shaped pond
3.3.3 Raceway-shaped pond
3.3.4 Oval-shaped pond
3.3.5 Polyethelene drum as running water culture tank
4. POND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 Mechanized method
4.2 Manual construction method and requirement
4.2.1 Rectangular-shaped pond
4.2.2 Triangular-shaped pond
4.2.3 Raceway-shaped pond
4.2.4 Oval-shaped pond
4.2.5 Polyethelene culture drum
5. POND MANAGEMENT
5.1 Species used and its biology
5.2 Seed supply
5.3 Stocking rate
5.4.1 Feed type
5.4.2 Feeding rate
5.5 Equipment for monitoring and operations
5.6 Disease and other causes of mortality
5.7 Management and maintenance
5.8 Harvesting, marketing and processing
6. COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION
6.1 Capital cost
6.2 Operational costs
6.2.4 Miscellaneous items
6.2.5 Production costs per kg of fish
6.3 One crop versus four crops per year
6.4 Scale of operation and benefit
7. SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE STUDIES AND DEVELOPMENT
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Composition of practical diets for common carp
2. Production costs of common carp culture in running water ponds
3. Production costs of common carp culture in polyethelene drum
4. Production costs per kg of common carp in running water pond and polyethelene drum culture producing one crop versus four crops per year
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1. Water supply for running water pond culture
2. Layout of water distribution in running water pond
3. Concrete channel in running water fish farm with installed water control tank
4. Concrete water distribution in running water farm
5. Screens in water inlet and distribution channel
6. Water inlet construction in running water pond
7. A vertical sluice and screen installed in inlet of pond
8. PVC pipe as a water inlet in polyethelene drum method
9. Water outlet system in running water pond
10. A type of three groove monk
11. A type of two groove monk
12. One groove monk type
13. Layout of rectangular-shaped units of running water ponds
14. Rectangular pond for running water carp culture in West Java, Indonesia with installed demand feeders
15. Other type of triangular-shaped pond practiced in West Java, Indonesia for carp culture
16. Layout of triangular-shaped running water ponds
17. Layout of raceway-shaped running water ponds
18. Raceway-shaped ponds for carp culture used in Majalaya, Indonesia
19. Raceway pond culture constructed along irrigation canal by damming with concrete dike and installing screen as well as demand feeder as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
20. Another type of carp culture in raceway which is constructed along distribution channel showing a bamboo fencing and demand feeder as practiced in Majalaya, Indonesia
21. Another type of raceway type ponds
22. Layout of oval-shaped ponds
23. Carp culture in running water with oval-shaped ponds with fencing of wire to prevent of poaching as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
24. Carp culture in polyethelene drums or plastic drums as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
25. Layout of fish culture using polyethelene drum method
26. Construction of rectangular-shaped ponds
27. Construction of triangular-shaped ponds
28. Construction of oval-shaped ponds
29. Simple method of fish culture in polyethelene drum system
30. The size of common carp which are first stocked in running water pond as practiced in Majalaya, Indonesia
31. Demand feeder applied in common carp culture, locally made and commonly used in West Java, Indonesia
MANUAL OF RUNNING WATER FISH CULTURE
Sri Hartati Suprayitno1
1 Present address: Freshwater Fisheries Development and Training Center, Jl. Selabintana, Sukabumi, Indonesia
One of the technologies of intensive fish culture in the ASEAN Region which has recently been developed in Indonesia, particularly in West Java, is running water fish culture.
Fishfarmers have been using various forms of culture ponds including the rectangular, triangular and circular shapes. Recent practice have included the oval-shaped ponds and polyethelene drum system.
Due to its adaptable characteristics and command of high price in the market, the only species that have so far been used in running water culture is the common carp. Perhaps other species should be tried if they could do as well.
According to the experience of the Freshwater Aquaculture Development and Training Center of Indonesia and of some fishfarmers, the growth of common carp in this system is quite satisfactory. In three months of culture, fed with prepared pellets of 3–4 percent of body weight per day, the 100-gram fish can grow to 750–1 000 g consumption size. The conversion rate is about 2 to 1 (feed to fish flesh).
Flowing freshwater is abundantly available in Indonesia and perhaps in other countries in the region. Supplied with the suitable species of fish, culture would be practical in high quality running water system.
Although capital and operational costs are very high, good profit can still be realized under Indonesian situation. The high rate of growth of the stocked fish and the high market demand for it more than offset, the production costs, making possible high yearly profit and early return on investment in only a few years.
Most of the aquaculture practiced in Indonesia is done in stagnant water system either for nursery or grow-out purposes, but in certain areas especially in highland sites flowing water system is also applied. The fish which are cultivated in stagnant water systems take longer time to reach marketable size while demand of fish consumers increase. This is one of the problems which is faced by the fish-farmers for which solutions are needed.
The technology for fast grow-out rearing of fish in running water was introduced in the early seventies. The principles of running water system which is actually an intensive culture method are as follows: application of rapid water changes; requirement of the large volume of water; and heavy stocking of the cultured species. There are great advantages in cultivating fish in water which is actually flowing. The water will supply abundant amount of dissolved oxygen and will flush away any byproducts of the fish or the uneaten artificial feed supplied in pelleted form.
There are additional benefits in running water fish culture such as: (a) increase demand for 100 g fish produced by the fishfarmers as running water requires fish stock of minimum 100 g in weight, (b) decrease in the utilization of wide land as running water system needs a small area as long as the water supply is sufficient, (c) shortening of the culture period for the fish to reach marketable size, and (d) increasing the income of fishfarmers.
The species of fish suitable to be reared in running water system must have the following characteristics: (a) the fish should be strong enough to live with the fast water current and sociable in habit so that it could live in dense population, (b) the fish should be highly disease-resistant due to high stocking density, (c) the fish should have the ability to accept artificial feed such as pellet or other feeds given to it, and (d) in a short culture period the fish should have the ability to transform the feed into meat efficiently.
The species that meet these characteristics and have been used for this type of culture system in Indonesia until now is the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish is the most important cultivated freshwater fish because it is economically profitable and of high demand. The fish is mostly cultivated in the provinces of West Java, West Sumatra, North Sumatra and North Sulawesi.
This manual is made mainly as a practical guide for fishfarmers or extension workers rather than for research workers. The contents address mainly to common carp culture in running water which is based on the practical experiences of the fishfarmers and government institutions which have conducted some trials on running water fish culture. Additional information were obtained from references available to the author.
One of the most important factors that contributes to the success of fish culture in running water system is selection of suitable site. For site selection, one should take into account the type of pond culture used and the nature of water supply available.
In the selection of pond site for running water system some factors to be considered are enumerated below.
Source of water supply must be given careful and meticulous consideration. Such supply should be available and can be directed to the pond with the maximum use of its flow rate.
Usually, there are several types of water supply such as: artesian well (surface well, deep well), spring, stream and irrigation canal. For running water system, water supply must be sufficient in amount throughout the year, therefore, usually irrigation canal and stream are being used in order to supply the pond. In fact, many freshwater ponds utilize surface water supplies with high turbidity during rainy season which is in practice not recommended. However, as long as the water comes from reliable source such as a free flowing spring it is still acceptable.
Other considerations that must be taken is that the water supply must be free from pollution either due to agricultural wastes (pesticides), industrial wastes and the water which is used in the pond must be returned to the main source, in other words, the water is just passing through the culture pond.
In a running water system good water quality is preferable. Neutral to alkaline water appear to be more productive than acid water. In addition, the water must be free from pollutants such as sewage, pesticides, chlorine and other toxic substances. Clear water is preferable and can ensure good growth of fish, although slightly turbid river and irrigation water can also be utilized as long as it can be passed through a filter.
Some chemical and physical factors which might affect the growth rate of fish in running water ponds are dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Special consideration should be given to dissolved oxygen; it is advantageous that the degree of dissolved oxygen saturation of the water should be over 50 percent (Harris, 1982). The requirements of dissolved oxygen depend on the species and its life cycle. A minimum constant value of 5 mg/l would be satisfactory for most stages and activities as well as survival of the cultured fish (Alabaster and Lloyd, 1982).
Water temperature plays a great role for aquatic organisms as it influences metabolism and growth (Brown, 1957). Experience shows that good growth rates can be expected between 23° and 27°C, while temperature levels below or above this range may result in lower growth rates. Take oxygen consumption for common carp, for instance, which decreases at low temperatures but increases at 28°C to 32°C as influenced by prevailing temperatures in the environment (Korovin in Alabaster and Lloyd, 1982).
Fish is very sensitive to ammonia in the pond. Ammonia may be produced from the waste products of fish and fish secretions which may cause fish mortalities, therefore the ammonia content in running water culture systems should be low. It is suggested that concentration of ammonia in running water pond should not be more than 1 ppm. The harmful effects of ammonia on fish are related to the pH value and the temperature of water. The unionized fraction increases with rising pH value and with rising temperature (Alabaster and Lloyd, 1982).
In establishing water quality criteria for intensive pond culture such as running water pond culture, the acidity or alkalinity of the water is an important factor to be considered. Acidity value of the water in pond depends on carbonate, bicarbonate as well as carbon dioxide content of water (Brown, 1957).
The pH range which is not directly lethal to fish is 5–9. Below a pH value of 5, fish mortalities may be expected although some species may be acclimated to values as low as 3.7 (Alabaster and Lloyd, 1982). The water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 before daybreak has been found to be the most suitable for pond culture. In more acid water, important fish food organisms fail to grow normally and at pH 4 the water may kill the fish (Swingle in Hickling, 1971).
The quantity of water required for fish culture depends on the species of fish being raised and the number of fish in pond as well as the method of fish culture.
Sufficient and continuous supply of water is the most important factor in intensive fish culture such as in the running water system. The stocking density of fish in running water pond is so high that a lot of oxygen will be needed and the large fish stock also produces much ammonia. Therefore, in order to provide adequate oxygen and flush the ammonia and other waste products a large amount of water is needed.
Losses of water through evaporation and seepage will vary from one area to another and must be carefully determined. Losses of water due to seepage will not occur if the pond is well constructed especially for concrete ponds. When the water supply is seasonal such as from rain during the rainy period or from surface runoff, proper adjustment in the year round management of the system must be considered. The flow rate of water supplied should be well determined. All of the above considerations should be taken into account to support the productivity of the pond.
The productivity of a running water system among other things depends on the continuing availability of the water supplied. The reason is that the magnitude of this supply determines the amount of oxygen that can be supplied, the rate of flushing of excess feed and fish waste products and the amount of energy spent by the fish to keep within the system. It was found that the amount of water supply used in West Java is between 0.8 and 3.2 1/second/m3 of pond volume. However, the amount thought to be able to meet minimum requirements appear to be around 1.6 1/second/m3 of pond volume (Harris, 1982).
According to our experience and available information, the water in running water pond must totally be changed within a period of ten minutes. Therefore, size or volume of pond depends on volume of water supply available or the relation between water availability and volume of pond.
In order to construct the pond, the volume of water available must be known. For instance, if the water available is 25 liters per second and total change of water is required in 10 minutes, the volume of pond to be constructed should be about 15 cubic meters.
The best area for a running water fishpond is a ground with slight slope or flat. The optimal slope is between 0.5 and 1 percent, but the maximum slope which can still be suitable for fishpond construction is about 2.5 percent (Hepher and Pruginin, 1981).
The location which is preferable for intensive fish culture is around 800 meters altitude above sea level, because at this height proper water temperature will favor the fish appetite for food. At over 800 meters altitude the water temperature will be lower so that the appetite of fish in taking pellets is decreased.
The site must be near the source of water. The minimum height difference of 30 cm between surface of water in the canal and surface of water in the pond is preferable in order to drain and fill in the pond by gravity.
A suitable site is an area free from the occurrence of flood water, landslides and typhoons. The pond should not be built on an area which is affected by agricultural wastes such as pesticides, herbicides, and other wastes.
If possible, pond on the farm may be constructed by damming a stream. It is preferable to select a stream with as little flood water as possible so that proper arrangements to divert excess water from the ponds can be done easily. In any case it is absolutely necessary to be able to pass out flood water quickly (Hepher and Pruginin, 1981).
The site with stable and hard soil is preferable for concrete pond construction purposes and the most suitable soil for fishpond is clay type soil. Rocky and sandy or stony soils are not good for pond construction. Rocky soil is difficult to excavate and would require more expenses while the sandy or stony soils are usually unstable soils.
It is recommended that the pond should be established in an area with some vegetation. Generally in area with dense vegetation the availability of water in the stream is secure and flooding is prevented. But for shallow land with no vegetation, flooding can be more frequent, especially during the rainy season. In addition, the water source can be very limited because there are no vegetative growth to help conserve the underground water.
In site selection the availability of market should be considered as well. Besides the road access must be in good condition so that marketing could be relatively easy. In other words the carriers (trucks or others) could come and go easily from the location.
The requirements which must also be considered in site selection are: availability of labour and extension services, and source of seed.
Labour is an important factor for culture operations. For successful pond operation experienced labour is required which knows how to harvest the fish, how to stock the fish and how to treat fish affected by diseases; at least labour with fisheries experience and background must be considered. However, in some areas experienced labour with reasonable salary is difficult to find.
It is also recommended that the pond site be constructed close to the fisheries services office which can provide the extension service in fisheries and in order to find new information on technology and advice on other problems which may be faced by the fishfarmer.
To derive reasonable benefits from running water fish culture in one year, the availability of seed supply must be carefully determined. Generally the culture period of running water ponds practiced in Indonesia is three months so that there could be four croppings in one year. Every three months 100 g fish for stocking is required for rearing in the ponds for another three months. When one fails in getting 100 g fish, it means no production of consumption fish at that time which will reduce the benefits and reduce the returns on investments.
A supply channel in a series of running water ponds should be well constructed for distributing water from the water supply (irrigation/ main canal) to the ponds. To prevent excess water due to heavy rain or flood, it is necessary to build a bypass channel or water control tank. In order to distribute the water equally to every pond, diversion and vertical sluices must be placed in front of the water inlet. The entire channel must be constructed in concrete to prevent seepage (Figures 3 and 4).
A screen is placed at the inlet to prevent foreign matter that floats on the surface from entering the ponds (Figure 5).
The size of the channel to be built depends on the flow rate of water needed in the pond and must also be calculated in relation to the economical aspect. There is no need to build a wide supply channel while the water flow rate needed is only of small quantity, as more expenses may be wasted.
The best way is to have each pond with its own water inlet and outlet so that discharged water from one pond will not be used directly for another pond (Figure 2).
There are some conditions to be considered to construct the water inlet. Firstly, the water inlet can allow the water flow freely and regularly to the pond. Secondly, it can prevent undesirable organisms of fish which might come into the ponds and thirdly, the inlet can prevent the fish stock from escaping from the pond. In fact the water inlet can be constructed in many ways according to whether a common inflow for a group of ponds or an individual inflow for one pond is wanted (Huet, 1972 and as drawn in Figure 6).
A vertical sluice can also be installed in the water inlet to assure a regular and controllable flow of water into the pond. It can be made from wood or metal such as iron and it may function also as a screen (Figure 7).
The width of water inlet depends on the width of the pond; some people apply ⅓ to ¼ from width of the pond, and usually the water inlet is of the same size as the water outlet. In polyethelene drum system the water inlet can be made from PVC pipe with a certain diameter depending on the volume of drum used (Figure 8).
There are many different draining systems. In Indonesia traditionally people use bamboo as drain pipe, but nowadays some people use PVC pipe and concrete outlet which are constructed as monk type gates. In a running water pond a concrete monk must be constructed and installed in front of the water inlet. The monk has several functions such as to adjust the water level in the pond, prevent escape of fish and as a drainage during harvesting (Figure 9).
The monk has to be made with low elevation at its bottom so that the water in the pond can drain through it completely. For prevention of the escaping of fish, a screen must be installed in the monk. The water level in the pond should be adjusted by the wooden sluice boards (5 cm thick) which are fitted tightly along a groove to prevent leakage. The wooden must be made in such a way so that placing earth pack between sluices could be possible if needed (Figures 9 and 10). The size of the monk should be equal with the size of inlet or sometimes bigger.
Very often, there are variations in the design of monks: three grooves, two grooves or one groove monk. In a monk with three grooves the first holds the screen, while the second and the third hold the wooden slabs between which a soil pack can be formed. The problem for three grooves is that soil is required to fill the space between the wooden sluice to prevent leaks. In two grooves monk, the first holds the screen and the second groove holds the wooden sluice (Figures 10 and 11). In one groove monk the groove is only for the wooden sluice slabs (Figure 12).
In general there are different shapes of running water concrete ponds which are already used in Indonesia. Formerly, rectangular, triangular and raceway-shaped ponds were constructed by the people, but now another shape that is already practiced and has more advantages than the others is the oval-shaped pond.
Another type of running water system is to cultivate fish for home consumption by a very simple method using polyethelene drum. The principle is the same as the pond running water system but this uses a different container (a drum) and utilizes water of less volume.
One of the types which is being used by the Indonesian fishfarmers is rectangular-shaped pond. The size of the pond depends on the area available but usually its dimensions varies between 2 to 4 meters wide and 5 to 15 meters long and with average depth of 1.5 meters (Figures 13 and 14).
The bottom of the pond must be more elevated than the water inlet and outlet or monk. The depth varies between 1 to 1.5 meters at the water inlet and 1.5 to 1.8 meters at the water outlet or about 0.3 to 0.5 meters elevation difference.
The ratio between water inlet width constructed along the middle with the pond width is around 1:3. In this system incoming water should flow with a fall directly to the water surface of the pond.
In one area each pond can be constructed with a size of 10 to 50 m2 with proper design and layout so that the pond can be managed easily.
Another type of pond which is also practiced in Indonesia is the triangular-shaped pond. Formerly this type was developed by constructing the pond along the stream or river. People just excavated the land, makes inlet in one side and outlet in the other side and made them permanent using cement. The size of pond varies, depending on the land available, from 20 m2 to 50 m2 (Figures 15 and 16).
Based on information and experience, it appears that triangular-shaped ponds can have high production when clear water is used but quite low production results if turbid water is used and there is accumulation of debris on the pond bottoms.
In general raceway-shaped pond are the same as rectangular-shaped ones, but the principal difference is that the width of the inlet and outlet is the same as the width of the pond in the raceway type. Water will freely flow through the pond. In one area several ponds may be constructed in parallel system (Figures 17 and 18).
This type of pond can also be constructed in the irrigation canal by installing iron or metal screen at upward side as an inlet and at the downward position is an outlet. Water just flow through the pond (Figures 19, 20 and 21).
The size of the pond depends on area available but these are usually around 2 to 4 meters in width by 5 to 15 meters in length with 1.0 to 1.5 meters water depth.
The latest model of pond which is still being tried and developed in Indonesia is the ovalshaped type. This is a pond which is elongated and constructed without sharp angles at its four corners.
The size of this type of pond depends on the area and water flow available. It is important to have relatively rapid water flow. Concrete pond should be used to prevent erosion. Generally, the size of the pond should vary from 10 to 100 square meters measuring 2–5 meters in width and 5 to 10 meters in length. It is suggested that the ratio of width to length is one to two. Water depth should be between 1 to 2 meters and the pond bottom must be sloped from inlet to outlet so the pond can be totally drained when needed (Figures 22 and 23).
The inlet is constructed in the middle of the upper end of the narrow side. Usually the proportion of the width of the inlet and the width of the pond is around 1:3. The inlet should be constructed in such a way that dissolved oxygen content of pond water can be increased by allowing incoming water to fall. The water in the pond can be managed by regulating the flow of the pond water so that the feed given to the fish is not flushed away by the incoming water.
Outlet construction should ensure that all waste material such as feces of fish and sediments or silt accumulated on the pond bottom are flushed out. This is arranged by allowing outflowing water to pass the outlet sluice through a screen installed at the bottom. Both inlet and outlet are provided with screen to prevent fish escape from the pond and entry of undesirable organisms.
The polyethelene drum system is newly practiced in Indonesia especially in West Java. The basic idea is to utilize narrow land and limited water source to provide fish for household consumption. The principle of this system is similar with the running water pond in that water must completely be changed also every ten minutes.
Minimal volume of drum used is 100 liters. The inlet of the drum can be made from PVC pipe of 1 inch diameter while the outlet can be made of two PVC pipes, one with one inch diameter and the other a larger pipe (2 inch diameter). The smaller inside pipe with 1-inch diameter is used as the outlet and to adjust the water level in the drum and the outer larger pipe is used as outflow adjustment from the bottom so that the bottom of the outer pipe must have perforations (Figures 24, 25 and 29).
Usually mechanized method is applied when wide pond area will be constructed such as in brackishwater ponds where one pond has a total size of around 3 000 to 5 000 m2. Probably, bulldozer or tractor can be used to make the pond. In the case of running water systems where only a small pond of around 10 to 100 m2 each is needed, the application of bulldozer or tractor is not necessary.
Using manpower in order to construct running water pond is commonly applied in Indonesia due to availability of cheap labour as well as small size of pond to be constructed.
When labour is used, every worker should have a specific job. Therefore, great care should be taken in selecting the workers for the success of the work depends on them.
The important parts of the rectangular shaped pond have already been mentioned in part 3.3.1 but to be stressed here is the aspect of its construction. Firstly, the area which will be constructed as a pond must be cleared and excavated including the portion for the distribution channel. Keep the excavated soil around the pond area and have it hardened to fill the excavated sides after the pond wall or dike has been constructed by arranging stones plastered with cement. It is necessary to reinforce the vertical walls using appropriate size iron bars properly spaced at about one meter intervals and horizontal reinforcing bars also on the concrete pond bottom to prevent the structure from collapsing. The pond wall or dike is constructed perpendicularly or there is no need to form an inclination.
Water inlet and outlet are also constructed permanently and equipped with iron screen, especially for the outlet, and sluice boards to adjust the water level. In order to prevent future leakage all the concrete parts of the pond must be properly given masonry finish (Figure 26).
Construction of triangular pond is a little different with other ponds of different shape. It needs more area when more than one pond will be constructed due to its shape. Pond bottom should be sloped towards the drainage or water outlet. The side near the water inlet is shallow while the side which is close to the drainage is deeper. The proper slope is about 60 degrees or the slope wherein a marble placed on the shallow area will roll down to the deep area. Therefore the area in the deeper side will be excavated more than the other side.
The pond wall or dike must be of permanent construction. Due to its triangular shape the ponds cannot be constructed in parallels along one area. The inlet system of this pond is different with other ponds as it is at higher elevation, and its construction does not require excavation but with a concrete footing the water inlet can be constructed on it. For this pond there is need for two water outlets. First is a daily water outlet which is installed in shallow area and second a drainage outlet for total harvesting which should be installed in the deep corner of the pond (Figures 16 and 27).
There are two types of raceway ponds. One type can be established on land site (Figure 17) and the other can be built on the stream by partitioning with the use of screen (Figure 21). For the first type the procedure of constructing it is the same as that of the rectangular-shaped ponds while the second type can be constructed by simply installing the screens.
In order to prevent it from erosion the oval-shaped pond should be constructed of concrete. The procedure in constructing is almost the same as the rectangular pond with the difference only in the nature of the inlet and the shape of the pond. In the other type of pond the inlet is constructed so that the water will fall directly on the pond water surface while for the oval pond the inlet is constructed with a barrier in front of the inlet in level with the pond depth. The water will flow down and hit the barrier so that the water will flow to the pond through the bottom. In order to prevent the escape of fish from the pond a screen must be installed at water inlet and to adjust the water level a 5 cm thick sluice board is used.
Oval-shaped ponds can be nicely constructed with more than one pond in parallel series so that land can be used efficiently (Figures 22 and 28).
Any kind of drum can be used for this purpose but polyethelene or plastic drum seems to be more efficient due to its cheap price and it is very easy to install, arrange and to manage.
The material needed include plastic drum, PVC pipes of about 2 to 4 inches, and 1-inch in diameter. These are used as inlet and outlet pipes for the drum using PVC glue and adhesive tape. To construct, a hole is made in the bottom part of the drum with 1-inch diameter. Insert the 1-inch pipe into it, glued and taped to prevent leak. The length of pipe should reach by about 15 cm less than the drum height. The water in the drum should flow out from the bottom part through perforated holes of the bigger pipe to the top of the 1-inch overflow pipe inside the drum. A 2-inch PVC pipe is needed and is installed outside the 1-inch PVC pipe. The length of the 2-inch pipe is about 10 cm higher than the 1-inch pipe or 5 cm less than the drum height. A 4-inch PVC pipe is used as water distribution pipe if a series of drums will be installed for this type of culture (Figures 25 and 29).
Many factors must be considered before choosing a species of fish for running water culture. In addition to the condition which has already been mentioned in the introduction the fish should be economically profitable or has high price and demand.
In Indonesia the fish which has already been used in the practice of running water culture since the seventies is the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Common carp is widely distributed in most of the tropical and subtropical countries such as Indonesia, China, Germany, Israel and Hungary.
The countries in Southeast Asia have many similar native cryprinids which are used in aquaculture, but common carp was introduced in every Southeast Asian country between 1914 and 1957 and is now cultured throughout the region (Bardach, 1972).
In nature they are found in most shallow inland freshwater areas including lakes, rivers and reservoirs. In tropical areas this species can be cultivated in the areas with altitude of around 1 000 meters from sea level but better growth is achieved in altitudes between 150 to 600 meters, while below 150 meters or above 600 meters from sea level the growth of the fish is reduced (Hora and Pillay, 1962).
Cyprinus carpio belongs to the Family Cyprinidae characterized by large variety in shape and color. It has high adaptation to the environment and food available, easy to cultivate, easy to breed and disease resistant and can consume either natural and artificial food. The fish can easily tolerate different water temperatures and range of dissolved oxygen. Another characteristic is rapid growth, especially when the fish is reared in running water ponds.
Carp is naturally tolerant to wide range of temperature and selective breeding has enhanced this advantage by producing strains that can adapt to a wide variety of temperature regimes. This carp is now profitably raised from the tropics to the northern limits of the north temperate zone. Unlike most fish, carp can grow well under conditions of high turbidity (Bardach, et al. 1972).
Common carp is omnivorous, the young fish below 10 cm in length is plankton feeder (phytoplankton, protozoan and crustacean), while sizes above 10 cm can eat insects, earthworms, snails as typical bottom feeder. Therefore, the pond for rearing carp must be rich in plankton and benthos (Vaas and Van Oven in Soeseno, 1970).
Animal protein will be digested faster than plant protein by the common carp, therefore for its nutrition feed protein which come from animal origin must be considered such as fish meal, blood meal and others.
In addition to protein content and energy, the type of feed must also be considered whether pelleted, meal, paste or emulsion. For running water purposes pelleted feed is better than the others.
The common carp can be described as a fish with long slightly slimy body with two pairs of barbels one of them sometimes rudimentary, with variety in colors such as red, black, green, yellowish, white, bluish, brown, goldish and spotted. In Indonesia there are several races (varieties) of carp such as Sinyonya, Majalaya, Kumpay, Kancra domas and Punten.
The characteristics of each variety (Sumantandinanta 1983) are as follows:
Sinyonya — Body relatively long, yellow in color, chink eyes and almost covered by skin membrane.
Kumpay — The distinguishing characteristic of this variety is that it has a long fin.
Kancra domas — Long body, brown reddish, dorsal part is darker than ventral part, scales relatively small and irregular.
Punten — High depth of body and thich, green in color, head relatively small.
Majalaya — High depth of body, head relatively small, green in color.
The size of common carp seed which is usually stocked in the pond varies from 75 to 150 grams each. The culture period after hatching to this range in size is about 4 months. Commonly fish are cultivated in earthern ponds in the traditional or semi-intensive method. Some fish may be reared in rice-cum-fish, chicken-cum-fish and other integrated methods.
The important factor of availability of the proper seed supply in one year for four croppings/year to support successful production has been mentioned in Part 2.6. It is also suggested that the fish seed stocked in running water pond must be in good condition and good quality to effect good production. Good quality seed comes from good quality broodstock.
In order to get good quality seed it is recommended that running water fishfarmers should produce their own seed from stock of known heredity line to produce 75 to 150 gram fish (Figure 30).
Stocking densities of fish depends on volume of pond, pond shape, volume of water available, water quality and feed quality. However, population of fish which can be stocked in running water ponds is very dense due to the intensive method applied.
The stocking density commonly applied in running water pond ranges between 5 to 20 kilograms of fish per cubic meter of pond water and 3 to 5 kilograms per 100 liters of water for the polyethelene drum. The fish used should be of good quality in order to reach good production.
The fish should be acclimatized to the temperature of the pond by floating the plastic bags of fish to be stocked in the same pond for 5 to 15 minutes. During a period of one week the newly stocked fish must be trained to accept pelleted feed.
Feeding is one of the important factors for successful production of fish especially in running water fish culture. The types of feed given include meal, crumble, paste and pellet. For running water culture, the type of feed most suitable for use must have the following characteristics:
The feed of fish may be made from ingredients of either vegetable or animal origin. Animal material that can be used are blood meal, fish meal and shrimp head meal; while vegetable materials can be of ricebran, leaf meal, coconut cake, corn meal and soybean meal. All of these materials will be mixed with some vitamins and minerals.
For a small-scale farm or large-scale farm feed can be purchased from poultry shops. The farmer may also make the feed himself. However, calculation should be done carefully to determine which feed is more economically profitable.
Due to its high water stability, pelleted feed is more commonly used for running water farm. Its water stability makes it more efficient than other types.
Jangkaru (1974) reported that common carp need 30 to 40 percent protein content, 8 to 10 percent fat and 10 to 20 percent carbohydrates in their diet, while Harris (1982) said that carp use feed with 22 percent protein content. Usually feed given to the fish which is made by a factory have a protein content of about 22 to 25 percent. Four kinds of composition for common carp diet are listed in Table 1.
Food conversion ratio (FCR) is the parameter that can determine whether the growth rate of the fish will be fast or slow (weight of feed given divided by weight of animal produced). Food conversion ratios between 1.5:1 to 2:1 would be favourable, but when food conversion is in the ratio of more than 3:1 the profit expected will be much less.
In order to reach good food conversion ratio all the factors which affect fish production in the running water pond must be considered.
There is no exact figure for daily feeding rate. Usually fish are fed with artificial feed pellets which has a protein content about 25 percent. Daily feeding rate ranges from 3 to 4 percent of body weight. Every 10 or 14 days the amount of feed is adjusted by weight sampling of the fish. According to some experiences the appetite of fish to take pellets increase during daytime as the temperature rises. Therefore, the amount of feed should be correspondingly increased. Usually feeding frequencies varies between five to twelve times per day.
Feed should be given at the same place and time in the pond as trained fish always gather in the same place during feeding time. The best is to feed the fish near the water inlet.
Some fishfarmers install demand feeders in their running water pond to effect more efficient use of the feed and to minimize the utilization of labour and expenses (Figure 31).
Equipment and supplies required for monitoring and operations includes bamboo basket, scoop net, seine, weighing balance, screen wire and water quality monitoring equipment.
Monitoring for growth should be done after every 10 to 14 days. Fish in the ponds are totally caught and weighed then returned to the pond in very quick interval of time. This monitoring is repeated for the three months culture period. The increment in body weight and mortality of fish should be recorded and the amount of feed must be properly adjusted to prevent harm to the fish stock, produce good quality fish, and avoid fish mortality.
Water quality is regularly measured before harvest. Oxygen content is measured by titration method and pH meters used for pH measurement, alkalinity is measured by titration and use of spectrophotometers is applied for determining ammonia content. For water temperature hard thermometer is used and the value is read while the thermometer is still in the water. Other alternative methods of water quality monitoring as available can also be used.
Analysis of water quality should be done at least in four places in a running water farm such as main canal, water inlet, pond water and water outlet. It is further recommended that the analysis of water quality be applied in different depths of the water and if possible, five times a day.
For small fish farmers, water quality monitoring may be rendered as a public service by the nearest government station.
Fish mortality in a running water pond may be caused by fish diseases, and deterioration in water quality due to excessive rainfall and pollution from agricultural wastes. Mortality due to fish disease is rare because of good quality of fish seed used and constant water change applied in this method.
Sometimes mortality of fish occurs as a result of poor handling during harvesting. Rough handling may also cause fish injuries which may result in death. Barring the occurrence of disease outbreak, with good water quality and quantity, good management, continuous and proper amount of feed as well as good handling, fish mortality can greatly be reduced.
Water inlets should be carefully and regularly examined to prevent the entry of wastes or other extraneous material during the rainy season which might radically reduce the flow of water. It is necessary to protect the area from poaching by fencing it with wire or bamboo.
The time of harvest depends on the predetermined culture period. Generally, fish can be harvested after three to four months, but not more than four months. During this culture duration fish which were 100 grams on stocking will grow to 750 to 1 000 grams each. Harvesting is done by draining the water in the pond and the fish are collected with scoop net or other tools. Fish must be handled carefully and should be alive because the price of live fish is much higher than dead fish.
For sending to the fish market, the fish is then collected in oxygenated plastic bags or other containers depending on the distance of the journey. Sometimes the consumers come to the pond to purchase fish directly. Commonly, fish are sold alive for fresh fish are more tasty.
In fish processing, particularly for common carp, several ways are practised. A special method of preparing common carp may be done by cooking with pressure-cooker. In Indonesia, in the pressure-cooked spiced preparation known as “pepes” all parts of the fish can be eaten because all are soft even the bones. The fish can also be served as sweet sour dish, broiled fish or barbeque.
Based on experiences of the fishfarmers and the Sukabumi Center, the application of carp culture in running water system appears to be quite profitable. Estimation of the profitability of this system show the expenditure and benefit during a crop three-month culture period. Four harvest periods in a year is used as the basis for an annual estimation of the economics of running water pond culture of common carp.
Running water fish culture requires a large amount of investment especially for the first year due to the necessity of constructing concrete ponds. However, for the following year the capital cost will greatly decrease (Table 2). In the case of the polyethelene drum culture method the investment in capital cost is not so high (Table 3).
The costs for annual operations are relatively high for running water aquaculture; in fact even higher than the capital costs.
The cost of fingerlings can be estimated by multiplying four times (for four culture periods) in a year with the number of fingerlings required each period. In fact this value may also fluctuate following the fluctuation of fingerling price within the year (Tables 2 and 3).
The cost of feed in intensive fish culture method constitute the highest item of the annual production cost. However, feed cost should be based on food conversion obtainable for a particular type of feed. Better food conversion or those that are usually less than 3:1 will decrease feed cost. Poor food conversion for a given feed usually result in larger amounts of pellets needed so that feed cost also increases (Tables 2 and 3).
Labour cost is higher in running water pond method than in polyethelene drum method. However, labour cost would vary under each particular case and location. For purposes of computation of labour cost in this paper it is assumed to be uniform (Tables 2 and 3).
Miscellaneous costs are available in one year production. It may cover cost of depreciation, sundries or any item which do not contribute a large percentage to the overall cost (Tables 2 and 3).
Under good management for both culture methods (Tables 2 and 3) the cost to produce 1 kg of fish at four crops per year is about US$1.60 for common carp culture in running water pond and US$1.50 for common carp cultured in polyethelene drum (Table 4).
In Indonesia running water fish culture is commonly applied for four crops per year because more economic advantages can be derived than in one crop due to the high capital cost which should be returned soon. Therefore, it is advisable to have more than one crop in a year (preferably 4) for running water fish culture. Table 4 shows the production costs of one crop versus four crops per year for both methods.
The amount of profit that will be gained depends on the scale of farm operated which varies between 100 m2 to more than 5 000 m2. Small-scale farm of running water pond usually has 10 to 20 units of pond with 15 m2 in size, while large-scale farm may have more than 50 units with around 50 m2 in size each pond.
For example 6-unit running water pond with 12 m2 in size each pond was constructed as a small-scale farm in the Sukabumi Center. According to the experience at the Center every pond per year could produce on the average about 2 800 kg of marketable fish. The initial stocking density is 195 kg per pond and operated 4 croppings in a year. A net income equivalent to US$1 822.201 was gained. All the units can yield a gross income equivalent to US$11 293.20 with the total pond area about 150 m2 only.
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) 1 120 = US$1 as of August 1986 when this manual was in preparation.
The correlation of the above estimate of income with the area is that the more units of ponds operated there will be more benefits in the running water aquaculture business.
However, many factors which have been mentioned before, will affect the operation of running water fish culture successfully in order to get more profits which must be carefully considered.
Up to now running water fish culture as practiced is usually for common carp species, but considering its biology and characteristics, other species of freshwater fishes may also be suitable for cultivation in running water pond (e.g. in China the species used is grass carp). Therefore, further studies and development should be done on this matter.
The extension of this culture method depends upon the area and species available in the place. Consideration should be given on water source and its sufficiency in quantity and quality for the purpose and the kind of species of freshwater fish that are more valuable in the area. The use of low value species of fish for running water ponds should be avoided as no benefits will be gained. However, for species which are economically profitable, further development must be encouraged.
Environmental conditions in the countries will influence the application of this culture method. Countries rich with water sources like some parts of Indonesia would have no problem but not for the countries where fresh-water sources are very limited. In the latter case, other methods of intensive culture of fish such as the use of recirculating water system should also be studied.
According to experience, the shape of pond will influence the production of fish in the pond, especially when the water used is very turbid. It seems that ponds with sharp angles such as rectangular, square and traingular-shaped ponds, sedimentation due to small particles will be more than in ponds with rounded sides such as the oval-shaped ponds. However, to recommend what type of pond shape will be more effective and applicable, further tests should first be done.
Alabaster, J.S. and R. Lloyd, 1982 Water quality criteria for freshwater fish. Second Edition. Printed in Great Britain. Published by FAO of the United Nations. 361p.
Bardach, J.E., J.H. Ryther and W.O. McLarney, 1972 Aquaculture, fish farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organism. Wiley Inter Science. A division of John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, London, Sydney, Toronto. 868p.
Brown, M.E., 1957 The physiology of fishes, Vol. I. Metabolism. Academic Press, Inc. Publisher, New York. 447 p.
Harris, E., 1982 Short notes on the application of running water system in carp culture in West Java. Workshop on Agriculture Financing. Jakarta, Indonesia, November. 7p.
Hepher, B. and Y. Pruginin, 1981 Commercial fish farming with special reference to fish culture in Israel. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 261p.
Hickling, C.F., 1971 Fish culture. Second edition. Faber and Faber, London. 317p.
Hora, S.L. and T.V.R. Pillay, 1962 Handbook on fish culture in the Indo-Pacific Region, FAO Fish. Biol. Tech. Pap. 14. 204p.
Huet, M., 1972 Textbook of fish culture. Breeding and cultivation of fish. Page Bros. (Norwich) Ltd., Norwich. 423p.
Jangkaru, Z., 1974 Pembuatan Makanan Ikan (Fish feed preparation). Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan. Lembaga Penelitian Perikanan Darat. Bogor, Indonesia. 6p.
Sumantadinata, K., 1983 Pengembang biakkan Ikan-ikan Peliharaan di Indonesia (The breeding of cultured fish in Indonesia). Sastra Hudaya, Jakarta. 132 p.
Soeseno, S., Pemeliharaan Ikan di Kolam Pekarangan (Fish culture in backyard ponds). Penerbitan Yayasan Kanisius, Bandung. 72p.
The author would like to thank the ASEAN/UNP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project for suggesting and sponsoring the preparation of this manual. I also thank the Directorate General of Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia, for their support and encouragement.
My personal thanks is due to all the staff of the Freshwater Aquaculture Development and Training Center, Sukabumi, Indonesia, whose hard work and many experiences have made it easier for me to prepare this document. I am most grateful to Ms. Enni Soetopo who reviewed the draft of the manual and finally may thanks to Mr. Tonny Sarwono who kindly assisted in the drafting of the manual and in preparing the diagrams.
Table 1. Composition of practical diets for common carp
|Type||Fish meal||Soybean meal||Corn meal||Blood meal||Leaf meal||Rice-bran||Wheat flour||Vitamins||Minerals||Protein content|
Table 2. Production costs of common carp culture in running water ponds (In equivalent US$ per unit)
|1. Pond construction 1 unit (2 × 6 × 1.5) m including water channel||870.00||19.4|
|2. Harvesting equipment||22.00||0.4|
|3. Guard house||870.00||19.4|
|1. Fish seed at 100 g 195 kg × 4* × US $1.60||1 248.00||27.8|
|2. Feed 1 025 kg × 4* × US $0.30||1 230.00||27.4|
|3. Labour 1 person/unit × 12 × US $6.50/month||78.00||1.7|
|4. Depreciation (10%)||176.20||3.9|
|C.||Gross income 721 kg × 4* × US $1.60||4 614.40|
|D.||Net profit in a year/unit||1 882.20|
|E.||Percent of net profit to capital costs||106.8|
|F.||Percent of net profit to operational costs||68.9|
|G.||Percent of net profit to gross income||40.8|
* — Four times culture period in a year.
Note: Growth rate of fish based on the experiment done, that assumed 60–90% in a month.
Table 3. Production costs of common carp culture in polyethelene drum
(In equivalent US$ per unit)
|1. Polyethelene drum 1 unit||10.00||17.3|
|1. Fish seed at 3 kg × 4* × US $1.60||19.20||33.2|
|2. Feed 12.2 kg × 4* × US $0.30||14.60||25.3|
|3. Depreciation costs (20%)||4.00||6.9|
|C.||Gross income 9.9 kg × 4* × US $1.60||63.40|
|D.||Net income in a year/unit||25.60|
|E.||Percent of net profit to capital costs||127.8|
|F.||Percent of net profit to operational costs||67.7|
|G.||Percent of net profit to gross income||40.4|
* - Four times culture period in a year.
Note: Growth rate of fish based on the experiment done, that assumed 60–90% in a month and owner providing labour.
Table 4. Production cost per kg of common carp in running water pond and polyethelene drum culture producting one crop versus four crops per year
|Method of culture||One crop per year|
|Four crop per year|
|Percent less of 4 crops from 1 crop|
|1. Running water pond||3.40||1.60||53|
|2. Polyethelene drum||3.00||1.50||50|
Figure 1. Water supply for running water pond culture
Figure 2. Layout of water distribution in running water pond
Figure 3. Concrete channel in running water fish farm with installed water control tank
Figure 4. Concrete water distribution in running water farm
Figure 5. Screens in water inlet and distribution channel
Figure 6. Water inlet construction in running water pond
Figure 7. A vertical sluice and screen installed in inlet of pond
Figure 8. PVC pipe as a water inlet in polyethelene drum method
Figure 9. Water outlet system in running water pond
Figure 10. A type of three groove monk
Figure 11. A type of two groove monk
Figure 12. One groove monk type
Figure 13. Layout of rectangular-shaped units of running water ponds
Figure 14. Rectangular pond for running water carp culture in West Java, Indonesia with installed demand feeders
Figure 15. Other type of triangular-shaped pond practiced in West Java, Indonesia for carp culture
Figure 16. Layout of triangular-shaped running water ponds
Figure 17. Layout of raceway-shaped running water ponds
Figure 18. Raceway-shaped ponds for carp culture used in Majalaya, Indonesia
Figure 19. Raceway pond culture constructed along irrigation canal by damming with concrete dike and installing screen as well as demand feeder as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
Figure 20. Another type of carp culture in raceway which is constructed along distribution channel showing a bamboo fencing and demand feeder as practiced in Majalaya, Indonesia
Figure 21. Another type of raceway type ponds
Figure 22. Layout of oval-shaped ponds
Figure 23. Carp culture in running water with oval-shaped ponds with fencing of wire to prevent of poaching as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
Figure 24. Carp culture in polyethelene drums or plastic drums as practiced in Sukabumi, Indonesia
Figure 25. Layout of fish culture using polyethelene drum method
Figure 26. Construction of rectangular-shaped ponds
Figure 27. Construction of triangular-shaped ponds
Figure 28. Construction of oval-shaped ponds
Figure 29. Simple method of fish culture in polyethelene drum system
Figure 30. The size of common carp which are first stocked in running water pond as practiced in Majalaya, Indonesia
Figure 31. Demand feeder applied in common carp culture, locally made and commonly used in West Java, Indonesia
PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS OF THE ASEAN/UNDP/FAO REGIONAL SMALL-SCALE COASTAL FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
ASEAN/SF/86/WP/1 Rabanal, H. R. Seafarming as alternative to small-scale fishing in ASEAN Region. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986. 55p.
ASEAN/SF/86/WP/2 Soeyanto, T. The status of Bali Strait fisheries with special reference to Muncar, Kedonganan and Jimbaran coastal villages. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986. (for printing)
ASEAN/SF/86/WP/3 Boongerd, S. Squid fishing in Thailand. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986. (for printing)
Workshop Reports/Other General Reports
ASEAN/SF/86/GEN/1 Report of National Consultative Meeting on Aquaculture Engineering held at Tigbauan Research Station, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 2–5 October 1985. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986.
ASEAN/SF/86/GEN/2 Zabala, P. T. (Comp.) Preliminary annotated bibliography on small-scale fisheries in the ASEAN Region. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986. (for printing)
ASEAN Fisheries Manuals
ASEAN/SF/86/Manual 1 Suprayitno, H. Manual of running water fish culture. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 1986. 34p.
Periodic Progress Reports
ASEAN/SF/86/PR-1 Soesanto, V. Project progress report of the ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 5 October 1985-5 April 1986. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project. 9p.
ASEAN/SF/86/PR-2 Soesanto, V. Project progress report of the ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, 6 April-6 October 1986. Manila, ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project. 11p.
Technical Reports Contributed to Symposia/Meetings, etc.
ASEAN/SF/85/Tech. 1 Rabanal, H. R. and V. Soesanto. The world fishery and culture of Macrobrachium and related prawn species. Contributed to the National Conference on Prawn Technology, sponsored by the Philippine Fish Farmer's Technical Assistance Foundation, Inc., Manila, Philippines, 27–28 November 1985.
ASEAN/SF/86/Tech. 2 Rabanal, H. R. and V. Soesanto. Commercial species of shrimps and prawns, their sources and export markets. Contributed to the Seminar on Quality Control in the Production, Processing and Marketing of Frozen Shrimps for Export, sponsored by Food Research Department, Food Terminal Incorporated, Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines, 29–31 July 1986.
ASEAN/SF/86/Tech. 3 Rabanal, H. R. Status and prospects of shrimp farming in the Philippines. Contributed to the Monthly Seminar Series on Timely and Related Fisheries Issues, sponsored by the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, (PCARRD), Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, 5 November 1986.