Field Document 1
T E C H N I C A L C O O P E R A T I O N P R O G R A M M E
A report prepared for the
Aquaculture Feasibility Study Project
based on the work of
D. Lacroix and P. Lemercier
Consultants (General Aquaculture)
This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.
An assessment of marine and freshwater aquaculture potentialities in Grenada was carried out by 2 engineers of the French Company FRANCE-AQUACULTURE from October 1, 1986 to October 21, 1986.
It showed that, technically, Grenada has large aquaculture potentialities :
About 100 ha of coastal flat lands can be utilized for the gorw-out phase of both freshwater prawns and marine shrimps ;
Large protected bays are suitable for the intensive culture of marine fish, seamoss (algae) and eventually King Crab ;
Excellent hatchery sites for freshwater prawns, marine shrimps and marine fishes.
However, due to :
The present weakness of the national economy, and the priority for export and touristic markets ;
The large potentialities of the fisheries sector.
The consultants suggest the first priority should be the development of freshwater prawn culture in Grenada. The advantages of that form of aquaculture for Grenada can be summarized as follows :
The production process is fully controlled and the activity can immediately start on a commercial basis in Grenada provided the proper technology be introduced in the country ;
The activity will be financially viable in the country with a Financial Internal Rate of Return ranging between 16 % and 23 % (for one grow-out farm of 1 ha only). Furthermore, it will be accessible for large and small investors ;
The objective of production is about 50 tons/year. It will allow to create 70–90 jobs at the production level (induced jobs not included) ;
The activity is a low energy consumer (water supplied by gravity into the grow-out ponds) and the required feed (dry pellet) can be locally manufactured.
Freshwater prawn culture does not exist in Grenada and the role of the Government will be to promote it. It will be possible with a PROJECT consisting of :
The implementation and operation of a demonstration farm including 5 grow-out ponds of 2 000 m2 each and one small hatchery ;
The introduction of a modern and adapted foreign technology. During their 2 years stay in Grenada, the foreign experts will assist in implementing and managing the demonstration farm. They will also directly assist the private investors for the design, implementation and management of their own farms.
Assuming the project will start in 1988 (construction), it will cost about 2 300 000 EC (885 000 US $) breaking down in initial investment costs, 2 years of operating costs and 2 years of foreign technical assistance (about 58 % of the total cost) aiming at a fast and efficient transfer of the technology directly to the private sector.
It is now up to the Government to decide to go to that direction of fast development. As regards the possible sources of funds for the project, the Government will have to get in touch with various institutions or banks such as the European Development Fund, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Caribbean Food Corporation and eventually the French Cooperation. As regards the required technical assistance ; FRANCE appears to be the most suitable partner as :
Freshwater prawn culture has already been successfully developed in Martinique and Guadeloupe. Its development is now under course in French Guyana ;
IFREMER (1) research facilities and staff in Martinique and French Guyana could provide Grenada with a constant and strong scientific support for a sound development of aquaculture.
(1) Institut Français pour l'Exploitation des Mers.
Independently of freshwater prawn culture which is clearly the first priority in Grenada ; the consultants team also advises the Government to support the present private “King Crab project” in Carriacou.
That project is now operated at an experimental level by a private investor (U.S. Citizen) who may not continue that activity due to financial problems.
Although there is not yet a reliable production process, the product (Mithrax spinosissimus) could eventually become of considerable interest for the country as :
There are local potentialities for a large production ;
The aimed market is the north-american one ;
The activity is a non-consumer energy ;
The animal is herbivorous, thus, there is no need for imported feed : the required feed is naturally produced with the marine waters and the sunlight ;
The process is so far well fitting in the available labour force (fishermen are well trained to the required manipulations) ;
Provided the present results be confirmed, setting up a reliable production process should be neither long nor too costly (about 2 years should be sufficient).
The objective to set up a production process could be achieved within a 2 years program including :
The implementation and operation of a small technical pilot project ;
A foreign technical support (2 years).
Assuming that project will start in 1988, it will cost about 1 100 000 EC breaking down in initial investment costs, 2 years of operating costs and 2 years of foreign technical support.
Obviously, the financial relationships between the 2 partners (the private investor and the Government) is a matter of negociation between them. However, if the technical results are confirmed, there are large potentialities of development in Grenada and the Caribbean region.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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I - INTRODUCTION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE
II - BACKGROUND
1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE COUNTRY
1.1. Geography and climate
1.4. Development policy
2. FISHERIES SECTOR AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT
2.1. Characteristics of the fishing fleet
2.2. Fishing methods
2.3. Catches and consumption
2.4. Marketing of Fish and infrastructures
2.5. Conclusion on the fisheries sector
3. PRESENT STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN GRENADA AND THE REGION
3.1. In Grenada
3.2. In the region
4. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AQUACULTURE IN GRENADA
4.1. Positive or favourable factors
4.2. Negative or limiting factors
III - AQUACULTURE TECHNICS AND SPECIES WITH POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN GRENADA
1. FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE
1.1. Freshwater prawn culture
1.2. Freshwater fishes
2. MARINE AQUACULTURE
2.2. Marine shrimps
2.3. Oyster culture
2.4. Algae culture
2.5. King Crab culture
IV - SUGGESTED PRIORITIES & STRATEGY OF DEVELOPMENT
1. SUGGESTED PRIORITIES AND JUSTIFICATIONS
1.1. The priorities
1.2. Justifications of the priorities
2. SUGGESTED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
2.1. Development of freshwater prawn culture
2.2. Development and assistance to the King Crab project
V - CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF ANNEXES
ANNEX I : Private freshwater prawn farm (5 ponds of 2 000 m2)
I.1 : Capital cost
I.2 : Real account in standard year
I.3 : Internal Rate of Return (selling price : 15 EC/pound)
I.4 : Internal Rate of Return (selling price : 17 EC/pound)
ANNEX II : Freshwater prawn demonstration farm, capital costs
ANNEX III : Freshwater prawn demonstration farm, operating costs
ANNEX IV : Freshwater prawn demonstration farm, technical assistance programme
ANNEX V : King Crab project, project costs
ANNEX VI : Water quality requirements for grow-out of freshwater prawns
ANNEX VII : Suitable surfaces for grow-out of freshwater prawns in Grenada
ANNEX VIII : Classification of suitable sites for freshwater prawns culture in Grenada
ANNEX IX : Planning of the mission and persons met
ANNEX X : Bibliography