5.1 Large-scale hatchery projects should be established with the technical support of reliable and experienced advisors (including Cephalonian Fisheries). This support should be given from the design stage and provide, with particular emphasis on the initial training of Greek personnel abroad and technical assistance in the day-to-day operation during at least the first two years of operation.
5.2 Well-qualified Greek personnel, who will be in charge of the technical management of these hatcheries, should be selected. Future general managers of the hatcheries should be selected from individuals with good managerial qualities.
5.3 The management of the large-scale hatcheries planned by the State should be carried out along commercial business lines, aiming to establish economic viability through the sale of the hatchery products and services (eggs, fry, training to private, consulting, etc.).
5.4 The State hatcheries should organize continuous training programmes for personnel to be involved in future hatcheries, both for the public and private sectors.
5.5 The existence of a wide number of well-trained individuals will be essential for development of small-scale hatcheries, which cannot be established at present without incurring prohibitive costs for external assistance.
5.6 A programme of regular seminars should be established in collaboration with Greek and foreign mariculture specialists, addressed to all ichthyologists of those institutions involved in mariculture (Fisheries Departments, Banks, Ministries, etc.) and to local authorities and communities.
5.7 Processing and flexibility should be improved in licensing, release of credit and construction operations for faster and more efficient implementation of projects.
5.8 More balanced and regular financial assistance should be given to investors in order to help them not only during the stages of implementation, but also during the operational phase.
5.9 Decisive changes should be implemented in order to decentralize the basic services needed for an aquaculture project - banking facilities, customs, health laboratories, shipping agencies, etc.
5.10 A national network organization should be developed for fish selling (national and export), for marketing operations and quality control of aquaculture products (fry and market size fish).
5.11 Incentives should be given to national manufacturers and/or investors to produce quality equipment (fibreglass tanks, PVC pipes, valves and fittings, etc.) and high quality feed.
5.12 Banning of import/export of live aquaculture products should be avoided, but reliable health controls should be established over both exporters to Greece as well as importers in Greece. Mariculture cannot expand and develop without some exchange of eggs, larvae, fry, plankton, new species, etc.
5.13 Applied research programmes should be carried out only where efficient experimental production facilities are operating and where experienced and trained personnel (scientists and technicians) are available. Applied research in marine hatchery technology requires good technical knowledge in phyto-zooplankton culture and larval rearing techniques. Priority applied research topics are:
larval nutrition (enrichment diets, microencapsulated diets)
staggered reproduction (photoperiodism/temperature conditioning)
mass culture of live food (large volumes and extensive systems)
larvae/fish pathology and prophylaxis
reproduction of new species (sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo, white sea bream Diplodus sargus, common dentex Dentex dentex, common sea bream Pagrus pagrus).
5.14 Most of the very specific technical recommendations are given in the present report together with the technical comments on the reviewed plans. However, two main recommendations should be reported concerning technical management of a marine hatchery.
Precise control and a high level of management of the broodstock is the key to the attainment of high quality eggs. Part of the problem of lordosis (skeletal deformity) can certainly be attributed to quality/viability of eggs. The following procedures should be strictly respected in a hatchery's operation:
keep broodstock at low densities (less than 1 kg/m3), if possible in ponds and semi-wild conditions.
renew broodstock every year with approximately 20% of new wild individuals (i.e., 1-year-old fish).
integrate pelletted feed with fresh fish, especially during eggs maturation stage.
avoid as much as possible stresses in manipulating breeders, especially just before spawning.
control regularly the sanitary conditions of breeders.
Prophylaxis plans in a marine hatchery are strongly recommended in order to prevent risks of diseases. Very little is known about sea bass/sea bream diseases, and treatments are often unsuccessful. A good prophylaxis programme should be based on the following recommendations:
design of a hatchery should fit properly with the preservation of good water quality (water sterilization and easy systems for cleaning water circuits).
excellent hygiene conditions should be maintained in the hatchery, especially in the phytozooplankton unit and the rearing tanks (cleaning efficiency).
the use where needed of medicated feeds.
extreme care in limiting stressing factors and manipulations on larvae and fry.