LIBFISH FIELD DOCUMENTS,
|-- TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT --|
THE MARINE WEALTH SECTOR OF LIBYA:by
A DEVELOPMENT PLANNING OVERVIEW
A. Abukhader & A. Ben Abdallah
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
Tripoli/Rome, December 1995
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIBFISH publications prepared thus far appear as Technical Briefing Notes (TBN) and Field Documents (FD). The TBN series consists mostly of preliminary communications about ongoing or recently completed work undertaken through the various Project components, whereas the FD series is intended for more comprehensive reports and compilations of work in advanced stages or already finalised.
This fourteenth number in the FD series was prepared as part of the work programme of the LIBFISH Planning/Statistics group, with the assistance of Messrs A. Abukhader and A. Ben Abdallah. It provides an overview study of the Libyan marine fisheries and aquaculture sector for development planning applications. The sector is briefly examined in terms of its wider national economic context and its production, post-harvest, and institutional dimensions. Development options are then suggested for consideration by fisheries administration and planning authorities as well as other agencies and interest groups sharing a concern with issues of marine resource use, management, and preservation.
FD No. 14 thus documents further contributions towards the fulfilment of Project terms of reference related to fisheries planning/statistics in Libya. The Plan/Stat Group is concerned, amongst other things, with: review and analysis of national fisheries and aquaculture activities, socioeconomics and marketing, and policy instruments and institutional capabilities; assessing on this basis development constraints and potentials; advising the Secretariat of Marine Wealth on strengthening the national fisheries management system; improved monitoring of inshore and commercial fisheries; and related training of national personnel in survey methodology and computerised data management.
The contributions of MBRC Research Officers Ms. R. El Sherif, Ms. K. Ben Taleb, and Mr. A. Fituri, and of Project Assistant Mr. N. Ghani, in helping with translation and other tasks involved with the preparation of this study are gratefully acknowledged. Appreciation is also expressed for the kind help in map preparation work provided by members of the Physical Planning Project (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements -LIB/91/X01), Mr. J. Hatva (Chief Technical Advisor), Mr. M. Santiago (Architect Planner UNV), and Mr. M. Abeykoon (Urban Planner UNV)- Mr. M. Hamada, Project Translator/Computer Operations Assistant, provided valuable help with some of the graphics presentations needed to produce this report, and his efforts are also gratefully acknowledged.
In one way or another the study draws upon the accumulated work undertaken through each of the five LIBFISH Project components - Planning/Statistics (Plan/Stat), Aquaculture (Aqua), Fish Technology (F/Tech), Resource Assessment (R/Assmt), and Vessel Operations (V/Ops). It is appropriate therefore to express a general word of thanks to all members of the Project team who have helped with the various tasks of field survey, data processing, analysis, and write-up that have gone into the production of LIBFISH technical reports over the past two and a half years.
The original version of this report is written in English. Interpretations and/or translations into other languages should be verified against the original.
-- J.Eric Reynolds
|This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.|
|The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.|
For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as follows:
Reynolds., J.E. et al. 1995 ‘The marine wealth sector of Libya: A development planning overview.’ Tripoli/Rome, FAO. 122p. Fl: DP/UB/88/009 - Fl: GCP/LIB/021/lsDB. Field Document 14 (En).
Cover Photograph:‘SEA FISHERS’*
|This mosaic, dating back some 1800 years, is now exhibited at the Jamahiriya Museum of Tripoli. Although fish and marine life motifs are common in the Libyan archeological record, realistic sea fishing scenes such as the one depicted here are quite rare as mosaic subjects, which more often express mythological themes. The ‘Sea Fishers’ piece, measuring 1.25 by 3.80 m overall, originates from the site of an ancient country villa near Leptis, close to the modern town of El Khoms. Such villas were constructed by owners of estates along the coast in the vicinity of major urban centres like Leptis, Oea, and Sabratha, They were usually quite elaborate establishments that included bath complexes and water reservoirs and, often, defensive walls and ditches as well. The residence that yielded this mosaic is known as the ‘Villa of the Nile,’ since the floors of two of its rooms were decorated with scenes from the River Nile. A third room was decorated with the ‘Sea Fishers’ mosaic. It is fashioned according to the Alexandrian technique that spread from the Nile delta to the rest of North Africa from about 2000 to 1600 years ago. ‘Sea Fishers’ was assembled entirely from locally obtained stone material. Around two-thirds of the whole mosaic is shown here. Sections of the remaining left side of the panel are missing and have been patched over. ‘Villa of the Nile’ was discovered accidently by local farmers working in fields midway between the Leptis Port and the Amphitheatre in 1916. It was subsequently excavated by a team of archaeologists between 1923 and 1930.|
|Dr. Giuma Anag|
|Technical Advisor, Department of Antiquities & Director, The Jamahiriya Museum|
*Mosaic panel, Jamahiriya Museum Catalogue No. 416; reproduced by kind permission of the Jamahiriya Museum, Department of Antiquities, Tripoli. (Photograph by M. Lamboeuf, October 1994.)
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2. GENERAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Macroeconomic Context
2.2 Role of Fisheries in the National Economy
3. SECTOR INSTITUTIONS, PROGRAMMES, AND POLICIES
3.1 Secretariat of Marine Wealth
3.2 Development Objectives
3.3 Development Programmes and Policies
3.4 The Legislative Framework
3.5 Regional and International Conventions and Arrangements
4. BASIC SECTOR CHARACTERISTICS
4.1 Marine Capture Fisheries
4.2 Inland Fisheries
4.3 Culture Fisheries (Aquaculture)
4.4 Fisheries Post-Harvest
4 5 Research and Technical Advisory Services
5. SECTOR ANALYSIS
5.1 SMW Programmes and Policies
5.2 Planning and Management of Capture Fisheries
5.3 Planning and Management of Aquaculture
5.4 Planning and Management for Coastal Zones
5.5 Planning and Management of Post-Harvest Activities
5.6 Planning and Management Support: Research and Technical Advisory Services
6. DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS
6.1 Strategic Choices
6.2 Capture Fisheries
6.3 Culture Fisheries
6.4 Integrated Coastal Zone Management
6.5 Post-Harvest Activities
6.6 Research and Technical Advisory Services
7. REFERENCES CITED
ANNEX 1. MAPS
• MAP 1. COASTAL ZONES: OVERVIEW
• MAP 2. COASTAL ZONES: ZUWARA - TRIPOLI
• MAP 3. COASTAL ZONES: GULF
• MAP 4. COASTAL ZONES: JABEL AKHDAR-TUBRUK
• TABLE Al/1. LIBYAN COASTAL ZONES: PERMANENT FISH LANDING SITES AND AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS
ANNEX 2. ORGANISATION OF THE SECRETARIAT OF MARINE WEALTH
ANNEX 3. TEXTS OF FISHERIES-RELATED LEGISLATION.
• Law 14 of 1989 Concerning Utilisation of Marine Wealth (SMW 1989a)
• SMW Decision 71/90 Concerning the Legal Intrepretation of Law 14 of 1989 (SMW 1990)
• SMW Decision 80/91 Concerning the Technical Interpretation of Law 14 of 1989 (SMW 1991)
• Law 23 of 1991 Concerning Fisheries Co-operatives (GPC 1991)
• SMW Decision 7/92 Concerning Implementation Rules of Law 23 of 1991 (SMW 1992)
• SMW Decision 106/89 Concerning Subsidy & Encouragement to Marine Fisheries (SMW 1989b)
• Law 9 of 1985 Concerning ‘Tasharukiat’ Establishment Rules (GPC 1985)
ANNEX 4. STATUS OF NATIONAL POLICY PROVISION AND IMPLEMENTATION IN RELATION TO DRAFT CODE OF CONDUCT ARTICLES 6 – 11
• Table A4/1. Article 6 -- Fisheries Management
• Table A4/2. Article 7 -- Fisheries Operations
• Table A4/3. Article 8 -- Aquaculture Development
• Table A4/4. Article 9 -- Integration of Fisheries into Coastal Zone Management
• Table A4/5. Article 10 -- Post-Harvest Practices and Trade
• Table A4/6. Article 11 -- Fisheries Research