Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines

J. Richard Arthur
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Maurice Lamontagne Institute
Mont-Joli, Quebec
Canada and
Susan Lumanlan-Mayo
Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
Quezon City
The Philippines


Food and Agriculture of the United Nations
Rome, © FAO 1997


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ISBN 92-5-104036-2

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© FAO 1997

Arthur, J.R.; Lumanlan-Mayo, S.
Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines.
FAO Fisheries TechnicalPaper. No. 369. Rome, FAO. 1997. 102p.
This checklist summarizes information on the parasites of Philippine fishes contained in the world literature dating from the earliest known record (de Blainville 1822) to the end of 1996. Information is presented in the form of parasite-host and host-parasite lists. Included are 201 named species of parasites, distributed among the higher taxa as follows: Apicomplexta - 1, Ciliophora - 16, Mastigophora - 2, Microspora - 1, Myxozoa - 9, Trematoda - 90, Monogenea - 22, Cestoda - 6, Nematoda - 20, Acanthocephala - 5, Mollusca - 1, Branchiura - 2, Copepoda - 21 and Isopoda - 5. Also included are many records of parasites not identified to species level. Parasites have been reported from 172 of the more than 2030 species of marine and freshwater fish occurring in Philippine waters, and from another 17 species of freshwater aquarium fish examined in the Philippines but not found in natural waters. The Parasite-Host List is organized on a taxonomic basis and provides information for each parasite species on the environment (fresh water, brackish water, marine), the location (site of infection) in or on its host(s), the species of host(s) infected, the known geographic distribution (by island) in the Philippines, and the published sources for each host and locality record. The Host-Parasite List is organized according to the taxonomy of the hosts, and includes for each host, the English language and local (typically Tagalog) common names, environment (fresh water, brackish water, marine), status in the Philippines (native or exotic), and information on the known Philippine distribution of the parasites. Both lists are accompanied by remarks and footnotes, as warranted, giving specific information on points of systematics, nomenclature, possible misidentifications, introductions, pathogenicity, etc. Citations are included for all references and a supplementary list of references contains other literature on Philippine fish parasites. Parasite and host indices are included. The following new taxonomic combinations are made: Prosorhynchoides philippinorum (Velasquez, 1959) n. comb., for Bucephaloides philippinorum Velasquez, 1959; Prosorhynchoides sibi (Yamaguti, 1940) n. comb., for Bucephaloides sibi (Yamaguti, 1940); Genolinea awa (Yamaguti, 1965) n. comb., for Pseudobunocotyla awa Yamaguti, 1965; and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) philippinensis (Velasquez, 1980) n. comb., for Spirocamallanus philippinensis Velasquez, 1980.


The need for information on the occurrence of diseases and movement of pathogens of aquatic animals has long been recognized in the Asia-Pacific Region, and has been re-iterated in the reports of numerous workshops held by various donors and regional agencies (e.g., International Development Research Centre Canada (IDRC), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Asian Fisheries Society, Fish Health Section (FHS/AFS), Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR), and Asian Development Bank (ADB)) dating back to at least 1978. FAO has been highly active in this area, through its Code of Conduct for the Responsible Movement of Aquatic Organisms, and is currently collaborating with ACIAR and NACA in implementing a comprehensive regional strategy for the Development of Health Certification and Quarantine Guidelines for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals in Asia. One of the goals identified within the FAO/NACA/ACIAR strategy is the development of a comprehensive information database on aquatic animal health, with the FAO charged to take the initiative in developing and establishing a prototype computerized information system. This prototype information system, the “Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System (AAPQIS),” has been developed for Asia with the help of the FHS/AFS where a comprehensive information database is readily available through their fish health bibliography publication series. The information from the Philippines published in this checklist has also been included in the AAPQIS database.


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