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8. World Food Programme:
8. Programme alimentaire mondial:
8. Programa Mundial de Alimentos:

8.1 Seventh Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the UN/FAO World Food Programme
8.1 Septième rapport annuel du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire du Programme alimentaire mondial ONU/FAO
8.1 Séptimo informe anual del Comité de Políticas y Programas de Ayuda Alimentaria, del Programa Mundial de Alimentos Naciones Unidas/FAO

CHAIRMAN: We will now resume consideration of the items on the agenda. I am happy to welcome in our midst Mr. Ingram, the Executive Director of the UN/FAO World Food Programme, and I now give the floor to Mr. Ingram.

J.C. INGRAM (World Food Programme): I welcome this opportunity to speak, for the first time, to this important body and to present to you the seventh annual report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes for 1981.

That report has already been distributed to you and I would like merely to underline and update some of its major features, before passing on to some of the issues which confront not only WFP but all those involved in food aid. In brief: some of the highlights of the report are as follows:

– for the second year in succession WFP shipped over 1.5 million tons of food in 1981;

– WFP made new development commitments of $543 million in the same year; this level has increased to $591 million in 1982;

– the greatest part of our assistance - approaching 80 percent - is directed to agricultural and rural development projects;

– geographically our concentration is on Africa, which now attracts over half our annual commitments; all told, over 80 percent of our assistance is directed to low-income food-deficit countries and 35 percent to least-developed countries;

– these development commitments have been supplemented by emergency assistance amounting to $178 million in 1981 and to $148 million so far in the current year;

– the International Emergency Food Reserve exceeded its target for the first time in 1981 to reach 632 000 tons, but so far contributions in 1982 at 455 000 tons remain short of the target;

– in a noteworthy contribution to economic co-operation between developing countries, WFP, with the support of sixteen donor agencies and governments as well as some non-governmental organizations, has arranged the purchase and distribution of 300 000 tons of maize from Zimbabwe for use as food aid in fifteen African countries;

– pledges for the 1981-82 biennium, which were about 77 percent of the billion dollar target at the end of 1981, have increased only a little to reach 83 percent;

– encouragingly, however, pledges for the coming biennium 1983-84 already amount to the same proportion - 83 percent - of the $1.2 billion target.

In the current international economic climate pledges at this level before the biennium commences indicate the confidence of the international community in WFP. Some donors have not yet announced contributions and I am optimistic that the target will be reached. As a voluntary programme, we know that it is essential to sustain and strengthen the confidence of participating governments. Among United Nations development institutions our administrative overheads are, I believe, the lowest and we intend to keep them that way. Our projects are subject to thorough appraisal before approval and to careful evaluation, fully reported to our Governing Body. Nevertheless, improvements in both processes are possible and we are currently looking at some changes. We welcome inspection

of our projects by representatives of contributing governments, so that they can see at first hand the way in which their assistance is used. May I suggest also that on occasions developing countries would find value in being well informed about our activities in neighbouring countries to help them to frame requests which take account of lessons learned from projects undertaken in circumstances similar to their own. Through our network of field officers in 80 countries and through frequent visits by headquarters staff, we have established the basis for understanding the needs of recipient countries. We seek to strengthen our dialogue with their governments so that we can make the best use of food aid to assist their development.

The year 1983 will be marked as the twentieth anniversary of WFP operations. Twenty years of food aid - made necessary by hunger and poverty and always insufficient to meet growing needs - is not a cause for celebration but rather for reflection and self-examination. That reflection must inevitably begin with the concept of food aid and its contribution to development.

At the outset, let me repeat that one basic advantage of food aid is that it is frequently additional to other forms of development assistance. Much of the current argument about the relative efficiency of food or financial transfers misses this point. There is nothing to indicate that most donor governments would be willing to replace food aid by an equivalent increase in their financial allocations. Indeed, the current situation of the world grain market emphasizes anew the origianl orientation of food aid - making surplus production available to meet the needs of developing countries. No one would, of course, wish to revive the problems which crude surplus disposal policies may have caused in the past. WFP, in particular, is concerned not with surplus disposal but with the systematic use of food as a carefully planned resource for development, supplementing financial resources and with the particular advantage that it can be targetted to reach the poor and hungry.

We should nevertheless see the positive side of the current surplus situation. It could facilitate an increase in food aid, which is still well below the internationally accepted target, let alone the needs of the poor and hungry. It is also, of course, much lower in volume, and as a proportion of total development assistance, than it was twenty years ago, when the United States alone shipped over 17 million metric tons. In short, in a time of stagnating development assistance, growing economic problems, increasing agricultural surpluses in a small group of countries and reduced grain prices, it may be easier to achieve an increase in food aid than in other forms of assistance. Moreover, increased food aid is particularly needed, now, at this time, when more and more low-income countries are faced with balance of payments problems which make it impossible for them to meet their growing food needs by commercial imports.

It is all the more urgent, therefore, to think constructively about the best ways to use food aid to achieve the dual objectives of meeting the needs of the hungry, and contributing to development.

If food aid is to be used constructively to meet these objectives, it is vital that it be managed in such a way as to avoid any disincentive to food production. This is a difficult but by no means insuperable problem. WFP, for its part, has developed an approach to food aid which not only avoids disincentive effects, but actually promotes food production. This is done, for example, by projects which are concerned with soil erosion and desertification control, land development and settlement, irrigation and flood control,forestry development, and so on.

Projects of this nature are essentially based on using food as part-payment for labour intensive work or sometimes as an incentive to voluntary community development activities. Food-for-work projects not only improve infrastructure and thereby increase production but they also provide desperately needed employment opportunities in labour surplus countries. The immediate beneficiaries are clearly and almost of necessity the poorest section of the country's population, for the fact is, no one works for food unless he really needs to.

Such projects are not without their problems. Good design and careful management are necessary if their advantages are to be maximized; particularly in the least-developed countries there is a clear need to accompany food aid with enhanced thechnical and other assistance. Food needs to be supplemented with cash wages, with tools and even simple machines and sometimes with capital.

Desirably, therefore, food for work should be provided as part of a composite project in which all the necessary inputs are carefully integrated. Co-operation between agencies may be essential to put such a project together. In practice, achieving such co-operation is not easy because it makes large demands on the good will, time and administrative skills of officials who are frequently already hard pressed. But the effort is worthwhile if it can increase the development impact of the resources available - the impact of food by linking it with the complementary inputs required and the impact of financial assistance by substituting food for scarce funds. Maximizing the return from scarce resources is more than ever necessary today, when development assistance is simply not keeping pace with burgeoning needs.

Concern with development, however, should not make us forget the humanitarian impulses which were part of the origins of food aid. These impulses will remain valid as long as surpluses continue to co-exist with widespread hunger and malnutrition.

The humanitarian aspect of food aid has been seen most clearly in mother and child feeding projects. The time has perhaps now come for such projects to be integrated into a broader effort to meet the needs of the hungry. In the long run, the solution to the problem of hunger is economic growth and higher incomes. But for millions of people in developing countries, that will be a very long run indeed. In the meantime, the right to food, in a sense the most fundamental of human rights, has to be made a reality.

Some countries have already demonstrated what can be accomplished by policies designed to hold down prices paid by poor consumers. But such policies must not deny remunerative prices to pro­ducers, or agriculture will languish and food become even scarcer. Some element of subsidy is, therefore, essential, but financial as well as equity considerations suggest that subsidies should be limited to the poor who need them. This can be done by targetting assistance to the poor by measures such as rationing, food stamps, fair-price shops and the concentration of subsidies on foods consumed largely by the poor, such as coarse grains and root crops. Mother and child feed­ing projects then fall into place as one element in a larger policy framework which recognizes and meets the universal human right to food.

Food aid must I believe increasingly be seen in the context of that framework. Substantial con­ceptual and operational problems will have to be overcome, but the effort must be made if food aid is to be directed more purposefully to meet the needs of the hungry. Such an effort does not represent a diversion of attention from development- nothing after all is more fundamen­tal to development than a well-fed and healthy population. Nor is it impossible - although it will certainly be difficult - to link a "right to food" approach with the stimulation of in-creased food production and the achievement of other development goals.

The Challenge is, therefore, to articulate a new policy orientation for food aid so that it can make a more effective contribution to achieving the interlinked development and humanitarian goals. Meeting this challenge will call for a concerted effort to which the United Nations sys­tem, bilateral agencies, voluntary organizations and developing countries must all contribute.

We in WFP will be giving intensive thought to how we can contribute constructively to this effort. We recognize the need to ensure that new policy orientations do not become counter-productive by diverting attention from established,effective and necessary programmes - of which there are I am pleased to say many. We are conscious of the need not to add to the burden of administration and management which is already a substantial problem in development assistance, both for devel­oping countries and, in this time of staff constraints, for agencies themselves. We are aware of the danger of expecting developing country governments to undertake policy changes which could strain the consensus on which government necessarily rests; and, of course, we recognize their sovereign right to determine their own policies and also that they have a better understanding of their own problems than any outside agency, no matter how professional and well-motivated.

But these are constraints - and there are many others - within which the effort to develop new policy orientations must proceed; they are not an excuse for inaction. The effort is urgent if we are to make the best use of food aid to assist developing countries in their endeavours to meet the needs of their hungry people and to achieve their development goals. I intend to ensure that WFP participates fully in that effort.

CHAIRMAN: I thank Mr. Ingram for this very informative, thought-provoking, hopeful statement, this very concise and valuable statement.

A. FEQUANT (France) : Au nom de la délégation française je voudrais exprimer notre satisfaction à la lecture du rapport du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire du Programme alimentaire mondial qui est soumis à notre examen. En effet, nous avons pu constater que dans un environnement économique défavorable et en dépit des difficultés rencontrées pour atteindre le niveau des ressources fixées comme objectif, le Programme alimentaire mondial a réussi à maintenir et à développer ses activités. Que ce soit dans le domaine des urgences ou dans celui de l'aide au développement, auquel la France est particulièrement attachée, le niveau des engagements a progressé, notamment en faveur des pays les moins avancés qui doivent demeurer prioritaires dans l'action du Programme alimentaire mondial.

A cet égard, le paragraphe 38 annonce que 35 % des ressources du Programme ont été consacrés en 1981 sur les 11 % de la population vivant dans les 31 pays les moins avancés. Nous avons fortement apprécié qu'en 1981 la Réserve alimentaire internationale d'urgence, et pour la première fois depuis sa création, a dépassé cet objectif. Mon pays est particulièrement heureux d'y avoir contribué par l'intermédiaire de l'aide communautaire. Ma délégation souhaite féliciter le Programme alimentaire mondial de son activité. Ainsi que j'ai eu l'occasion de le signaler lors du débat sur la sécurité alimentaire, la France augmentera sa contribution au PAM en 1983 et s'efforcera aussi, comme elle l'a fait par le passé, d'apporter une aide complémentaire dans le domaine des articles non alimentaires qui sont essentiels pour la bonne exécution des projets de développement.

W.A.F. GRABISCH (Germany, Federal Republic of): Food aid is an area of individual national action of the Member States of the European Economic Community but it is also an area of common policy and common action. I therefore think it would be appropriate for the council's deliberations on the issue before us if you would concede the floor to the European Economic Commission, not at the end of our debate but rather now. I thank you, Sir.

CHAIRMAN: Is it the will of the Council, because normally, under the rules, the Observers' interventions will take place in terms of precedence after the Council members, but if the Council has no objection, then I shall give the floor to the EEC representative.

I see no objection so may I request the EEC representative to take the floor.

G. DESESQUELLES (Observateur pour la Communauté économique européenne) : Nous vous remercions pour le rapport de 1981 du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire (document CL 82/15) qui nous paraît bien présenté et documenté. Les tableaux figurant à la fin du rapport nous semblent particulièrement précieux et constituent une excellente présentation des réalisations et des résultats obtenus par le Programme alimentaire mondial ces dernières années.

Tout en appréciant que l'aide alimentaire globale sous forme de céréales se soit élevée à 9,2 millions de tonnes en 1980/81, soit une augmentation de 200 000 tonnes par rapport à 1978/79, nous regrettons que l'objectif minimum de 10 millions de tonnes n'ait pas été atteint. Rappelant que l'article premier de la Convention sur l'aide alimentaire de 1980 précise que cet objectif d'au moins 10 millions de tonnes par an doit être réalisé grâce à un effort conjoint de la Communauté internationale, nous invitons instamment de nouveaux donateurs à se présenter pour combler la différence.

Nous nous félicitons de ce que le Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire ait recommandé que les pays bénéficiaires établissent des politiques et des programmes liant l'usage de l'aide alimentaire à l'augmentation de la production alimentaire et à la sécurité de l'appro­visionnement (je fais référence au paragraphe 3 f) du document). Nous sommes convaincus que l'aide alimentaire sera d'autant plus efficace qu'elle se situera dans le cadre d'une stratégie de développement global et intégré. A cet égard, la Communauté enregistre avec satisfaction qu'en 1981, comme l'indique le paragraphe 91, le PAM a effectué 80 pour cent des nouveaux engagements à des politiques de développement agricole et rural, ce qui constitue un chiffre record. Etant donné qu'à l'époque l'objectif annoncé de un milliard de dollars pour les deux années 1981 et 1982 n'a été réalisé qu'à concurrence de 77 pour cent, il pourrait sembler quelque peu ambitieux d'annoncer pour 1983/84 un objectif de 1,2 milliard de dollars. Néanmoins, grâce à deux annonces de contributions particulièrement généreuses lors de la quatorzième session du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire au mois d'octobre, les perspectives se sont sensiblement améliorées, le montant total des annonces de contributions passant à 90 millions de dollars, soit environ 83 pour cent de l'objectif général pour 1983/84.

En ce qui concerne la Réserve alimentaire internationale d'urgence, la Communauté se félicite d'avoir pu contribuer (référence paragraphe 17) à ce que, pour la première fois, l'objectif de 500 000 tonnes ait pu être atteint en 1981. Pour que cette Réserve continue à être alimentée la Communauté européenne a donné suite à la proposition qu'elle avait soumise au Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire lors de sa douzième session, en annonçant, pendant la Conférence de mars 1982, qu'elle contribuerait à la Réserve alimentaire internationale d'urgence pour les deux années 1983/84.

Puisque nous parlons de l'aide alimentaire d'urgence, je souhaiterais également attirer l'attention sur les données figurant au paragraphe 45 et indiquant que la part des dépenses annuelles du PAM consacrée à des actions d'urgence est passée de 8 pour cent en 1976 à 29 pour cent en 1980. Ce n'est pas sans une certaine préoccupation que la Communauté européenne constate une telle évolution puisque à notre avis le PAM est appelé avant tout à promouvoir, par la fourniture d'une aide alimentaire, des projets de développement.

Par ailleurs, en ce qui concerne l'aide d'urgence, la Communauté européenne considère que le PAM devrait essentiellement jouer un rôle de coordination dans les situations d'urgence à grande échelle. Le paragraphe 24 se réfère à la possibilité de distribuer les céréales fournies au titre du PAM par l'intermédiaire d'agences gouvernementales du pays bénéficiaire en cause qui s'occuperaient de la vente et contribueraient au coût du transport intérieur, du stockage notamment. Ce sujet a été largement débattu à la fois au Comité des politiques et programmes alimentaires et au Comité des surplus de la FAO. La Communauté estime pour sa part qu'il convient de ne prendre aucune décision de principe tant que l'évaluation de certains projets pilotes actuellement en cours ne sera pas terminée. Il se trouve qu'une étude portant sur de tels projets doit être soumise au Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire lors de sa session du printemps prochain.

En conclusion, nous tenons à féliciter à la fois le Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire pour le travail réalisé et le PAM pour la manière dont il s'est acquitté de ses tâches et obligations toujours croissantes.

En outre, c'est avec plaisir que je vous annonce que le Conseil des communautés européennes vient de décider d'allouer un complément de 73 000 tonnes de céréales au titre de l'aide alimentaire dont une partie sera accordée par le canal des organisations multilatérales, ce qui portera sa contribution annuelle à un million de tonnes de céréales au lieu des 927 000 tonnes des années précédentes.

MRS. M. RAVN (Norway) : On this occasion I have the pleasure to speak on behalf of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. Our delegations have studied with interest document CL 82/15, and would like to compliment the World Food Programme on the excellent work it is carrying out. The Nordic countries are traditionally strong supporters of the programme, and in rendering our support to the pledging target for the period 1983-84 we would like to under­line that this target of US$ 1.2 million will only be reached if potential new donors will join. With stressed resources it is even more important that these be utilised in the best possible way.

The Nordic countries are of the opinion that it could lead to a better utilisation if food aid to a greater extent was channelled through the World Food Programme. In this connexion, we feel it would be of importance if increased quantities of grain from the Food Aid Convention were to be placed at the disposal of the WFP.

In order to ensure the maximum flexibility for the WFP in utilising these regular resources, the Nordic countries would like to underline the importance that new as well as traditional donors comply with the Programme's general regulations which stipulate that donors should aim to contribute cash and service components amounting to at least one-third of the total contributions.

Due to the large number of emergencies that have occurred, a considerable proportion of the Programme's total resources has been utilised for emergency operations. In this connexion, we welcome the decision to have joint pledging conferences giving the opportunity for pledging both to the regular resources and to the International Emergency Food Reserve (IEFR). The joint pledging conference in March this year was successful, and we are confident that this common pledging will be more successful in the future.

The Nordic countries hope this will lead to an improvement of the level of stability and continuity of IEFR resources enabling the programme to improve its response to requests for emergency ope­rations. We will also participate actively in future operations in the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes concerning the aims of the Programme's emergency operations.

With regard to the Programme's development assistance, Nordic groups have noted with satisfaction that increasing resources are being allocated for projects in the least developed countries (LDCs). These also earn our full support.

Furthermore, by earmarking for agriculture and rural development more than 80 percent of the World Food Programme's total new commitment to development projects, the programme sets a new record for 1981. We are looking forward to the continuation of this trend.

In concluding, I would like to express our satisfaction with the work carried out by the Executive Director of WFP, Mr. Ingram, and his staff, and assure them of the continued support of all the Nordic countries.

S. S. BALANZINO (Italy) : The Italian delegation wishes to express its deep satisfaction and appre­ciation for the quality of the report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes which is in front of us. In our opinion it provides a comprehensive description of the positive course of action undertaken by the World Food Programme. However, if we focus our attention on the first part of the report, it is in the more specifically relevant food policies and programmes we have to note with regret that the target of 10 million tons envisaged by the Food Aid Convention has not been reached. A strong common effort must therefore take place without delay.

The Italian delegation believes also that the same dedication is necessary to achieve the target of 500 000 tons set for the International Emergency Food Reserve which we were informed could not achieve its goal in 1982, despite its vital importance.

We would like to seize this opportunity to ask the Secretariat of the World Food Programme to make available the most recent data concerning the quantities reached by the International Reserve in 1982.

As regards the pledging target of $ 1.2 million for the period 1983-84, the Italian delegation wishes to point out that it can only announce its pledge for this year. The Italian pledges for the biennium 1983-84 can be announced only after parliamentary approval of the National Budget for the years 1983 and 1984 respectively. The Italian delegation appreciates the efforts made by the World Food Programme to ensure the priority of the developing projects which correspond to experimental and institutional tasks of the Organization.

My delegation notes with satisfaction that these projects are especially concentrated in food-deficit low-income countries, as referred to in paragraph 37. It also wishes to praise the management of WFP for the quality of its action in large-scale emergency operations which have absorbed increasing resources of the Organization. In a number of cases the World Food Programme has taken up the role of coordinator.

We wish to commend the Secretariat for its success in those major operations. Furthermore, my dele­gation wishes to emphasize the importance of the initiative taken by the Programme to offer its logistic support to bilateral donors on purchase and transportation of foodstuffs.

To conclude, my delegation wishes to express its appreciation for the support of triangular ope­rations which can usefully back production and exports in developing countries. Let me just mention the case of Zimbabwe to which it will pledge its support in 1982 by purchasing 30,000 tons of maize, the equivalent of US$ 5 million to be donated to Tanzania. Indeed, we believe these operations are of special positive value, especially if we consider the number of developing countries who can draw benefits from them.

R.C. SERSALE DI CERISANO (Argentina): El informe que tenemos ante nosotros mereció por nuestra parte un profundo estudio; el mismo es un resumen de las políticas de programas de ayuda alimentaria y re­cursos y del programa de alimentos. Es sobre este ultimo punto que quisiéramos detenernos, y en par­ticular en lo que se refiere a la asistencia para el desarrollo.

Vemos que, por una parte, las asignaciones totales del PMA para proyectos de desarrollo se han incre­mentado, tal como consta en el cuadro A del documento en cuestión; ello es realmente importante y alentador, pero, por otra parte también notamos que la proporción correspondiente a América Latina y el Caribe de la asignación del Programa Mundial de Alimentos ha disminuido notablemente, y lo se­guirá haciendo de no revertir en el corto plazo al tendencia existente, como consta en el Cuadro B del documento.

América Latina y el Caribe forman parte del mundo en desarrollo y la asistencia otorgada por el Pro­grama Mundial de Alimentos a través de sus proyectos juega un rol importante para superar algunas tra­bas que afectan al desarrollo de la producción de alimentos.

Los diversos países que conforman la región adoptan políticas de desarrollo encaminadas a conseguir la autosuficiencia alimentaria, reducir la pobreza y mejorar las condiciones nutricionales de la población, especialmente en las zonas rurales. No obstante, estos esfuerzos, que deberían servir como indicadores al programa para seguir impulsando proyectos con el fin de superar definitivamente la problemática alimentaria, parecen inútiles. La política que las cifras que este documento mues­tra en forma fría es que se está dejando de prestar atención a una realidad, castigando a quienes administran bien sus recursos, ya que se disminuye la proporción de la asignación para sus proyectos; ello aún es más perjudicial ya que la región está lejos de cumplir el objetivo fijado por la estrate­gia para el desarrollo para la tercera década de las Naciones Unidas que fija un crecimiento anual de la producción que tiene que aumentar en un 4 por ciento anual.

No queremos ser reiterativos en una cuestión que es evidente, pero sí queremos advertir que de con­tinuarse esta tendencia no sólo se está atentando contra el desarrollo agrícola de América Latina y el Caribe, sino que el Programa perderá el criterio de universalidad que ha tenido hasta el presente como orientación y lineamiento para su acción.

Finalmente, queremos reiterar lo ya dicho en la Conferencia Regional de la FAO para América Latina celebrada en Managua acerca de una adecuada representatividad latinoamericana en el plantel de fun­cionarios del Programa. Mi delegación conoce el alto nivel técnico de sus funcionarios y de su efi­ciencia y dedicación, pero no puede dejar de manifestar su preocupación ante esta situación que en­tendemos puede dificultar la correcta comprensión de la problemática regional propia, nuestra, latinoamericana.

T. AHMAD (Pakistan): We have with great interest read the document and the annual report of the WFP and we wish to convey our appreciation for the commendable manner in which the Report brings out the activities of the Programme. We also wish to convey our great appreciation at the most eloquent and articulate introduction by Mr. Ingram which was not only factual but conceptual and thought-provoking . We have been traditionally great supporters of the Programme because we have benefited tremendously from it, both in its development aspect, and more recently through the emergency aid which we have been receiving for the Afghan refugees. For this we are most grateful and wish to convey our appreciation not only to the WFP and FAO but also to other bilateral donors who have helped us in looking after this large humanitarian problem. We are gratified to learn that both the donors and recipients have by and large always supported the activities of the World Food Programme and have praised its delivery.

It is therefore with some surprise that we notice that the targets for both biennia, 1981-1982 and the next one, have not been achieved. We would join the WFP in urging the donors - present ones as well as potential donors - to come forward to meet these targets because everybody does recognize that WFP is doing tremendous work for developing countries.

In this context, it was gratifying to learn that in 1981 for the first time the IEFR target was not only met but was surpassed. However, we again are a little concerned that for 1982 perhaps we are not reaching the target. We would join the delegate from Italy in requesting the WFP Secretariat to provide for the information of the Council a little more detailed figures as to who were the donors, who contributed to the 1981 target and how much and what is the present precise position of donations for the 1982 target.

We also join our neighbour, the delegate of Norway in urging the donors to ensure that the cash and service component of the contributions be at least one third, because we do notice that the limitation of cash resources or cash flow has been hampering some of the activities of the Programme, though we do wish to put on record here that WFP's efforts at circumventing this constraint have been excellent so far, but we do wish that this constraint could be removed and WFP could have more flexibility in its operational programmes.

Before concluding, we would like to support very strongly the triangular transactions which the WFP has been entering into, particularly in Zimbabwe. We are in agreement with the comments in paragraph 26 and we feel that these triangular transactions should go a long way in supporting the TCDC and would also be an economically funded programme and would be more efficient in cases of emergency in other land-locked countries. We would wish to see this effort duplicated, not only in the African region but also in the Latin American and Asian regions.

S.P. MUKERJI (India): As one of the oldest and biggest associates of the World Food Programme, on behalf of my delegation, and my country, India, I welcome Mr. Ingram, the Executive Director of WFP, to the task that he is handling in the WFP. We have great hopes that the task that he has in hand will be completed, and completed excellently. I feel that the task of the Executive Director of the World Food Programme is a very delicate one. He has to enjoy the confidence of both the donors -that is the developed countries - and the beneficiary countries, neither of which two will be at any point of time completely satisfied. The donors will have a tendency to give less and less, and the beneficiary countries will demand more and more. We will perhaps not be able to satisfy both the parties one hundred percent but we are sure that his persuasive personality and his compassionate approach to the World Food Programme schemes will be able to attract unprecedented resources both in cash as well as in kind from the donor countries, and will be able to get maximum mileage out of every grain of food or every dollar that he gets, for the benefit of the hungry and the deprived. I congratulate him on the WFP's noteworthy achievements which have been cited by a number of my predecessor speakers. We are very much gratified that the Emergency Food Reserve target was not only achieved but exceeded in 1981. We have great hopes that this performance will be repeated year after year under his stewardship.

May I suggest for the consideration of the Council that the target of the Emergency Food Reserve should be considered to be increased from 500 000 tons to 650 000 tons which I think would be achievable with a little bit of will and determination because a figure of 632 000 tons has already been achieved in 1981. I would solicit Mr. Ingram's most earnest attention for fixing this target and achieving and even exceeding this.

We are also very much satisfied that the pledges for 1983/84 have been achieved to the extent of 83 percent. I presume that 83 percent is of the revised target of $ 1.2 billion and not the unrevised target of $ 1 billion.

We are very much satisfied by this. We are also very happy to learn that 80 percent of the WFP aid has gone for agriculture and mostly to the Least Developed Countries.

The WFP is to celebrate its twentieth anniversary in 1983. It is now switching over from being a teenager to a mature person on its twentieth anniversary and we have great expectations that the

WFP will be functioning as it has been doing already in a very mature and resourceful fashion. The target of food aid of 10 million tons is yet to be achieved and I will join the other delegates of this Council in extending our earnest request to the donor countries to make all-out efforts to achieve this target.

As regards the IEFR target of $ 1.2 billion, India has increased its contribution from $ 1.3 million to $ 1.5 million for the biennium 1983/84. I feel that the WFP's prime consideration should be to give aid to end aid; that is, we give aid to a country for developing its productive infrastructure in such a manner that its need to get more and more aid in future is progressively reduced. This we are very happy to see the WFP has already been following, but this should be followed more seriously by directing the WFP employment generation programmes to productive projects like those of irrigation, land development, afforestation, soil conservation, deepening of tanks and so on and so forth, which are of strategic importance so far as increasing agricultural production is concerned.

I would also suggest for Mr. Ingram's consideration that the funds that are generated by the sale of commodities in the developing countries should be recycled in a very meaningful way for agricultural development purposes like projects for processing of seeds, supply of fertilizers at subsidized rates, designing and supply of agricultural implements which have a great importance so far as the African region is concerned. We have at present a number of hand-driven and bullock-driven small agricultural implements of low cost which will be of great assistance to the developing countries.

Also, development of poultry, fisheries and animal husbandry should be taken up which will complement the cereal crop. Perhaps another look at the policy as to how the commodity funds are recycled may be necessary. I have the feeling that by restricting the use of commodity funds to the same number of people who are already being given employment, we are unduly restricting the coverage of the commodity funds for more productive schemes. Perhaps relaxation and deviation from this policy would be called for.

And finally, more attention should be given through WFP aid for nutrition and education of the children and women who are the bricks of the developing societies. But I am sure WFP is already doing something about it. Monitoring and evaluation of schemes at random should be taken up so that the lessons that are learned in one region can be made use of both by the WFP Headquarters as well as other beneficiary countries for launching similar schemes in their own area. I also have the suggestion that the procedure for granting of emergency relief should be made easier and less complicated by delegation of powers to the field agencies, so that at the time of impact calamities like earthquakes or floods, the time-lag between the calamity and the access to the WFP's emergency relief resources is reduced by the maximum extent possible. My feeling is that in developing countries for preparation of the development projects there is some need for the WFP to come to our help. Many countries' cases go by default merely because they are not able to give shape to certain projects which are of vital importance to them. I know for certain that in the case of World Bank assistance they insist that the beneficiary countries should establish a project formulation and project preparation cell in the country so that the projects are prepared in a meaningful way and they can be monitored and implemented in a more effective manner. Perhaps a similar exercise from the WFP will be necessary by taking the help of the experts in FAO or experts in other developing countries or some organization for helping the developing countries or Least Developed Countries to formulate the projects for maximum benefit. I think in this direction some effort by the WFP would bring good dividends in favour of the Least Developed Countries.

In the CFA meetings which I have been attending in the past the members have been voicing the suggestion very often that in their operations the WFP should give priority to the developing countries, both in the purchase of cereals and in the shipment so that the ships of the developing countries are used to the maximum extent possible and even for services. As I mentioned, consultancy services, in project formulation and project implementation and project operation could be available from one developing country for giving benefits to another developing country.

My colleague from Pakistan has mentioned about triangular transactions to be encouraged. This we also very heartily endorse and we recommend that this should be done in a manner which would be beneficial to the developing countries.

Insofar as India is concerned we have got a surplus of sugar this year and we would be prepared to offer this commodity for the WFP in a manner which will help the WFP, as well as my country, in meeting the needs of other nations. The modalities of the transactions can be sorted out by mutual discussion.

I will close by again congratulating the WFP, the FAO and Mr. Ingram for the excellent achievements and the prospects of better performance that are very evident and manifest in the report.

A. JUAN-MARCOS ISSA (México): Deseo expresar la satisfacción de mi delegación al constatar que el Pro­grama Mundial de Alimentos, en esta etapa difícil caracterizada por una disminución en la ayuda del desarrollo, ha demostrado con firmeza su voluntad de encaminar sus esfuerzos hacia la asistencia para el desarrollo y hacia la solución de problemas alimentarios urgentes.

Asimismo, mi delegación se complace al escuchar, por parte del Director Ejecutivo del PMA, que las condiciones para lograr el cumplimiento de promesas para el próximo bienio son favorables. El PMA se inspira en una vocación de universalidad que no puede ser desconocida, y que mi delegación desea especial y enfátivamente reafirmarla en estos momentos. Consideramos que de ella se debe desprender un tratamiento equitativo para las diferentes regiones geográficas.

De la misma manera, consideramos que el criterio para otorgar la ayuda no debe basarse solamente, por ejemplo, en conceptos como el del ingreso per capita, sino que debe mirar hacia las condiciones reales de la población a la que se destina la ayuda. En este contexto, apoyamos plenamente y con firmeza lo declarado por la distinguida delegación de Argentina.

No queremos dejar pasar esta oportunidad sin mencionar el agradecimiento y la admiración que mi de­legación siente por la labor que, durante tantos años, el señor Juan Felipe Yriart dedicó a los países en desarrollo. Ahora que está a punto de abandonar la Organización, permítame augurarle toda clase de suerte y parabienes para el y su familia.

A.H. EL SARKI (Egypt) (Original language Arabic): I was very pleased to hear Mr. Ingram's intro­duction on the work of WFP and to note that its overall resources have been increased in 1981 and that aid is aimed at the further development of the countries who really need aid the most. We would nonetheless like to ask the management of the Programme to try and make sure that this aid be granted as fully as possible and to avoid any disruption of supplies of the grain element, for example.

We hope to see that pledges and the targets for the next financial period should be reached in the coming years and we would like to take this opportunity to express our satisfaction in seeing that there are new donors such as Argentina and OPEC in addition to all the other donors who have always helped the WFP since its setting up.

In regard to the bilateral agreement we are also very pleased with the increase because for the first time we have been able to reach the minimum figure of 500,000 metric tons. We have even been able to go beyond this figure and this is indeed very satisfactory.

We feel that the World Food Programme has been playing a very important role. In Egypt the World Food Programme has been giving us a great deal of aid in the various projects which have been implemented in my country since 1963. It has also answered any appeals which have been made, for example in regard to the area of Marsa Matrough as well as the problems we had in this area in regard to drought and so we would like to thank the WFP once again and congratulate it.

Sra. Doña G. SOTO CARRERO (Cuba): En realidad a nuestra delegación le parece muy completa la expo­sición hecha por el Sr. Ingram, la cual consideramos que será de gran utilidad para nuestras deli­beraciones. Consideramos que él mismo ha hecho y ha tenido en cuenta los puntos claves que son preo­cupación actual del Programa Mundial de Alimentos.

Tanto en la ayuda al desarrollo como en las operaciones de urgencia, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos ha jugado un papel fundamental; el hecho de que se haya dado prioridad a los países más gravemente afectados, siempre ha contado con nuestro apoyo, aunque se tengan en cuenta también los países que hacen grandes esfuerzos internos, para lograr su desarrollo.

Confiamos una vez más en que los criterios de universalidad sigan primando en el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, ajenos, como es natural, a otro tipo de criterios políticos.

El aspecto humanitario que ha primado en los criterios de ayuda alimentaria y mediante el cual los países con excedentes de alimentos ayudan a los más necesitados, deben estar unidos, a nuestro entender, a la obligación moral que tienen los países desarrollados a contribuir a que los más nece­sitados tengan pleno acceso a los alimentos. No hay que olvidar que muchos países desarrollados han llegado a serlo, además de por sus esfuerzos, por la contribución involuntaria de los países menos de­sarrollados, ya que se han nutrido de mano de obra y de materia prima barata. Desafortunadamente, Sr. Presidente, como Vd. conoce, hay países que nunca podrán saldar la deuda que en ese sentido tienen con la humanidad.

Quisiera referirme también, a la necesidad de que las reservas alimentarias alcancen nuevamente las ya escasas metas fijadas en 1974, que se ha alcanzado y superado solamente en 1981. Asimismo insistimos en que las mismas deben de estar totalmente a disposición del Programa Mundial de Alimentos e igual­mente deben darse cumplimiento a los objetivos propuestos para el presente bienio y que al parecer se prevén favorables.

Mi delegación qusiera expresar, una vez más, la confianza que nuestro Gobierno tiene en la gestión del Programa Mundial de Alimentos y le da gran aprecio a los esfuerzos del Programa en favor de la solución de los graves problemas del hambre. Confiamos, asimismo, que nuestra región de América Latina y el Caribe se tenga debidamente en cuenta la escasez de recursos y se atienda plenamente el cumplimiento de esos objetivos; esto garantizaría el criterio de unidad que caracteriza la línea de acción del Programa Mundial de Alimentos.

W.A. COCHRANE (New Zealand): We are glad to express in very brief terms our great sense of satisfaction with the report before us. Particularly because it is a time of considerable economic strain and uncertainty. I join other speakers in saying that it was most encouraging to learn at the 14th Session of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes that pledges for 1983/84 have already reached over 80 percent of the target of 1.2 billion dollars.

The Committee's meeting was very pleasing in other respects as well. Many good projects were approved and we are happy to note the Committee's action to strengthen the Programme's capacity to handle emergency aid work. On the point of emergency aid work I simply want to note here the great satisfaction and gratitude with which the Programme's emergency aid work in Tonga, following a very devastating hurricane there this year, has been received.

Other worthwhile decisions were taken at this 14th Session. All in all, as the report shows, it was a positive and businesslike meeting. This result we believe was due in considerable measure once more to the skill and hard work of the WFP Secretariat. We congratulate the Executive Director Mr. Ingram and his staff.

As other speakers have already mentioned there are difficult problems to be resolved and intricate aspects of policy still to be worked through. There certainly could be no sense of complacency. Mr. Ingram's statement to us today was an excellent reminder of all this.

May I conclude simply by assuring the Executive Director of New Zealand's continuing firm support for the Programme's work.

R.A. SORENSON (United States of America): My delegation of course has studied the 7th Annual Report of the CFA to the Council, ECOSOC and the World Food Council with care. Since my country was represented on the Drafting Committee we shall refrain from specific comments on the document itself. As the United States delegate noted during our intervention on the state of food and agriculture, we were pleased at the 14th Session of the CFA to announce our pledge to the World Food Programme of one quarter of a billion dollars for the 1983/84 biennium. This was a 14 percent increase over the previous biennium in normal monetary terms and a substantial increase in the terms of the commodities it will buy. Notwithstanding the monetary problems that confront us on all sides, we have made this increase in our voluntary contribution because of the high regard we have for the excellent work, efficiency and effectiveness of the programme. The pledge was an emphatic reaffirmation of our commitment to the fight against hunger. It was also our recognition of the promising start made by Mr. Ingram as the new head of the World Food Programme and the confidence we repose in him together with his excellent staff.

With respect to the IEFR, my government will continue to consider requests for assistance under this programme. In 1981 our contribution totalled 197 000 tons. So far this year in 1982 we have designated 263 000 tons. We anticipate our future participation will continue to be substantial as specific needs arise.

AKLU GIRGRE (Ethiopia): My delegation finds the Seventh Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes quite informative and adequately complete. It is satisfying to learii from the report that a lot has been done and is being done in the area of coordinating and administering food aid by WFP, although a few things still remain outstanding. For example, quantities pledged and shipped could not keep up with the growing requirements of low-income food-deficit countries, as expressed in paragraph 3 of the report.

My delegation fully supports the views expressed by the report in paragraph 3 (f), which states that food aid should be used to support activities designed to increase local food production and food security in recipient countries.

On the question of emergency assistance my delegation fully supports the position taken by the Committee for a joint pledging conference of WFP resources and International Emergency Food Reserve, whereby pledges made to IEFR should be in addition to those contributed to the regular resources of WFP.

It is gratifying to note from the report in paragraph 11 that the total resources of WFP in 1981 have shown an increase over the previous year and that out of a total commitment almost 78 percent has been allotted to agricultural and rural development.

My country has benefited immensely from the WFP development projects, especially in the areas of soil and water conservation designed to rehabilitate highly neglected regions of the country. On behalf of my delegation and myself, I would like to express my gratitude to WFP. The result of these WFP-assisted projects has been very satisfying.

As mentioned in paragraph 23 the sale of additional grain supplies to help offset internal costs in the least developed countries has been tried on an experimental basis in my country, but still the burden of transporting foodgrain in areas with poorly developed transport systems is prohibitive. I suggest that the Committee in its future deliberations should pay special attention to this issue of internal mobility of food grains from the ports to the destinations requiring the food aid and similar consideration should also be given to the warehousing facilities.

In paragraphs 37 and 38 of the report, in the WFP's commitment to the developing countries, and the least developed countries in particular, it states that 35 percent of WFP's development resources is devoted to the least developed countries which comprise a total population of 270 million, or 11 percent of all low-income food-deficit countries. This statement and the figures seem a little misleading, since not all the population in the low-income food-deficit countries is in need of food aid as badly as the least developed countries. In my opinion this does not strongly under­score the pressing need of the least developed countries. Thus we suggest that the report should reflect this impression. I would like to add also that more should be done in the development activities of WFP in the least developed countries to have a meaningful impact on increased food production and food security.

JIN XIANG-YUN (China) (Original language Chinese): The Seventh Annual Report of WFP and the introduction by Mr. Ingram told us of the progress on food assistance in 1981 and summarized the implementation of food aid policies and programmes in 1981. Thus the report helps us to learn about WFP's activities and provides guidelines for strengthening the operation between WFP and the recipient countries so as to improve food aid in the future.

Document CL 82/15 points out that when demand to import food in developing countries is increasing day by day, stocks are being built up and acreage is reduced in developed exporting countries. Taking account of the population growth and the ever increasing food demand of developing countries to provide them with substantial assistance in various aspects aiming at increasing production will continue to be a long-term task for the international community in the days to come. Therefore we give our support to the Director-General's proposal to re-examine the needs and targets for world food assistance on an appropriate future occasion.

In recent years the World Food Programme has made remarkable contributions in formulating and implementing food aid policies and programmes. The World Food Programme has also made achievements in assisting the low-income food-deficit developing countries to increase food production and in this way to help them raise the level of food self-sufficiency and in carrying out emergency food assistance. Hence the work of the World Food Programme deserves the support of all countries.

P. GOSSELIN (Canada): Canada as a member of the Governing Body of the WFP gave its approval to the Seventh Annual Report of the CFA when it was submitted to the Thirteenth Session in April 1982. In October 1981 the CFA approved a pledging target of 1.2 billion dollars for the regular resources of the programme for the biennium 1983/84.

The Canadian delegation is very pleased to note that with the contribution announced during the last CFA session by the governments of the Netherlands and the United States, the total pledges have now reached 990 million dollars, or 83 percent of the target. This is very encouraging and we would like to invite all donors, traditional and new, to make a contribution to the WFP. We believe that Canada's pledge of 250 million Canadian dollars, of which 40 million dollars are in the form of cash, which represents a substantial increase of roughly one-third of our pledge for the current biennium, clearly demonstrates our desire to see that the target is met through action by the international community. Since its creation in 1963, our total contribution to the WFP now exceeds 1.1 billion dollars. This clearly demonstrates, as the Minister of Agriculture for Canada said at the pledging conference, our confidence in and satisfaction with the WFP record in

using food aid as a development tool. We are particularly encouraged to note in the annual report that a new record of 80 percent of WFP's development commitments was earmarked in 1981 for projects in support of agricultural and rural development. We strongly support this emphasis, as we support the concentration of allocations towards low-income food-deficit countries.

The year 1981 has been characterized at the CFA by useful discussions on ways to improve the emergency operations. We believe that the international community made progress assuring the predictability and continuity of resources available for emergency operations when the CFA at its Twelfth Session accepted a proposal put forward by Canada for a joint pledging conference for voluntary biennial pledges for WFP regular resources to the IEFR.

We are particularly pleased to note that although the decision to hold such a conference last March was announced only a few days before several countries, including Canada and the European Economic Community, made pledges for the 1983/84 period. Considering the newness of the technique and the time available for preparation, the first joint pledging conference was very encouraging. It demonstrated that voluntary arrangements can work for the IEFR and it has served the inter-national community well. Again we would like to invite new and traditional donors to announce their pledges soon in order fully to ensure the recognized predictability and continuity requirements of the IEFR resources and at the same time to protect the developmental aspect of the World Food Programme.

In 1981 the CFA examined a report evaluating WFP Emergency Operations. Canada and other donors expressed concern over the marked increase in emergency allocations in the past ten years and suggested that the emergency resource allocation process be strengthened. Various ideas have been proposed in recent CFA sessions, including a proposal made by Canada to establish a standing committee to assist the Executive Director of the WFP in reviewing requests for emergency assistance. We look forward to further discussion on this matter and also to the study that the Executive Director has undertaken to produce on the sale of commodities. In this context I would like to join with my colleagues from the European Economic Community in urging caution in the use of this technique until the CFA has had an opportunity to examine the results of certain pilot projects.

Finally, my delegation would like to join its colleagues in congratulating the WFP on its past efforts and to encourage them to continue their valuable work in this field, also to commend the Executive Director on the leadership that he has been giving to the WFP.

A.K. KUOL (Sudan): As this is the first chance that my delegation has had to take the floor, I would like to take this opportunity to join the voice of my delegation to the voices of other delegations in expressing compliments and best wishes to you, Mr. Chairman, and to the newly elected officers.

My delegation has studied with care and attention document CL 82/15, the Seventh Annual Report of the CFA. In the light of the valuable and comprehensive introduction made this morning by the Executive Director of the UN/FAO World Food Programme, allow me to express my delegation's support and appreciation of the proposals and recommendations contained in the report.

It is with great satisfaction that my delegation notes that the majority of food aid goes to the low-income food-deficit countries, and the least developed countries in particular, both for humanitarian aspects and for promoting rural development. Considering the economic situation of my country and its geographic situation with extensive boundaries, my delegation appreciates very much the efforts made, not only by the UN/FAO WFP but also by other bilateral donating countries. However, we would like to join the CFA and others to urge for new donors and for the increase of contributions by present donors in order to attain the minimum target of 10 million tons. We note with satisfaction that pledges made for the 1981-1982 biennium have increased by 83% and that prospects are forthcoming, as we have heard this morning from the representatives of both the EEC and the Nordic governments, among others, which my delegation hopes will be highly appreciated by the developing countries and especially the least developed ones.

The distinguished Executive Director has rightly informed us this morning the challenge for the recipient countries of food aid is to make new policies to meet development and human aspects and also, as recommended by the CFA in paragraph (f), section 3 of the report before us, my delegation would like to assure the Commitee and the WFP that my country will always act in accordance with that recommendation. It is the opinion of my delegation that in the final analysis, one's own needs and demands can only be satisfied and well-suited through self-reliance.

W.E. ADERO (Kenya): First let me express my delegation's support to the activities of the World Food Programme. We believe that these activities should receive the support it deserves from the international community.

Let me make a few specific comments on parts of this report. My delegation would like to generally endorse the conclusions and recommendations of the Eleventh Session of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes held in May 1981. It was encouraging to note the success attained by some low-income countries in food production in 1981. It is, however, deplorable that the situation in some low-income countries remained bad and some persistent food shortages continued unabated. As usual, sub-Saharan Africa was most affected. We hope that what this Council has been discussing in the past few days will be put into practice so that alarmist food shortage signals do not always come from this part of the world.

It is encouraging to see the World Food Programme purchase food from regions for use in these same regions. This inter alia saves transport costs, and as a policy measure it receives our full support. Contributions to the International Emergency Food reserves have passed the targets of 500,000 tons of cereals. We commend donors for this achievement and wish that this continues year after year.

My delegation also wishes to underline the need for cash contributions to the resources of the programme and the need for a reasonable portion of all contributions being made on a cash basis. This point has been elaborated in paragraphs 16 and 23 of the Report and we fully support it.

I now turn to non-food items and resources of the programme. Non-food items, like simple agricultural tools, warehouses, etc., are a component which should always be included in rural development projects. Many projects which did not cater for this aspect sufficiently have ended in problems.

Finally, on emergency operations, the programme's role in providing emergency food aid and in coordination of supply operations is commendable. My delegation wishes to urge all those involved in the emergency operations, including recipient countries themselves, that all efforts should be made to ensure that the shortest time possible is taken between requests for food aid and the receipt of the same by the victims or those for whom it is meant. We consider this to be vital, as a delay of one day can mean more misery and death.

ABDUL WAHID bin ADBUL JALIL (Malaysia): It was very satisfying for my delegation to hear Mr. Ingram's introduction of the excellent work of the WFP. We note the real benefit developing countries have obtained from the various programmes of the WFP. In their own effective ways, WFP had created and left an impact on LDCs' efforts to improve their food production capacity. We therefore would like to express our full support for the effort of the programme for its commitment to concentrate and allocate the highest possible proportion of its development assistance to low-income food-deficit countries.

Also we would like to commend WFP for its quick response to the request of the Conference of LDC to provide assistance to these countries which have now come into the priority category. Mention had been made that projects in- these low-income countries are less cost effective and more expensive, but it is in these countries that the aids are greatly needed. My delegation would further like to compliment the effort of WFP Secretariat to get new donors, including those of the NGO's, to increase and to ensure that the minimum target is obtained.

We are happy to note the effort of WFP to commit its programme to agriculture and rural development and the feeding programmes more than any other projects.

Touching on emergency assistance, we would like to join the other delegations to commend donors for increasing their contributions to this reserve, although it has for the first time achieved and surpassed its target, but in view of increasing emergency occurences and the less than ideal conditions for planning commitments and distribution, my delegation supports the preference that pledges made to IEFR should be additional to those contributed to regular programmes of WFP.

M. NKAKE NDOLO (Cameroun): Ma delegation se joint égaleront aux autres delegations pour renouveler ses félicitations et ses encouragements au Programme alimentaire mondial. En effet, il est certain que le travail effectué par le Directeur exécutif ainsi que toute son équipe permet une meilleure compréhension et un meilleur suivi des activités multiples du Programme alimentaire mondial. Les po­litiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire jusque-là élaborés et exécutés tant bien que mal selon les vicissitudes de la conjoncture mondiale et autres ont une résonnance positive au niveau des pays à faible revenu et à déficit alimentaire tel qu'il est impossible d'imprimer un élan de régression à cette oeuvre de solidarité internationale. Ce vibrant appel s'adresse aux donateurs additionnels dont les efforts sont d'ores et déjà très louables ainsi qu'aux nouveaux donateurs qui, en soutenant et en améliorant leurs contributions ,doivent et devront à coup sûr permettre à l'homme concerné de deve­nir réellement et effectivement sujet et partenaire actif de son propre développement, donc de sa propre alimentation; car un diction dit "ventre affamé n'a point d'oreilles"!

La progression tendancielle déjà amorcée devra donc être soutenue afin que les objectifs du PAM soient absolument atteints.

S'il fallait insister sur cette progression, nous ne citerions, comme l'a déjà dit le Directeur exé-cutif d'ailleurs, que les résultats obtenus grâce à l'intervention du PAM au niveau de réalisations d'un grand nombre de projets et surtout ces exemples concernant mon pays: la lutte contre la déser-tification, la lutte contre l'érosion, la réhabilitation des pistes rurales de collecte, les coloni­sations rurales dans le cadre des projets intégrés ainsi que les aménagements de points d'eau et au­tres infrastructures communautaires et ce dans le cadre des programmes d'investissements humains.

C'est le lieu de saluer et d'encourager l'initative du Canada qui répond opportunément aux soucis du Programme alimentaire mondial en ce qui concerne les dons en nature et en espèces, compte tenu que ces derniers dons risquent des mésaventures, qu'ils connaissent d'ailleurs souvent, c'est-à-dire des pertes, des avaries, des reventes, des détournements, que sais-je encore, chez certains bénéficiaires, dons comparables aux dons de voitures ou d'engins sans service après-vente sur place et qui devien­nent des monuments historiques.

Il y a lieu également d'insister sur l'intervention de la FAO par le truchement du Programme alimen­taire mondial auprès de gouvernements de pays bénéficiaires, de l'assistance alimentaire mondiale, en vue de la conception et de la mise en place d'un dispositif de gestion, d'administration, en un mot de fonctionnement simple et efficace de cette assistance.

S'agissant de la remarque faite par la délégation de l'Argentine au sujet de la régression du mon­tant des contributions du PAM en faveur des pays latino-américains, tendance qui selon lui doit être inversée, il convient d'insister sur le fait que le Programme alimentaire mondial n'intervient que là où les besoins se font sentir et selon un certain degré d'urgence.

Enfin, ma délégation se rallie également au souhait formulé par l'Italie et le Pakistan quant au com­plément d'information à fournir sur le niveau des contributions atteint au cours de l'exercice 1982, et à atteindre, si c'est possible, au cours du prochain exercice biennal, s'agissant tant du program­me ordinaire que de la RAIU, bien que quelques chiffres fournis par la Communauté économique européen­ne apportent certains apaisements à ce sujet.

G. BULA HOYOS (Colombia) : La delegación de Colombia piensa que el PMA se ha consolidado como un vá­lido instrumento para el desarrollo; particularmente en los últimos años creemos que ese fortaleci­miento del PMA se debe de manera esencial a la acción del señor Saouma, Director General de la FAO, quien ha sabido cumplir con inteligencia y eficacia las responsabilidades interinstitucionales que en el PMA corresponden al Director General de la FAO, no solo en la autorización de las ayudas de emergencia, sino también en lo que es más importante: la orientación social, humana y prodesarrollo que debe caracterizar a los proyectos del PMA.

La delegación de Colombia piensa que los proyectos del PMA deben ser adjudicados con base en las ne­cesidades, sin discriminación política, porque, como dijo recientemente en la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Colombia, los alimentos no deben ser uti­lizados como arma política.

Como es obvio, señor Presidente, nuestra intervención se hace exclusivamente bajo la responsabilidad de la delegación de Colombia; sin embargo, pensamos que a través de las intervenciones que se han producido ya aquí esta mañana de algunos colegas de la región de América Latina y el Caribe y de los contactos que, como es natural, existen entre representantes de gobiernos de una misma región, pensa­mos, repito, que las relaciones entre el PMA y América Latina no son satisfactorias, desafortunada­mente, y creemos, lo decimos con la franqueza que nos caracteriza, que el nuevo Director Ejecutivo del PMA no ha hecho nada para mejorar esas relaciones. Naturalmente, seríamos injustos si pretendié­ramos condenar de antemano al nuevo Director Ejecutivo del PMA; sabemos que está relativamente re­ciente posesionado de ese alto cargo y tal vez por ello no ha tenido tiempo de entender bien cuáles deben ser las relaciones existentes entre los funcionarios de la secretaría, cualquiera que sea su grado, y los representantes de los gobiernos que hemos creado, y seguimos sosteniendo y apoyando esos organismos, pero sobre eso volveremos al final de nuestra intervención.

La delegación de Colombia piensa que en relación con el párrafo 12 sobre recursos y actividades del PMA convendrá incluir en nuestro informe el reconocimiento a países que como Estados Unidos han con­tribuido para el período 1983/84 con 250 millones de dólares, al Canadá con 190 millones de dólares canadienses, a Países Bajos, a Francia y también a la Comunidad Económica Europea cuyo portavoz nos dijo esta mañana que ha designado 73 mil toneladas de cereales, de las cuales 20 000, me aclaró, se-rán canalizadas a través del PMA.

La delegación de Colombia apoya la propuesta del observador de la CEE en el sentido de que, al hacer este reconocimiento a los países donantes se inste a los nuevos donantes y a los donantes tradicio-nales a que sigan contribuyendo al PMA.

En relación con la propuesta para mejorar la reserva alimentaria internacional de emergencia, dudamos de la eficacia que pueda tener una sola Conferencia conjunta de promesas destinadas tanto a los re­cursos del PMA como a la RAIE; tal vez aun desde el punto de vista psicologico no sea el medio más in­dicado para que los países donantes en una sola ocasión sean generosos con ambas opciones; sin embar­go, queremos apoyar lo que ha dicho nuestro distinguido colega del Canadá en el sentido de que vale la pena esperar los resultados de la experiencia.

Agradecemos al colega canadiense las informaciones que él nos dio sobre esa Conferencia Conjunta ce­lebrada el 2 de marzo de 1982 y pensamos que en adelante conferencias como esa deberán ser mejor or­ganizadas, informando con anticipación a los donantes porque de lo contrario se desestimula completa­mente la participación necesaria en esas Conferencias. Tal vez esa misma forma desordenada como fue organizada esta primera Conferencia Conjunta justifica lo que dice el párrafo 8 del documento, que dice que se celebro una Conferencia Conjunta de Promesas el 2 de marzo de 1982 y que de los resulta­dos de la misma se informará en el 8° Informe Anual del CPA. Nos preguntamos si esa Conferencia se celebro en marzo de este año y el documento CL 82/15 tiene fecha de junio en la portada y de abril en el interior, o sea cinco u ocho meses de haber pasado esa Conferencia, ¿por qué no se incluyeron los resultados en este documento y por qué deberemos esperar hasta el 8o informe para conocer esos resul­tados si ya estamos en noviembre, diez u once meses después? Suponemos que existirá alguna razón, seguramente tradicional, para proceder así, porque entendemos que en una Conferencia de Promesas no se ponen los alimentos sobre la mesa, sino que hay desarrollos posteriores; pero de todas maneras de­searíamos una aclaración, y creo que el Consejo merece por lo menos una indicación de lo que pasó en esa primera Conferencia Conjunta y de cuáles han sido sus desarrollos posteriores.

La delegación de Colombia opina que deberá reforzarse siempre más la afirmación al comienzo del pá­rrafo 25, donde se dice que las compras de productos deben hacerse a los países en desarrollo siempre que resulte posible y económico. El ejemplo de la compra de maíz a Zimbabwe sigue vigente, y creemos que también en América Latina hay países eficientemente productores, y en otras regiones de países en desarrollo, y esas circunstancias favorables se pueden aprovechar.

A la delegación de Colombia le crea cierta inquietud el párrafo 39 y también el cuadro B sobre Dis­tribución de los Compromisos por Regiones. El porcentaje de América Latina y el Caribe que es del 6,6 por ciento apenas representa la tercera parte del otro más bajo que es el 20,1 por ciento de los porcentajes correspondientes a otras regiones. Está muy bien que se beneficie preferencialmente a los países con menores ingresos y déficit de alimentos y a los menos desarrollados. Nadie puede dis-cutir la solidaridad colombiana con esos países, pero en América Latina y el Caribe hay todavía es­tados que pueden beneficiarse del PMA, sobre todo en proyectos que generen empleo y desarrollo en general.

En el párrafo 40, en la primera frase, se ensaya una débil defensa de esa desproporción. Creemos que para evitar la confusión a que pretende hacerse referencia en el párrafo 40, convendría en adelan-te qué la descripción de la distribución de los productos por regiones se hiciera en forma bienal y no anual; se hiciera por aquellos períodos que abarca cada una de las conferencias de promesas.

La delegación de Colombia aprovecha esta oportunidad para expresar nuestra inconformidad por la dis­criminación y persecución a que se ha sometido recientemente a los funcionarios de América Latina y el Caribe en el PMA. En sólo tres meses, nuestra región perdió los dos más importantes, las únicas posiciones de cierto nivel político que teníamos en el PMA. Hace tres meses, el Director de Admi­nistración de Proyectos de la Subdirección de América Latina y el Caribe, es decir, quien se ocupaba de los proyectos para nuestra región y quien, como es natural, era un latinoamericano, fue reempla­zado por un europeo, Y ahora, hace apenas pocos días, conocimos la noticia de que el Director Eje­cutivo Alterno del PMA será un representante de otra región.

Durante más de ocho años, hasta principios de 1976, América Latina y el Caribe tiene la posición del Director Ejecutivo del PMA. Desde 1976 hasta el 31 de diciembre del presente año, hemos conservado, como consuelo,la posición de Director Ejecutivo Alterno, y ahora se nos barre por completo. Quedamos sin ningún funcionario a nivel político en el PMA. Sin ningún funcionario salvo que el Director Eje­cutivo nos demuestre lo contrario. Los cambiaron a todos en sólo tres meses. Creemos que ya no hay ni siquiera latinoamericanos y del Caribe en funciones administrativas; ni siquiera secretarias, no obstante ser tan simpáticas, agradables y bonitas las niñas latinoamericanas que suelen trabajar en organismos internacionales.

Esperamos que a los pocos sobrevivientes latinoamericanos que hasta ahora se les ha permitido ejercer su función de representantes del PMA en los países, se les conserven esas posiciones. Al hacer estos comentarios, señor Presidente, hacemos abstracción de las personas designadas y no queremos hacer preguntas al Director Ejecutivo del PMA para colocarlo en situación incómoda. Pero nos queda la inquietud, la curiosidad de saber por qué se ha procedido así. ¿Son antipáticos los latinoamericanos, o por el contrario, non muy simpáticos y extrovertidos? ¿Son incapaces los latinoamericanos; no hay personal competente y capaz entre los representantes de nuestra región?

No sabemos realmente lo que sucede. Algunos de nuestros colegas han hablado de un concepto que para la delegación de Colombia es fundamental; se trata de la universalidad del Programa Mundial de Ali­mentos. Pero al paso que vamos, si se suprimen todos los funcionarios latinoamericanos y del Caribe

del PMA, y si se nos deniegan los recursos de ese Organismo, pues entonces ese programa no va a poder seguirse llamando en el futuro Programa Mundial, más bien podremos llamarlo programa antilatinoameri-cano de alimentos. Decimos esto con desaliento y con tristeza, pero nos conforta el hecho de que ya el ECOSOC ha elegido a Colombia como miembro del CPA, a partir de 1983. Entonces, el año entrante, desde esa posición, nos ocuparemos de este y de otros asuntos que nos vienen preocupando en el funcio-namiento del PMA.

Sra. Dra. M. IVANKOVICH de AROSEMENA (Panamá): Deseo hacer algunas consideraciones sobre el documento CL 82/15, no sin antes felicitar a la Secretaría por la presentación del mismo. Se trata de un documento completo y de gran utilidad. El séptimo informe anual del PMA al ECOSOC, a la FAO y al Consejo Mundial de la Alimentación nos dice que el Comité, al analizar el sexto examen anual llego a las conclusiones que se describen en la primera parte, Políticas y Programas de Ayuda Alimentaria.

Las conclusiones no son muy alentadoras, sobre todo cuando las necesidades de importación en los países van aumentando, y la relación de intercambio agrícola para las economías de mercado en desarrollo, como ya lo manifestamos, se redujo en una sexta parte en 1981, y se acentuará su reducción en 1982.

Consideramos que el PMA debe seguir su política de una eficaz utilización de sus recursos empeñán-dolos en programas de ayuda alimentaria que vayan de acuerdo con las necesidades de los países en desarrollo y que asistan a los grupos vulnerables, mediante proyectos, y que estimulen la produc-ción de alimentos y desarrollo rural de los países.

Estamos de acuerdo en que se deben seguir aumentando las transacciones triangulares que entrañan compras en los países en desarrollo distintos de los receptores no sólo en las cooperaciones de emergencia sino también en los proyectos de rehabilitación, y en la medida de lo posible, en acuerdos cooperativos para aumentar las reservas de seguridad alimentaria. Mi delegación considera que es necesario mejorar y reforzar la RAIE, sobre todo ante los cada vez mayores pedidos de ayuda.

En este sentido, consideramos que será conveniente seguir en la búsqueda de un denominador común y que los Gobiernos puedan llegar a un consenso sobre las promesas voluntarias bienales destinadas a los recursos ordinarios del PMA y de la RAIE.

Mi delegación apoya la especial atención que el PMA da a las prioridades de acuerdo con las orien­taciones y criterios para la ayuda alimentaria, que este Consejo ratificó hace dos años, concen­trando la asistencia para el desarrollo en los países en desarrollo de bajos ingresos y con déficit alimentarios.

Mi delegación desea referirse a la distribución de los compromisos con relación a América Latina. Sobre este particular, el párrafo 40 nos da una explicación sobre la desproporción en cuanto a la distribución de los compromisos por regiones, al cual se refiere el párrafo 39 y el Cuadro B, al señalar que en la proporción de los compromisos puede influir el hecho de que en un determinado año se aprueben unos pocos proyectos desproporcionadamente grandes. Por otra parte, creemos muy conveniente señalar con satisfacción, que durante 1981 se estableció un nuevo récord al asignar para proyectos de desarrollo agrícola y rural, incluidos proyectos de asentamiento de refugiados, más del 80 por ciento de los compromisos totales, para nuevos proyectos de desarrollo efectuados por el PMA. Este hecho merece ser subrayado por este Consejo. Ojalá en un próximo futuro, prácti­camente todos los recursos del PMA sean dedicados a proyectos de este tipo y no a ayuda de tipo coyuntural.

Queremos insistir en el énfasis que debe de seguir poniendo el PMA en los proyectos que incorporan a la mujer de manera que participe en las actividades de producción y cambie el tradicional papel de beneficiaria pasiva de la ayuda alimentaria.

Deseamos expresar nuestra esperanza de que se pueda alcanzar el objetivo 1983-84, contando para ello con los donantes tradicionales y con la adhesión de nuevos donantes, a fin de que el objetivo 1983-84 no sea una esperanza insatisfecha de los que padecen hambre y malnutrición, sino una realidad que contribuya a despejar el camino que conduce a la dignidad humana.

Mi delegación cree firmemente, Sr. Presidente, en la universalidad del Programa Mundial de Alimentos, no sólo en la distribución de los compromisos sino también en la presencia de América Latina en la formulación de las políticas y la planificación de los programas. En este sentido deseamos apoyar lo expresado por la delegación de la República Argentina y otras delegaciones latinoamericanas, sobre una adecuada representatividad latinoamericana en el Programa en beneficio del Programa mismo y de los países en desarrollo.

Deseamos por último, Sr. Presidente, ratificar al Sr. Ingram el apoyo y la confianza del Gobierno de Panamá, instándole a seguir adelante en su valiosa obra en favor de los países del Tercer Mundo, como símbolo de justicia y de paz.

M. ZJALIĆ (Yugoslavia): In my brief intervention I am afraid I shall not be able to avoid repeating previous speakers in commending Mr. Ingram for his excellent presentation and also expressing our satisfaction with the World Food Programme activities and perfomance in 1981. We would just want to mention that our assessment and position concerning the global situation in the food sector and particularly the role of food aid in it has been covered in our previous interven-tion, so this time we will refrain from repeating it. We would only like to note the positive developments in some aspects of food aid in the very unfavourable international economic situation.

The problem of multilateral aid exists and the volume of multilateral aid in the food sector appears to be acute also here, but not as much as in other sectors, particularly in development assistance. This is one of the signs, probably of positive developments in the future in this sector.

We also wish to express our appreciation and thanks to the big donors. Unfortunately this report has not given us all the relevant data and facts and we would therefore like to invite the Secretariat to provide us with statistical data on contributions by donor countries during this session, both for regular pledges and FAO contributions, IEFR contributions and other resources. These statistical data can give us some more indications on possible political measures or recommendations to be adopted by this Council or other bodies and also can serve as an incentive, or at least as an orientation to donor governments or governments of donor countries when deciding on the levels of their pledges and also as an orientation for potential donors to join this group of countries who participate as supporters of WFP.

I am speaking not only as a representative of my Government to this Organization and to other food organizations but also I am in a way representing this Organization to my Government, and I would like to see normally my country more active; and probably the information and statistical data could serve for my Government to increase its effective support of the activities of the World Food Programme.

R.T. MOCHEBELELE (Lesotho): The Kingdom of Lesotho is one of the countries that have benefited from the activites of the WFP. My delegation has studied carefully the content of this well-docu-mented report and we note with appreciation the admirable work that has been done by the Programme in food administration, especially in emergency situations. This should help to maintain the highest level of confidence in the WFP on the part of the recipient countries as well as the donor countries.

The CFA must be commended for its untiring efforts and serious attempt towards political impartiality. Food must be made available not on a basis of ideology but based on need, in order to achieve world food security. One notes with satisfaction the flow of food resources from donor countries. However, this should be no reason for complacency, especially when one considers the current contributions to IEFR. The triangular transaction has been successful. Zimbabwe should be assisted to survive drought conditions through any method including irrigation, so that it can continue to contribute to sub-regional food security and the global state of food and agriculture. We believe this can be duplicated in other regions of the world.

A word of thanks should go to the WFP and donor countries and agencies for their contributions to regular and emergency food reserves. It is necessary for the donor countries to be encouraged to give more so as to make IEFR more predictable and reliable in order to respond quickly to emergency situations.

AMIDJONO MARTOSUWIRYO (Indonesia): My delegation wishes to express satisfaction with the Seventh Annual Report of the WFP and to compliment the WFP for its activities and the work being carried out. We do recognize that the Programme faces a difficult task but I would say a holy task in terms of helping unfortunate people. Food aid, whether for development or for emergency operations, should be linked directly or indirectly to increasing food and agricultural production. We must not lose sight of the fact that the ultimate goal of our efforts is to fight hunger and malnutri-tion. My delegation continues to support that priorities be placed on providing food aid to LDC's and food-deficit developing countries.

It seems that food aid to developing countries is increasing and no doubt will require greater resources. My delegation therefore suggests that the WFP take the necessary steps to approach traditional donor countries as well as the new ones in order to get more resources, so as to achieve the target of 10 million tons of cereals a year.

In conclusion, my delegation looks forward to the expansion of triangular transactions. The scheme has far-reaching effects in the development of agriculture in developing countries and rural development alike. Last but not least, my delegation welcomes the establishment of WFP's management information system which makes operation of the Programme more effective and supports better coordination.

SYED AHMED (Bangladesh): The Bangladesh delegation is happy to associate itself with the sentiments expressed by the delegates from other countries and we are very happy to extend our sincere felicitations and our compliments to the World Food Programme.

We have been associated with the World Food Programme for almost a decade now and as an organization which is going to attain maturity, as was mentioned earlier, I can say one thing, that today WFP is going to be a mature organization but since its very inception this Programme earned the respect and admiration of hundreds of thousands of people in my country. Here is an organization whose name is known to hundreds of thousands of illiterate, landless, unemployed and seasonally unem-ployed people of my country.

We have programmes with the WFP, the National Relief Works Programme for Land and Water Development, the vulnerable Group Feeding Programmes and also from my personal experience as the Refugee Repa­triation Commissioner for the Burmese refugees, I have seen with my own eyes the value and the importance and the significance of the feeding programmes which the World Food Programme ran in those refugee camps.

When we started in Bangladesh with the programme, not that we went to the field with a foolproof system, but then as we proceeded and as we went along with our work we always tried to learn and improve upon the system and today in the countryside, if there is a fund of technical skill and expertise available for preparation of local projects, of local importance, involving local participation, much of the credit goes to the projects which were undertaken with the assistance of, and in collaboration with, the World Food Programme.

The delegate of India also mentioned about the policy of the World Food Programme of working itself out of the programme. When they take up a project the underlying idea is always that some day in the near future we should be able to work ourselves out of the programme and we also fully endorse this policy.

So in our view this World Food Programme is a remarkable developmental and humanitarian pro-gramme and we particularly appreciate the developmental thrust and the continued efficiency of the programme, and as a major beneficiary of the programme we are alive to the beneficial impact of the programme in the development of our food agriculture, water development and flood control sectors, at the same time meeting a great humanitarian need of providing food to the truly disadvantaged and vulnerable sections of the population.

The document CL 82/15, which was so brilliantly presented by the Executive Director contains valu­able information, very useful information, at the end of the document showing the commitment of WFP resources in the Regions by activity and utilization thereof, but I think that for a policy forum it would be extremely useful if we could get the indication of the donations or the contri­butions by countries and also by amounts to both the regular programme and the WFP, as well as the International Emergency Food Reserve Programme for the last and the current biennium and for the years 1981/82 to which reference was made by the delegates of Pakistan and Yugoslavia.

Before concluding, we welcome the new team at the helm of the Organization and we are eagerly looking forward to the visit of the new Executive Director to our country, and I am sure he will come back happy and satisfied as did his predecessors in the past.

J. TCHICAYA (Congo): Ma délégation tient à exprimer, à l'instar d'autres délégations, toutes ses félicitations à M. Ingram, Directeur exécutif du PAM, pour sa brillante présentation du document CL 82/15. Mes félicitations s'adressent surtout au Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire pour sa clairvoyance et la qualité du travail qu'il a effectué au cours de sa 7ème session.

Ma délégation pense toujours que dans l'état actuel des choses, c'est-à-dire dans un monde en désé­quilibre permanent, caractérisé par une production alimentaire globale insuffisante qu'accompagne une distribution inégale de la nourriture, l'aide alimentaire demeure irremplaçable. Elle est irremplaçable en raison de la quasi-certitude que les pays donateurs n'offriraient jamais l'équi­valent de cette aide en ressources financières, en plus des efforts même insuffisants qu'il constate à présent. C'est pourquoi nous sommes attachés à une utilisation rationnelle de cette aide alimentaire qui doit avant tout aider au développement et notamment à promouvoir la production agricole et alimentaire dans les pays à faible revenu et à déficit alimentaire, l'aide d'urgence

ayant un caractère humanitaire et provisoire. Nous sommes à cet égard satisfaits des activités du PAM puisqu'il a consacré 80 pour cent de ses ressources aux projets de développement rural. Nous l'encourageons à poursuivre son action dans ce sens, en continuant à appuyer tout programme de développement qui a pour but d'accroître la production agricole et alimentaire, y compris les productions qui visent à accroître la capacité d'exportation des pays à faible revenu et à déficit alimentaire.

La délégation de mon pays tient à voir s'améliorer la RAIU. On évitera ainsi les ponctions souvent opérées sur les ressources ordinaires du PAM et qui sont avant tout destinées à financer les programmes de développement. A cet égard notre pays avait chaleureusement salué le fait qu'en 1981 l'objectif minimum de la RAIU avait été atteint. Mais cette satisfaction a été éphémère puisque déjà on nous apprend que nous sommes à nouveau en deçà de cet objectif, que l'on envisageait déjà l'an dernier de réviser à la hausse.

Puisque je parle de la RAIU, je voudrais vous dire que ma délégation se félicite dans son ensemble des procédures actuelles d'octroi d'aide d'urgence attachées à la rapidité d'action du PAM et rejettera toute procédure qui allongerait les délais d'approbation et d'opération d'urgence ou qui pourrait favoriser l'introduction de considérations d'ordre idéologique ou politique dans l'octroi d'une telle aide.

Si ma délégation exprime sa satisfaction de la manière dont le PAM s'acquitte de sa mission, elle tient à relever avec inquiétude que les pays contributeurs actuels ou potentiels ne consacrent pas le maximum de leurs ressources au PAM. Nous convenons tous qu'elles sont rationnellement utilisées. Ma délégation s'associe à l'appel lancé en direction de ces pays pour permettre au PAM d'atteindre l'objectif réaliste du biennium 1983/84 de 1,2 milliard de dollars, approuvé par notre Conférence lors de sa dernière session.

La délégation de mon pays tient à présenter ses félicitations aux pays et aux organisations qui ont fait des annonces d'augmentations de leurs contributions. Ce sont là des actes qui contribuent au renforcement du Programme alimentaire mondial et visent à faire de cet organisme un véritable instrument de développement rural.

Enfin, nous demandons au secrétariat du PAM de continuer à réfléchir sur la meilleure façon de mobiliser les ressources de la RAIU, la Conférence n'ayant pas, semble-t-il, atteint cet objectif.

F. BREWSTER (Barbados): My delegation wishes to express its satisfaction with the document CL 82/15, a very informative paper.

We think that the activities detailed in the report reveal the energy of the WFP, its Executive Director and staff and their determination to function effectively even in these difficult recessionary times.

It is very noteworthy to see that for the first time the International Emergency Reserve Fund was able to meet and surpass its target of 500,000 tons. It is very gratifying to see that 80 percent of the expenditure has been channelled towards agriculture for the low-income food-deficit and least developed countries. My delegation wishes to commend those generous agencies who have consistently made contributions and congratulate the new donor agencies identified in the report who have now joined the list of contributors.

The delegate of Argentina has drawn attention to the declining level of WFP activities in Latin America and the Caribbean region. My delegation wishes to support the position which he has articulated. This position has been further amplified by the delegate of Columbia who spoke a short while ago. We feel that particular programmes, for example in school feeding and vulnerable groups, do need attention which WFP should give attention to in the Region. Like another delegation which spoke before us, we do not believe that per capita income is the principle measure to determine assistance from WFP to the Region, particularly to the small developing states in the Region.

Finally Barbados wishes to reaffirm its continuing support for the work of WFP.

T. SADAKA (Liban) (langue originale arabe): Je tiens à féliciter le Secrétariat pour la claire présentation du rapport annuel du CPA, c'est-à-dire le document CL 82/15.

A propos de ce rapport, la délégation de mon pays désire formuler les observations suivantes: premièrement, nous sommes d'accord sur ce rapport et sur les recommandations concernant le CPA. Nous estimons que toute aide alimentaire qui vient consolider et compléter les efforts individuels de tout pays en développement, dans ses plans de production et de développement, constitue une question vitale, nécessaire et très importante pour le développement de ce pays et pour son évolution.

Par conséquent, nous regrettons le contenu du troisième alinéa du paragraphe A de ce document, à savoir que cette aide alimentaire ait décliné en 1979 et 1980, tandis que les importations de céréales des pays en développement ont augmenté. En 1981, le volume de cette aide alimentaire a atteint à peu près 10 millions de tonnes de céréales, tandis que nous demandons avec beaucoup d'autres que le volume annuel de cette aide soit de 17 millions de tonnes de céréales.

Deuxièmement, nous attendons avec beaucoup de satisfaction et d'optimisme la réalisation du montant des engagements fixés en vue d'assurer les ressources du PAM, c'est-à-dire 1 200 millions de dollars pour la période 1983/84.

Nous espérons en même temps que les efforts déployés par le Directeur général seront couronnés de succès en vue d'améliorer la situation de la Réserve alimentaire d'urgence de sorte que cela réponde aux besoins des pays en développement. Nous souhaitons que le rapport, qui a été mis au point à cet effet après la réunion du 2 mars 1982, contienne les recommandations nécessaires pour consolider cette Réserve alimentaire d'urgence et qu'il y ait un engagement de la part des pays donateurs pour contribuer à cette Réserve, la développer, la consolider et l'améliorer.

Troisièmement, je voudrais saisir cette occasion pour remercier, au nom de la délégation de mon pays, le Directeur général de la FAO et le Directeur exécutif du PAM pour leur réaction rapide en vue de répondre aux besoins du Liban pour une aide urgente tout en maintenant cette aide dans les moments les plus obscurs et les plus difficiles, lorsque le Liban en avait un pressant besoin pour aider ceux de ses enfants qui avaient été déplacés et qui étaient sans abri. En dépit du fait que la sécurité n'avait pas été encore entièrement rétablie au Liban, le PAM a poursuivi son aide ainsi que l'exécution de ses projets humanitaires et de ses objectifs de développement agricole et économique au Liban.

A tous les responsables de l'Organisation et du Programme, nous exprimons nos sincères remerciements et notre entière considération.

M. NAANANI (Maroc): Je ne voudrais pas prendre la parole pour la première fois sans exprimer les félicitations de ma délégation au Président du Conseil, aux Vice-Président élus, aux Président et membres du Comité de rédaction. Je voudrais également féliciter M. Ingram, Directeur exécutif du PAM pour l'excellent exposé qu'il vient de nous faire et qui résume d'une manière claire et fidèle le document que nous examinons. Ma délégation a étudié attentivement le septième rapport annuel du Comité des politiques et programmes alimentaires qu'elle trouve très intéressant et très encou­rageant. Nous nous félicitons des résultats enregistrés, spécialement au niveau des orientations et de la politique du PAM. En effet, nous constatons que ce Programme consacre de plus en plus de parties importantes aux populations les plus déshéritées des pays les moins avancés, tout en poussant les pays bénéficiaires à développer leur production agricole.

Ma délégation soutient totalement cette orientation et incite le PAM à aller de l'avant dans cette voie.

Ma délégation constate avec grande satisfaction que le PAM accorde une place de choix aux pays africains. C'est là la confirmation de la volonté du PAM, comme celle de la FAO, d'épauler les pays du continent africain qui, comme nous le savons, connaissent les problèmes les plus aigus sur le plan de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture. Nous nous réjouissons en particulier que 85 pour cent des contributions pour les articles non alimentaires aient été réservés aux pays africains. Nous sommes très satisfaits du niveau des contributions des pays donateurs et nous sommes sûrs que ces pays ne ménageront aucun effort pour renforcer les actions du PAM et l'encourager à poursuivre son oeuvre humanitaire. Avant de terminer, je voudrais adresser au PAM les remerciements de mon gouvernement pour toute l'aide qu'il ne cesse d'apporter à mon pays, spécialement durant l'année dernière lorsque mon pays vivait la plus grande sécheresse qu'il ait jamais connue.

M. TATIETA (Haute-Volta): La délégation de Haute-Volta adresse, comme toutes les délégations, ses félicitations au PAM pour les résultats obtenus en dépit d'une conjoncture difficile.

Toutes les formes d'aide alimentaire contribuent à soulager les souffrances et à rendre possibles les actions de production des populations des pays à déficit alimentaire et à faible revenu. Nous sommes très reconnaissants à tous les donateurs pour l'aide soutenue apportée à nos pays. La délégation de Haute-Volta apprécie les efforts faits par le PAM pour une augmentation des aides non céréalières qui correspondent bien, quand il s'agit d'un matériel agricole, aux besoins en équipement des agriculteurs. Un tel équipement va augmenter dans des proportions importantes la capacité de produc­tion de nos populations.

Nous apprécions en outre l'approche régionale dans les achats et la distribution des céréales: les 30 000 tonnes de maïs achetées au Zimbabwe pour la Tanzanie constituent la meilleure illustration d'une telle politique. Les avantages de cette approche, qui se passent de commentaires, sont contenus

dans le paragraphe 26. Nous souhaitons que cette approche soit appliquée partout où cela est possible. Nous félicitons encore le PAM pour ses efforts constants en vue de l’adaptation de l'aide à l'évolution de la situation dans chaque pays.

B.E. PHIRI (Zambia): The performance of WFP has been praised not only by CFA but also by this Council. We wish to express our appreciation of the work done by WFP. However, there is one thing which makes us uneasy, and that is that the very existence of WFP is a contradiction of the ideals which we enunciate here in our statement. A few days ago, India said that we tended to approach development progress on a fire-fighting procedure. We created WFP to perpetuate the fire-fighting procedures in providing assistance to developing countries. By saying this, we do not wish to blame WFP, because in fact that is how we set it up.

We are satisfied with what WFP is doing, and that is to shift the emphasis from this fire-fighting procedure to using food aid for development purposes. To do this, WFP will need the endorsement of this effort from the governing bodies, from the CFA, from the Council and from the Conference. We have to allow WFP to utilize food aid more for development purposes than just to meet the feeding needs. That we have emphasized in the past.

We also wish to commend the efforts of WFP in providing assistance mainly to the neediest countries. I think if it was not doing that, we would have to raise an objection to its activities.

In paragraph 44 it is said:

"While the number of emergency operations per annum assisted by the Programme has been consistently highest in Africa south of the Sahara since 1976, the proportion of WFP emergency assistance per annum in value terms has been greatest in the Asia and Pacific region, where more people have been affected by emergency situations. Only a relatively small number of emergency operations have occurred in Latin America and North Africa and the Near East and even fewer in southern Europe. Consequently, only a small portion of total WFP emergency assistance has gone to those regions annually since 1976".

I think that is an approach which is logical, that WFP will shift its emphasis for assistance to the neediest countries, whether the need is in terms of emergencies or in development efforts. WFP on its own would not be able to do as much as it is doing today, if resources were not forthcoming. We therefore thank donors for their generous pledges and we express the hope that their goodwill will continue.

There is one thing we would like to see done in WFP assistance to needy countries, and that is to increase the flexibility in the use of the resources that are given to WFP, and a suggestion was made in paragraph 24 by the Executive Director that this flexibility allow the sale of commodities so that funds to meet local costs can be raised; we think that is a good suggestion, and an experiment is currently going on. A report on this experiment is promised for the next CFA Session, and we hope that when this report is finally presented to CFA at the next Session, the Committee will at that time find it possible to endorse the suggestion of the Executive Director.

We do not wish to go into the question of employment, as has been done by some of our distinguished Delegates in this Council, because if we were to look at employment, one would have said possibly there are even fewer African faces not only in WFP but in many UN agencies; and as far as WFP is concerned, one might say what is wrong with Africans? We are giving you assistance and now you also want to take the jobs. We hope that possibly this question of employment will be looked at, at different times, possibly in different settings than this one.

The meeting rose at 12.30 hours
La séance est levée à 12h30
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.30 horas

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