Two very different forest inventories
Forest ecosystems in Africa
An international glossary of tropical woods
Using bibliographical data banks
Bamboos in Ecuador
Forest ecology research
A North American itinerary
Silviculture and rural development
Classifying Peru's trees
Sixty important species
Forest bibliography of Peru
Costs of roundwood extraction and transport
Afforestation needs incentives
Inventario forestale nazionale italiano. Trento. Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 1983. 2 vols. 444 p. (In Italian.)
Haute-Volta inventaire forestier national. Prepared by FAO on the basis of the work of A. G. Cameratti. Rome. 1983. 187 p. (In French.)
We have here two national forest inventories: one, not yet finished, from Italy: the other, completed, from Burkina Faso, formerly the Upper Volta. These two inventories reflect two highly divergent countries in terms of historical, cultural and ethnic background as well as from the bio-climatic, ecological and phytogeographic points of view. Italy is an industrialized Mediterranean country with a highly institutionalized administration. Burkina Faso, on the other hand, is a developing Sahel country with barely 25 years' independence, an inexperienced administration and heavily rural traditions.
Yet each of these countries has felt the need to draw up its very first national inventory of forest resources.
The Italian project, carried out by a commission appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, is a highly methodological study, based on a systematic sampling procedure already successfully tested in other European countries. Primarily, the assessment made use of ground surveys, but 1:25 000 scale maps and aerial photographs were also employed to pinpoint wooded areas. The project document includes instructions for the practical organization of census procedures, together with a handbook for field teams.
The Burkina Faso inventory, prepared by the Government in collaboration with a team of FAO foresters, includes an assessment of the woody vegetation and identifies wooded areas with potential for productive development. The survey covered the whole country, examining the current forest resource situation in each administrative area. The recently installed remote-sensing centre in Ouagadougou made it possible to map forest areas from Landsat satellite pictures. This could be the most significant inventory ever made in the Sahel.
The Director of FAO's Forest Resources Division, Mr J. P. Lanly said in an interview. "Each of these studies has a simple but sound approach, spurred by the need to obtain immediate overall results." He went on to say that the objective in each case is the same: to assess national forest resources with a view to improving production. In the case of Italy, however this refers to construction wood for industry, whereas in Burkina Faso the main preoccupation is to meet the rural population's daily fuelwood needs.
MAKING A FOREST INVENTORY IN ECUADOR easier said than done
The differing problems in compiling these two inventories, Lanly said, derive mainly from the administrative structures of the two countries. In Italy, for example, this kind of undertaking is faced with the problem of strong regional autonomy, with each region acting as an independent administrative entity. Thus, a single methodology that meets every exigency is by no means easy to devise.
In Burkina Faso, this kind of problem does not arise. Whereas the Italian inventory has access to numerous existing dendrographic studies and, therefore, ipso facto, to reliable data, Burkina Faso has no forestry tradition or training experience.
As for forest resources in each country. Mr Lanly said that in Burkina Faso there is considerable degradation and deforestation. This is caused mainly by brush fires which devastate the woods each year, but overcutting for fuelwood, land-clearing for shifting cultivation, and, finally, overgrazing are also common. Fires are common in Italy, and yet only a small part of the total plant cover is destroyed by fire each year. The problem lies elsewhere: deforestation is often caused by uncontrolled urban expansion.
Mr Lanly concluded by pointing to the need for "integrated" resource monitoring. This would take into account the exploitation of forest resources for production and would also include data on wildlife, soil, water, pollution level and degradation of the forest areas which constitute such an important part of a country's natural heritage.
Fay Banoun, Rome
Ecosystèmes forestiers tropicaux d'Afrique. Prepared and published by ORSTOM-Unesco. Paris. 1983. 473 p. (In French.)
This work is the product of a report prepared and published by Unesco and UNEP in 1979 to take stock of world knowledge on the tropical forest ecosystems. The voluminous documentation assembled enabled the Office of Overseas Scientific and Technical Research (ORSTOM), in collaboration with Unesco, to prepare this second publication.
The purpose of the work is to give a clear summary of what is known about the structure, workings and evolution of the tropical forest ecosystems of Africa. These represent the typical natural vegetation of the humid and sub-humid tropics and are of primary importance in meeting the requirements of the people living in the forests for wood and food products.
The publication is divided into two parts. The first, consisting of 14 chapters, studies the structure, workings and evolution of forest ecosystems. Particularly interesting is chapter 8, which deals with the natural forest and, more precisely, with the biology and regeneration of equatorial forests and forests with a contrasting climate - an analysis that also extends to the growth of the trees. Other chapters give comparable data on the agro-ecosystems and plantations that have replaced the forests in many lowland regions.
The second part deals with the biology and characteristics of the human populations living in the forest ecosystems and with the interactions between them and the forest ecosystems. Its five chapters investigate demographic trends, food habits and the extent to which people living in tropical forest environments adapt to these environments and, in turn, are affected by them. They analyse the movements of these populations, their civilizations, social organization and traditional ways of using the natural resources; and also the possibilities of transforming the ecosystems in order to increase the quantity of goods and services available for industrial and commercial purposes. They also point out the ecological consequences of the environment, such as the pollution caused by the pulp and paper industries and the deforestation resulting from mining, road construction and the establishment of human settlements. Part two ends with a chapter devoted to conservation and development in terms of policies for the preservation, protection, management and utilization of the tropical forests.
The various chapters of this are impressive work differ considerably in detail, length and content. However, all of them culminate in a brief conclusion, recommendations regarding the research to be undertaken, and a selective bibliography. Numerous and often highly technical figures and tables illustrate the text and guide the reader toward a more comprehensive knowledge of Africa's tropical forest ecosystems.
This is an important work which can be of assistance to all those responsible for the planning of research and management at national and international levels.
General terminology of tropical woods. Nogent-sur-Marne, France, International Technical Tropical Timber Association. 1982. 213 p.
This is the fifth edition of the International Technical Tropical Timber Association's General Terminology of Tropical Woods, the fourth having appeared in 1979, and it presented a good opportunity to update the information: the South and Central American section has been rewritten, the African and Asian sections amended.
As the chairman of ITTTA stresses in his preface, however, while many data are included, an inventory cannot hope to cover the complete range of useful woods. The authors have therefore been obliged to select and, consequently, to exclude information. The same applies for the selection of common and commercial names and the adoption of an overall "pilot-term". An explanatory note in six languages (French, English, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian) states that the common and commercial names for the different woods listed in the tables are those officially used by the exporting countries. The pilot-term is that most likely to be internationally recognized. In choosing this term, the authors took into account both the producer country and the country where the wood is in common use. There follows a list of the scientific names of the tropical woods.
The most important part of this work is obviously the terminology itself, which is divided into three different colours and sections: Africa. Asia-Pacific-Australia, and South and Central America. There are twelve columns for each wood entered, listing pilot-term, scientific name and originator, country of origin, production level, weight with bark, density, diameter, bole length, colour, appearance, uses and, lastly, quality assessment.
The work ends with a glossary of the woods classified according to use, a multilingual lexicon of the terminology employed in the tables, and an extensive bibliography of the major tropical wood publications in each of the six languages.
This terminology will undoubtedly be of interest to non-specialists in tropical woods, like botanists and naturalists, since the information provided, in addition to being scientific, is of a practical nature. There is, finally, one further noteworthy attraction of this publication: its elegant presentation, particularly the choice of natural "autumn leaf" colours for the three sections of the glossary, making the work both aesthetically and intellectually pleasing.
Fay Banoun, Rome
New approaches to the Sahel
1. Woody vegetation in the Sahel
Arbres et arbustes du Sahel - leurs caractéristiques et leurs utilisations. H.J. von Maydell. Esborn, Federal Republic of Germany, German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ). 1983. 531 p., numerous colour photographs. (In French.)
Combating desertification, providing fuelwood, feeding both people and livestock, supplying construction wood and medicine - trees and shrubs play a vital role in the Sahel.
However, owing to the growing needs of a rapidly expanding population, devastation by recent droughts and frequent irrational land use, many hitherto thick forest stands have become degraded and impoverished. Often little is left but sparse, stunted plant cover.
This remarkable book, which covers over 100 species, makes an appeal to "Sahel foresters" to combine their expertise and focus their efforts on re-establishing the natural functions of the forest. The author urges them to implement the essential measures needed to ensure a constant supply of quality trees and shrubs for year-round use.
The first part is of a general botanical nature. The second focuses briefly on the geographical distribution of the trees and shrubs described and, with this in mind, questions the wisdom of introducing new non-essential species into a "stress" area such as the Sahel which "reacts violently and often permanently to human intervention and especially to environmental changes". Growing species successfully away from their natural habitat depends largely, von Maydell argues, on their suitability for local conditions, both economic and natural.
The third section deals with propagation and planting, about which there is only sporadic information, as, according to the author, trees and shrubs are not planted systematically in the Sahel. Detailed research is therefore an essential pre-condition to large-scale reforestation projects. It is also important to realize that successful experiments often only apply to specific sites and not necessarily everywhere. However, where stands are in sufficiently good condition, natural regeneration by stump shoots or seedfall has a good chance of succeeding. Von Maydell also offers practical advice on seeds, cultivation methods, and stand management and conservation techniques.
A fourth section analyses the usefulness and end-uses of the trees and shrubs, with tables to indicate the different end-uses of each species.
Section five, by far the most important, lists the various trees and shrubs in alphabetical order, stating their characteristics, reproductive and cultivation methods, and uses. The colour photographs are impressive.
Included in the appendix are a list of names and botanical synonyms, an index of tree and shrub families and genera, a lexicon of the main dialect and local language names, a French-German-English botanical lexicon, an illustrated seed terminology, a list of parasites and other enemies of Sahelian species and, finally, a detailed bibliography of French, English and German publications.
2. Can the Sahel recover its history?
Le Sahel demain: catastrophe ou renaissance? Jacques Giri. Paris, Karthala. 1983. 325 p. (In French.)
The southern Sahara has not always been the parched, arid region we know today. Over the centuries, a long succession of rich and powerful empires ruled in the Sahel. Gold was plentiful, the land was fertile and cities such as Djenné and Timbuktu were bustling, renowned trading centres. What, then, are the climatic, cultural or other factors behind the now-chronic Sahel crisis? This is the question Jacques Giri sets out to answer in this nonconformist, penetrating, and sometimes argumentative work, which clearly shows the author's considerable experience in the countries described.
During the last century, General Faidherbe and his troops had to hack their way through dense thorn-bush thickets up the Senegal River valley. In this same spot, today, nothing is left but sparse savannah consisting of a few stunted trees. Deforestation has continued relentlessly over the past few decades, despite occasional and often unsuccessful reforestation attempts on the part of the newly independent countries. It was only in the 1970s, however, that the experts began to draw world attention to the Sahel and the alarming disappearance of its forests.
In his chapter on deforestation, Giri identifies the main causes: above all, drought, which killed many trees and prevented stand regeneration; bush fires, which destroyed the young shoots; the increase in grazing herds, which intensified the need for more leaves and branches for forage; greater demand by a growing population for construction wood and fuelwood; and, finally, the expansion of cropland as fallow periods continued to shrink.
What conclusions can be drawn for the future? It would appear undeniable that if present conditions prevail, the only possible outcome is that deforestation will grow and spread, particularly in outlying urban areas and on the fringes of the desert. What can be done to reverse this trend? "If the worst is to be avoided," Giri recommends, "the Sahel should choose a 'self-reliant' pattern of development and not wait for the coming of a New International Economic Order."
PALM AFFOFESTATION PROJECT trying to reforest the Sahel
Sources d'informations bibliographiques dans le domaine de la biomasse forestière. F. Cupi. Versailles. France. Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA). 1982. 108 p. (In French. )
With an eye to solving the scientists, problem of getting the information they need, the author of this relatively brief work proposes a comparative study of the information obtained by traditional bibliographical research methods and the data provided by automated retrieval systems. She focuses on the specific task of a research team collaborating on the subject of forest biomass. She describes how new sources of data that can he queried by computer have become increasingly available over the past 10 years. There is now a real need to appraise such systems and identify those most appropriate for a given subject.
In the first part of this three-part book Cupi analyses the results of three distinct methodologies: direct contact with other scientists; consulting library index cards; and querying a data bank. Utilizing various tables and graphs, she attempts to establish comparable categories files based on set criteria.
Part two traces the trends in the growth of row data from 1950 to 1978 The author shows how on-line files (files retrievable from a computer terminal ) have evolved in a manner quite unlike the traditional file-card systems. The traditional system could still supply more information than on-line files before the year 1975 at which date the older system was rendered obsolete.
The "forest biomass" file, therefore, consists of the combined references gleaned from on-line computer queries, library card files and contacts with other scientists. In the third part of the book. Cupi shows how all these references can he utilized to set up an index of genera and species for easier access to the definitive file.
Bambúes y pseudobambúes del Ecuador Dr Misael Acosta-Solís Guayaquil, Ecuador. Publicaciones Científicas Más. 1982 (In Spanish.)
Bamboos and wood grasses constitute a leading economic group in botany. To provide knowledge of Ecuador's main species, Dr Misael Acosta-Solís, forest geobotanist and conservationist Loci director of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales. Here gives a general description of the country's bamboo and pseudo-bamboo species with their respective local or traditional uses.
The book is divided into two parts. The first deals with plant geography of bamboos and pseudo-bamboos and their local uses. The second and shorter part discusses their anatomy.
According to Dr Acosta-Solís, bamboos and pseudo-bamboos play a major role in Ecuador as a raw material for the paper pulp industry and the construction of tropical houses, enclosures and scaffolding.
The hook contains some photographs and an extensive bibliography by the author.
Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda. G. Troupin, with the collaboration of Diane M. Bridson of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, London. Tervuren. Belgium. Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale. 1982. 747 p. ( In French )
Trees are an integral part of Rwanda's traditions and folklore. "Sacred woods" mark the tombs of dignitaries and powerful figures of the past: while today, hospitable, welcoming trees offer shade to the walker exhausted by the heat of the sun and shelter under their foliage the games of the village children.
But over and above these ritual and recreational functions, trees constitute a precious natural resource in Rwanda, all the more so because much of this largely pastoral country consists of rangeland. Closed, timber-producing forest is represented only by a few limited, often degraded formations. It is therefore important that research be conducted to identify the species composing these formations and acquire better knowledge of the plant and animal life they shelter, so that more rational use may be made of the natural resources so necessary to the country's social life and economic development.
The author of this book traversed Rwanda's woods on many occasions, studying the vegetation and flora on the spot, before undertaking his impressive inventory.
In preparing his systematic and descriptive text, he was guided by two criteria: (1) the work must be easy to consult so that it can be used in the, field; and (2) it must give exhaustive information on the nature of each entry. In; pursuit of these aims, he sets out the families, genera and species in alphabetical order: uses a simplified botanical vocabulary; provides striking iconographic coverage in the form of 245 plates of remarkable drawings: and gives a concise description of every entry, or "taxon", accompanied by information on its habitat and geographical distribution.
Finally - and this is worth emphasizing - the work gives the Kinyarwanda names of more than a thousand species. This will certainly facilitate the task of botanists engaged in studying Rwanda's flora and make it possible to update the knowledge of tropical African plants.
Fay Banoun, Rome
Actualités d'écologie forestière - sol, flore faune. Prepared by the Institut National Agronomique. Paris. Gauthier-Villars. 1980. 517 p. (In French.)
This collective work, prepared with the collaboration of 22 authors, is the result of a series of lectures organized by the French National Agronomy Institute and is intended to give up-to-date information on research in forest ecology.
The work is divided into three sections, dealing as the title indicates, with soils, flora and fauna. The authors - botanists, microbiologists, soil scientists, geologists, zoologists and ecologists - are all research workers who know each other well and often work together.
Particularly interesting in the first part is the article by P. Duchaufour, "Ecologie de l'humification et pédogénèse des sols forestiers", in which the author examines the action of ecological factors, particularly soil climate, vegetation and minerals, on humus formation. He compares the general bioclimatic factors that play a determining role in countries that cover several latitudes and where the forest is only slightly disturbed by human action.
A HIGHWAY IN OREGON travelling through North American forests
In the second part, an interesting article by P. Quezel, "Biogéographic et écologie des conifères sur le pourtour méditerranéen", deals with the coniferous forests in the Maghreb, the Near East and the mountainous regions of eastern Spain, Greece, Provence and Liguria. Quezel refers to the problems of restoring forests decimated by fires and observes that, to some extent, forest fires encourage the spread of conifers, particularly the Aleppo pine.
The third section, devoted to wildlife, investigates the predatory species. In his article "Les reptiles en forêt et leur rôle dans la prédation", H. Saint-Giron compares the "forest edge" reptiles of the temperate forests with the burrowing and tree-inhabiting species of the tropical forests, in this case those of Southeast Asia.
Prom'nons-nous dans les bois... de l'Amérique du Nord. M.M. Versepuy. Limited edition, printed by L'Imprimerie Moderne USHA, Aurillac, France. 1983. 550 p., numerous photographs. (In French.)
Writer, poet, historian, but most of all "forester-emeritus", Michel Versepuy is the author of several books: an illustrated nomenclature of the principal gymnosperms; Itinéraire en Calabre - forêt privée; and a soon-to-be-published illustrated nomenclature of the principal eucalyptus species.
This book reads like a novel and makes the history of North America come to life, as Versepuy simply takes us for a walk among the trees. He describes the trees competently, enthusiastically, even delightfully, endowing them with human qualities and presenting them as old friends. But this does not deter him from devoting a sizeable portion of the book's 550 pages to various tables, classified lists of the species and his own photographs of the "giants of the New World".
Versepuy leads the reader through all 50 of the United States, lingering over the forestry aspects of each one and describing their immense national parks which are covered by millions of hectares of valuable timber. The walk continues northwards into Canada, sparsely populated but opulent in its more than 3 million km² of forest, its forest products potential of 303 million m³, and its role as the world's primary supplier of pulp.
Turning south, the journey takes us into Mexico. The author parades before us that country's 70 different pines as well as the 50 other coniferous and 220 broadleaf varieties that form Mexico's wood population.
The work concludes with an imposing alphabetical nomenclature of Mexican pines according to their geographical distribution, a list of the principal cactus varieties and a list of authors.
Recent books on Peru
La contribución forestal al desarrollo rural en el Perú. Mario Loayza V. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 4. Lima, Peru. 1982. (In Spanish.)
This detailed study focuses on the significant contribution forest resources can make to the socioeconomic development of Peru's depressed rural sector.
The author, Mario Loayza of Peru's Dirección General Forestal, presents an ecological and historical overview of current conditions in rural Peru. The book contains three chapters covering the specific issues of socioeconomic development in Peru. The first covers the various functions of plantation forestry: as a source of energy and food; as a provider of direct employment; and as a spur to such profitable sidelines as the production of prickly pear and carmine cochineal pigments. Plantations also help check soil erosion.
The second chapter deals with game, which plays a fundamental role in the rural diet. Loayza describes how wildlife can also become an important factor in intensifying such activities as forestry, livestock production and agriculture.
The final chapter outlines a new development plan for the virgin areas of coastal Peru and the Peruvian Amazon region. The plan calls for integrated, state-supported rural settlements in which peasants are to be installed on land previously evaluated as part of an integrated approach to the use of natural resources. Forestry, agriculture and livestock production as well as fish and game-related activities will all be developed on these settlements in harmony with existing natural resources and ecosystems.
The report contains a clear summary of the project's conclusions and recommendations and includes a comprehensive bibliography. Even though this report deals only with Peru, it can easily be applied to other countries, especially those countries of Latin America that have similar physical features.
Nomenclatura de las especies forestales en el Perú. Filomeno Encarnación. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 7. Lima, Peru. 1983. (In Spanish.)
The main purpose of this study, written by a biologist at the University of San Marcos in Peru, is to present a clear and systematic nomenclature of the common forest species of Peru. In this context, the author has updated the scientific names of 303 species, compiled their common names and established the differences and equivalences between their Latin and common names.
In the introduction and general framework, the work points out the lack of scientific rigour, the oversimplified criteria and the wide gaps in classification, systematics and nomenclature prevailing in Peru, a wood-producing country with over 2 500 forest species. The author clarifies the basic concepts of botanical nomenclature and stresses the importance of both using botanical names and establishing new and better national plant collections to the promotion of the rational development of forest resources.
Each forest species nomenclature entry consists of the Latin name of the species, the name of the person who first identified the plant as a new species, its common name, a brief dendrologic description, its uses, habitat and distribution, and references, concluding with commentaries and plant collection material.
El transporte terrestre de madera en la Selva Central. Emilio David. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 8. Lima, Peru. 1983. (In Spanish.)
According to Emilio David, Senior Professor in the Forestry Sciences Academic Programme of La Molina Agricultural University in Peru, development and improvement of land transport is the fundamental condition for incorporating the considerable potential of the Selva Central's forestry resources into Peru's economy.
The primary purpose of this book is to make a systematic technical and economic analysis of the main parameters and factors influencing land transport in the Selva Central and their effects on the production and marketing of forest products.
After describing the general characteristics of this region of Peru (geographic area, forest resources and industries, road infrastructure), David gives a detailed analysis of the present round-wood and sawnwood transport situation, from its organization and costs to the types of vehicles used, distances, loading and unloading operations, freight rates and public and forest road conditions. Extensive statistical tables and figures illustrate clearly all aspects of the work.
In his conclusions and recommendations, David points out the shortcomings of the present transport system and suggests specific improvements for all the aspects of land transport of wood in this area of Peru.
FOREST VILLAGE OF PISAC rural development is critical
FORESTRY STUDENTS NEAR IQUITOS learning about Peru's 2 500 tree species
Recopilación y análisis de estudios tecnológicos de maderas peruanas. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 2. Lima, Peru. 1982. (In Spanish.)
Peru's natural forests cover an area representing 60 percent of the country's territory and are composed of about 2 500 species. The purpose of this study is to make a compilation and a technical analysis of 60 species selected for their abundance, commercial value and accessibility in order to promote their potential end-uses.
The book offers a brief description of each species with its main characteristics and properties. The numerical values of their physical and mechanical properties as well as anatomical characteristics, workability and end-uses are analysed and evaluated, and these are presented in summary tables which afford an overall view. The main aspects of technical research on Peruvian woods and its implications for the use of new forest species are also included.
The book contains a very full bibliography and specific and detailed recommendations.
Bibliografía forestal del Perú. Napoleon E. Castro Rodriguez. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 10. Lima. Peru. 1982. (In Spanish.)
Peru has a great abundance and diversity of forest resources but a scarcity of properly inventoried and organized bibliographical data. This book provides a classified and organized bibliography of all the documents connected with resources and activities in Peru. The bibliographical references are presented according to the standards established by the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Organization of American States, and are arranged by the author in alphabetical order. At the end of each, a code for one or more libraries where the document can be found is given. The work also includes an index of main and secondary subjects.
In the introduction to this exhaustive bibliography, the author makes a number of useful recommendations for the improvement and development of forest bibliographical data in Peru.
LANDSLIDE-BLOCKED TRAFFIC IN PERU new roads needed for wood transport
Estructura de los costos de extracción y transporte de madera rolliza en la Selva Baja. René Campos. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 6. Lima, Peru. 1983. (In Spanish.)
In its effort to help to improve roundwood extraction and transport activities in Peru, the joint UNDP/FAO project considered the execution of this study to be of major importance. Its purpose is to provide clear and detailed information on the cost structure of mechanized roundwood extraction and transport operations.
The work analyses the different operations involved in the extraction and transport processes both separately and together, evaluating their productivity and costs on the basis of average parameters in the large Peruvian Selva Baja area where the country's main wood industry is located. The author, a forestry engineer, after describing the characteristics of the area, examines working methods in forest extraction; extraction and transport costs; and the structure of those costs. He also lists detailed costs of mechanization in abundant appendixes.
In his conclusions and recommendations, Campos clearly points out shortcomings in roundwood supply at present and suggests possible Improvements, from personnel training to mechanization of the activity.
La forestación en el Perú y en algunos países de América Latina. Marco Romero Pastor. Project UNDP/FAO/PER/81/002. Working document 9. Lima, Peru. 1983. (In Spanish.)
This study analyses, first of all, the present situation of afforestation in Peru and the prospects for its development. It also gives a comparative description of the actual state of afforestation in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela.
Concerning Peru, the author, in his recommendations, shows the need for a structured and specific state afforestation development policy. He also argues for the creation of favourable economic incentives and a fund for afforestation in the agricultural bank of Peru. He concludes that better coordination of the state and private sectors, with the Government maintaining its dominant role, would result in more fruitful development of the country's afforestation.
As for the other countries Brazil, Chile and Argentina have achieved the most spectacular results in recent years, thanks to economic, fiscal and credit incentive policies, which are nonexistent or scarce in Mexico and Peru.
The book contains numerous tables and figures with abundant information and useful details.
TENDING A TREE NURSERY Peru needs afforestation incentives