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2.1 Characteristics of production in the region
2.2 Regional production data
2.3 Production systems and practices in the region
2.4 Producers in the region
2.5 Organizations of producers
2.6 Financial investment by public and private enterprises
2.7 Technical assistance projects in the sub-sector
2.8 Capital assistance projects in the sub-sector

2.1 Characteristics of production in the region

Aquaculture production in the West Asia region is influenced mainly by geography (see Table 4). However, the long traditions of aquaculture in the region, and the agricultural and rural backgrounds of large numbers of people, have enabled relatively modern technologies to be readily applied and made productive. In addition, apart from the vegetarian habits of some religious sects, the majority of the people in the region like fish and grow them wherever possible.

The continental countries of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, together with the insular Sri Lanka, all have preferences for freshwater fish. Because of its northerly position and altitude Nepalese like the cold water fish from the river systems, but in the flat terrain there are some 5 000 ha of natural lakes and about 1 400 ha of reservoirs in which it is possible to produce warmwater fish. Sri Lanka, on the other hand, has few natural freshwater bodies but has established fisheries in some 140 000 ha of irrigation reservoirs or tanks through aquaculture. It also has some 1 700 km of coastline, large tracts of which are flat and suitable for the construction of ponds.

Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan have good water resources with extensive rivers and flood plains, most of which have man-made lakes and reservoirs for irrigation projects for agricultural development. Bangladesh has no large lakes but innumerable ox-bow lakes (about 292 000 ha) and reservoirs (90 000 ha). Unfortunately much of the delta region is still subjected to flooding which is costly for the construction and maintenance of fixed structures, such as coastal ponds. India has many natural lakes (0.72 million ha) and inland reservoirs (3 million ha), most of which have been adapted for fisheries through stocking programmes and which are now independent fisheries in their own right. However, many of these lakes are stocked with seed each year to supplement the natural production. The long coastal areas of India are also suitable for the development of marine and brackishwater species. Pakistan is drier, its river systems are shorter, and its lakes are not available for aquaculture. It has about 80 000 ha of reservoirs created by the large irrigation systems which have been constructed.

Burma, Kampuchea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, although physically part of the Asian land mass, have preferences for marine fish and shellfish. With the exception of Kampuchea and Singapore, all have extensive coastlines of more than 2 500 km in addition to good freshwater resources. In addition to its rivers Burma has some 33 000 ha of lakes and 80 000 ha of reservoirs; Malaysia has 10 000 km2 of reservoirs; and Thailand has 300 000 ha of lakes and 225 000 ha of reservoirs, as well as extensive brackishwater coastal areas. Singapore is the exception. With limited coastal and freshwater areas, and its restrictions on the use of available land, the country has confined its coastal development to four sites and a few long-existing coastal enclosures. Its interest in freshwater fish production is directed mainly at the high value aquarium fishes rather than food fish. Kampuchea also has a limited area for coastal development but it has one river system and about 10 000 km2 of lakes.

Indonesia is predominantly an island population with a strong tradition in coastal fish culture. Many of its coastal areas are already established as productive aquaculture zones. Inland there are innumerable lakes totalling 1.7 million ha, and some 27 000 ha of reservoirs. Its natural rivers are few and short.

In spite of these extensive water resources in the region for possible aquaculture, like the other countries of Asia there are many competing uses. Agriculture is the principal sector in most of these countries. The large urban populations require large quantities of drinking water and new industries also make demands on water resources. However, much is being done in the development of aquaculture but the systems and practices are still traditional and extensive. They require little in the way of costly inputs, and they are also labour intensive. In the last two decades modern, semi-intensive and intensive systems have been developed in some locations for high-value products. There is considerable interest in the use of floating cages and net-pens in lakes and man-made reservoirs, which are available in most countries and which are often naturally productive. Large tracts of coastal tidal land are being reserved and used for mollusc production.

In the region some fundamental problems remain. Land ownership and water-use rights are severe constraints for potential farmers. The large areas of land needed for aquaculture development close to good water resources are either not available or are costly. Many of the lakes and reservoirs are public and inaccessible for aquaculture purposes.

2.2 Regional production data

Almost all the governments in the West Asia region have policies and national programmes for aquaculture development (see 5.1); in many cases with the intention of aquaculture breaking the present reliance on capture fisheries. The results so far have been good. The 1986 production among the twelve countries was reported to be about 732 000 t (see Table 5), which excludes most reported production from India as this figure is uncertain. India reports annual production of over one million t but it is known that this figure includes the yields of fisheries in lakes, some of which are supplemented with seed.

There is, however, much aquaculture production in India, and it has been increasing. For example, the average pond production was about 600 kg/ha/y in the 1960s but is now over 1 500 kg and likely to increase to 2 000 kg by 1989-90. Other countries, such as Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, are showing similar improvements in pond yields and increases in areas under production, particularly for the Indian and Chinese carps. Nepal now has about 5 000 ha of ponds under culture. Bangladesh's aquaculture production in 1986 was over 133 000 t, with a potential area of 155 000 ha for development. Burma now produces about 5 000 t of fish, mostly through extensive culture, and the area under production can be increased manifold.

Typical pond yields in Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand, on average produce about 1 000 kg/ha/y. Thailand produces about 122 000 t, most of which are a variety of high-value species, and has developed a cockle industry. Malaysia's total aquaculture production is over 52 000 t, mainly the production of cockles (59%) in its coastal brackishwater areas.

Indonesia has increased its production from mixed farming on a large scale. Inland fish culture continues to increase at a rate of about 2% per annum and has now reached over 538 000 t, or over 24% of the country's total fisheries production. As a whole the capture fisheries' share of the country's total fish production is decreasing and is being replaced by aquaculture production, which now totals some 382 000 t.

In the region the contribution of aquaculture production toward total fish production is therefore becoming even more substantial. Currently it is reported to be about 22% overall, excluding the production of marine algae. In some land-locked countries, and in countries with large land-masses, the contribution of aquaculture to total aquatic animal production is far higher. For example, in Nepal it is over 45%, in India 43%, and in China 39%. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka the aquaculture contribution ranges between 11-17%. In terms of total aquaculture production in the region (excluding the Maldives which has no aquaculture) the range is from Sri Lanka with 52 t to Indonesia with 382 885 t (1986 figures).

Indonesia's freshwater fish production is mainly the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at 24 209 t, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) at 16 353 t, and Java carp (Puntius javanicus) at 11 793 t. Among brackishwater fishes the milkfish (Chanos chanos) at 93 508 t, the mullets (Mugil sp.), tilapias, and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) dominate production.

In Bangladesh reported production is about 125 000 t. The Indian carps (Labeo rohua, Catla catla and C. mrigla) are being cultured on a small scale (about 30 t each) followed by silver carp (H. molitrix), grass carp (C. idella) and common carp (C. carpio). In brackishwater the interest is marine shrimps with production of Penaeus monodon and P. indicus currently about 150 and 130 t respectively.

Malaysia's production figure of 52 639 t is mostly due to the culture of the cockle, the giant sea perch, and the estuarine grouper, all in brackishwater. In freshwater production it is the prawn (Macrobrachium sp.), grass carp, silver carp, Puntius gonionotus, common carp, Labeo rohita, bighead carp, Trichogaster pectoralis, Oxyleotris sp., and tilapia sp.

In Sri Lanka (only 52 t reported), India (unverified production), and Pakistan (10 000 t) the India major carps and the freshwater prawn are the most common freshwater species being produced. In brackishwater the shrimps (Penaeus and Metapeneaus sp.) are cultured, together with sea bass, mullets, milkfish, etc. In India the culture of air-breathing fishes is increasing, but the introduction of tilapias for fanning has been discouraged. In Sri Lanka tilapia are now cultured on a large scale.

A summary of the principal groups or species cultured in the region as reported to FAO is given in Table 6.

2.3 Production systems and practices in the region

The strong traditions of aquaculture in the region, and the experience of adapting the available knowledge and technology about culture systems and practices to local conditions, have resulted in almost every type of development.

In the last 15 years the polyculture of carps (or composite fish culture) in semi-intensive systems has spread rapidly in the region, particularly in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, where it is widely accepted as a feasible technology for meeting the diverse demands of local markets.

Rice-cum-fish culture is practised in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand. Thailand is reported to have over 31 000 km2 of rice paddies involved in fish production. Fish yields from rice paddies in Indonesia average about 400 kg/ha/y, and the country has some 92 000 ha under production. Although rice paddies are abundant in India only about 1 million ha have been brought into fish production so far.

Carp culture is also practised in cages and net pen enclosures in Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Thailand produces about 300 t and Malaysia about 6 t. Yields in cages in Singapore are about 2 kg/m3. The cage culture of carps has been tried in Bangladesh, Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, but so far has not been taken up by farmers.

Cage farming of the catfish is a thriving industry in Thailand but this too has not yet developed in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, mainly because of the lack of seed and resources for feed. Production of Anabas testidinens, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Clarias batrachus is gaining interest in these three countries.

Aquaculture production through the stocking of reservoirs and lakes is very important in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and it is practised on a large scale. The average annual production of carps and other freshwater species in reservoirs ranges from 3-37 kg/ha, depending on size of water body, productivity, management, etc. In India there are plans to develop 200 more reservoirs for fish production by the end of the century. Nepal has about 1 380 ha of reservoirs under production, and Bangladesh has the potential of some 90 000 ha of reservoirs and 293 000 ha of ox-bow lakes for fish stocking.

The increase in the production costs of fish farming, particularly seed, feed, and fertilizer, has increased the development of integrated fish farming practices in the region. Fish production is now integrated with animal husbandry (pigs), poultry husbandry (ducks and chickens), and plant husbandry (horticultural plants, bananas, rice, etc.). In Nepal fish culture is also integrated with nappier and paragrass. Integrated fish culture is common in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, and Thailand.

In India a number of experimental and demonstration fish production centres use sewage from treatment plants. This practice is becoming popular because of the associated benefits of recycling organic wastes.

The production of common carp in raceways (running water culture) is practised in Indonesia.

In many coastal brackishwater areas the polyculture of fish and shrimps is practised in ponds. The more common species used are the mullets, sea bass, and milkfish with penaeid shrimps. In Bangladesh and India the traditional semi-intensive culture system produces annually about 500-1 500 kg/ha of shrimps and 3 000 kg/ha of fish. Thailand has adopted all three culture systems: the extensive system produces about 100-300 kg/ha per annum; the semi-intensive system produces about 1 000-3 000 kg/ha; and the intensive system produces about 4 000-6 000 kg/ha. In certain cases the intensive system can yield some 15 000 kg/ha.

Indonesia practises extensive and semi-intensive culture systems in coastal areas and produces over 98 000 t of fish and shrimps in some 15 000 ha of tambaks. Pakistan so far has shown little interest in brackishwater farming because of the lack of suitable environmental conditions.

Sri Lanka has about 12 000 ha of brackishwater resources with lagoons, estuaries and mudflats, but is only adopting the extensive system. Burma is currently developing some brackishwater areas for culture purposes.

Thailand produces over 113 000 t of bivalve molluscs (blood cockles, green mussels, oysters, and horse mussels) which are harvested through marine culture. In addition to the production of molluscs on rafts and ropes Singapore has reserved a number of coastal zones for the production of groupers and sea bass in cages.

Malaysia has well developed marine culture practices and produces cockles, prawns, and fish in brackishwater areas, as well as molluscs for pearls. Pearl culture on average yields 34-57 pearls/ha per annum in the country.

The culture of marine algae (both edible and industrial seaweeds) is practised widely in the region and contributes about 20% of the total aquaculture production.

2.4 Producers in the region

Aquaculture is part of the way of life of much of the rural populations in the West Asia region. As it is often not recognized as an independent sector from either fisheries or agriculture, statistics are not always separated or well defined. It is almost impossible to provide accurate numbers of producers (farmers) in the region, or those who are involved in production of seed in hatcheries or fingerling farms.

Obviously the numbers of farmers in a region which produced over 732 000 t of aquaculture products in 1986 are substantial. For example, in Indonesia the total number of farmers increased at a rate of almost 10% per annum between 1977 and 1984, from 600 000 to 1 150 000. Of these about 18 000 operate cages and net pens; 260 000 rice-cum-fish production in paddy fields, 131 000 in brackishwater pond culture, and the rest in freshwater pond production.

In 1985 the aquaculture industry in Indonesia employed around 1.3 million people in the following farming categories:

tambak = 134 400
freshwater ponds = 839 577
paddy fields = 302 486
cage culture = 5 132

In Thailand there are some 4 000 families who operate brackishwater farms for fish, shrimps, and molluscs, and 27 000 families involved in freshwater farms using fish ponds. There are also over 600 farmers operating cage units in freshwater and over 250 in brackishwater. Thailand now has a large number of small hatchery operations for the production of both freshwater prawn and marine shrimp seed. Over 1 000 backyard hatcheries now exist and 200 more are in the process of development. The cockle industry in Thailand fluctuates from year to year and the number of farmers regularly employed is not certain.

The Department of Fisheries in Bangladesh reported in 1988 that about 3 million people directly or indirectly participate in the entire range of aquaculture activities, from farming to marketing and processing.

In Pakistan there are some 168 fish farms registered in the province of Sind, and another 3 069 in the Punjab. There are 28 farms registered in the Northwest Frontier Province.

At present there is little specific aquaculture production recorded in Sri Lanka (52 t). Aquaculture seed production for stocking inland reservoirs and other water bodies is an important part of the large inland fisheries production. The fish are harvested from the reservoirs by fishermen using boats, and statistically one boat works about 7-10 ha of surface area. Aquaculture therefore contributes part-time to the livelihoods of about 15 000 fishermen in the country.

Singapore has four coastal areas reserved for fish culture, plus a number of kelangs or traps (some of which have cages inside) and a few coastal impoundments. There are 107 workers employed in aquaculture, but not all are owners/operators. Each farm leased is 5 000 m2, and the farmer pays for the lease and an annual operating fee.

2.5 Organizations of producers

Most of the producers in the region organize themselves into private fish farmer associations or cooperatives for availing themselves of certain benefits which are not accessible to individual farmers; for example, financial assistance from governments is often available to cooperatives but not to individuals. This is particularly true for government development projects which aim at socio-economic advancement of small-scale fish farmers in depressed rural communities. It is also more convenient for post-harvest and export marketing services if producers are organized into cooperatives because minimum quantities are usually required, especially for export shipments.

There are many organizations of producers, such as cooperatives and associations, in the region but these differ in purpose. For example, in some states of Bangladesh, India, and Nepal associations of farmers (or fishermen) have been formed around the multi-ownership of water resources and ponds. Similarly in Indonesia and Malaysia associations exist to farm large tracts of coastal land suitable for mollusc culture (mussel and cockle); also for cage culture in publicly-owned lakes and reservoirs.

The formation of cooperatives and other associations has not always been as profitable as desired. For example, in Malaysia cooperatives and fishermen's groups have not been successful, according to reports of the agricultural banks which have supplied credit.

There is no information about producer organizations in Burma, Kampuchea, and Singapore.

In Pakistan the Karachi Fishermen's Cooperative Society is the largest organization for boat owners and traditional fishermen; however, it also exerts authority over the daily operation of the fish markets. A unique association is the Karachi fish merchants (moleholders) who represent many boat owners in the sale of shrimp and fish.

In Thailand there are over 30 aquaculture groups with more than 2 000 members between them. The groups main activities are the purchase of inputs for and the provision of credit to members. There are also 38 fisheries associations but these are open to anyone in the fishing industry, including individuals from the aquaculture sector.

2.6 Financial investment by public and private enterprises

In the West Asia region it is difficult to make an estimate of the level of investment in aquaculture production, both by public and private entities. However, it is evident from the number and scale of existing and proposed projects chat there has been an increase in investment in this sector since a decade ago by both the public and the private sectors.

Investment by the public sector has involved mainly the construction and operation of selected production centres or facilities which have served to stimulate interest of the private sector in similar ventures. For example, governments in the region have invested in demonstration farms for both finfish or shrimp/prawns. In most cases, however, public investment in aquaculture production comes mainly in the form of financial assistance to the private sector in capital investment. Financial assistance is largely by way of providing loan/credit facilities to fish farmers for the development and operation of fish ponds, fish pens and cages, and related support facilities.

The majority of farming operations in Asia are in the hands of the private sector. In general most of the production facilities in the various countries in the greater Asian region have been constructed with private capital, or through loans to private individuals and/or corporations from commercial banks or Government financial institutions.

In the West Asia countries financial support to the sector through the agricultural development banks has been of utmost importance for aquaculture growth throughout the last two decades. In the region there are many national banks which have supplied credit to farmers, as well as international bank-supported production projects which account for the considerable financial investment in the sector, in addition to the different national development agencies.

In India the government continues to invest funds in the sector through the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD). This Bank provides credit to all commercial banks, state land development banks, regional rural banks, and state cooperation banks for aquacultural and rural development purposes. The National Bank has so far supported over 2 000 fisheries and aquaculture schemes with a total project outlay exceeding more than I.Rs. 260 crores. The National Bank normally provides financing of up to 75-90% of the total investment. The present lending to fisheries is now more toward the inland sub-sector (70%) than to marine fisheries. With the change in policies of the Government the Bank gives priority to aquaculture projects, and brackishwater farming is getting maximum attention from the central Government.

The following investments have received funds from the Government of India and private resources: a number of freshwater aquaculture projects under the International Development Association (IDA) Inland Fisheries Project; brackishwater farms producing shrimps and fish in coastal regions (Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) subsidy); the construction of fish hatcheries by private enterprise with subsidies from local state governments; the construction of shrimp hatcheries in coastal areas through a subsidy from local state governments (MPEDA); and the Bundh breeding of carps for commercial production of seed (local state government's subsidy).

In Indonesia the ADB provided credit, under the first Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Project, to rehabilitate and construct 280 km of primary and secondary canals for tambak culture of shrimp and fish in West, Central, and East Java. The project also supplied credit to support pond operations. Under a World Bank Loan project (called Fisheries Support Services Project) credit was extended to invest in canal rehabilitation in Aceh and South Sulawesi (185 km of canals) and South-East Sulawesi (415 km of canals). The project also included the construction of a shrimp hatchery and the establishment of a feed factory. Another project (Shrimp and Fish Culture Development Project) in Java, North and South Sumatra, and South Sulawesi invested money in the rehabilitation of canals, the establishment of a feed factory, and the construction of a brackishwater shrimp and fish hatchery.

In Burma the Asian Development Bank loaned US$ 20 million for the Inland Fisheries Development Project, which has two shrimp components. Freshwater and marine shrimp farms will be constructed with ADB funds; also new collection stations will be constructed and investment will be made in expanding a fishery processing plant in Rangoon to process aquaculture products.

In Thailand the Government's 6th National Economic and Social Development Plan (October 1986 to September 1991) included a shrimp farming development project. The US$ 84 million project will include investments to upgrade existing Government-owned hatcheries and to build five more Government-owned hatcheries, each with a capacity of 30 million shrimp fry per year. Also, credits for financing shrimp farming and building hatcheries will be extended through the Government-owned Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives to private investors. Of this credit component, some is only for the financing of 15 privately-owned shrimp hatcheries, with a collective total capacity of 270 million shrimp fry a year.

In Sri Lanka the ADB funded the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Project in 1986. The US$ 17.3 million project will include the construction of a penaeid shrimp hatchery capable of producing 1.7 million marine shrimp post-larvae per month. Brackishwater demonstration ponds and 200 ha of grow-out ponds will also be constructed with the ADB funding. Carson's Construction Ltd. completed the first phase of their shrimp farm on the west coast of Sri Lanka. The farm has been harvesting shrimp since January 1987 and has produced a total of 170 t to date. Carson's Construction Ltd. is a 50/50 joint venture between a Sri Lankan company, Carson's Cumberbatch & Co. Ltd., and a British company, Hasted Satre & Co. The company's foreign shares are for sale.

In Pakistan the ADB has provided funds to the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan for developing four fishery projects, including one on aquaculture which includes construction of production facilities.

It is now increasingly common to find aquaculture projects owned or operated by private joint ventures involving local and foreign partners, with the foreign investor usually providing part of the development and operating costs and the local partner providing the land/site and part of the operating cost as equity.

More often than not governments of the region do not compete with the private sector in commercial aquaculture production. The burden is therefore borne by the private sector. In most countries aquaculture has developed to its high level mainly through private interest and initiative, and sometimes despite the lack of government support. The scale of private investment varies with the scope and magnitude of each project, the level of technology employed, and the type of entity (individual or corporate, national or multinational) involved, among others.

2.7 Technical assistance projects in the sub-sector

The development of the aquaculture industry in the region has been greatly aided by the provision of technical assistance at the level of producers by major multilateral and bilateral institutions operating in West Asia. Funding organizations include the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and the British Overseas Development Administration (ODA), among others. Many of these projects have been executed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), or by non-Governmental organizations.

Technical assistance, as distinct from capital assistance which refers to the provision of funds for capital infrastructure, refers to the provision of funds for the conduct of investment studies for production, demonstration projects, or production-support activities. There are a number of technical assistance projects in the production sub-sector.

In Bangladesh the ODA funded a freshwater fish culture project, whilst the Second Aquaculture Development Project (mainly carps) was financed by the ADB. A project on integrated freshwater prawn farming received assistance from the Intermediate Technology Development Group in the UK. Fish pond construction and fish culture were included in a small-scale fisheries development project in Bangladesh, which was funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

In Burma the ADB assisted with funds for an inland fisheries development project, which included carp farming and marine Crustacea culture.

The Swedish based International Foundation for Science (IFS) provided assistance to India for small projects dealing with: formulation of diets for carps; growth of carps; evaluation of Artemia as a food for shrimp and prawns; and mass culture of freshwater shrimp. UNDP funded two projects in India dealing with the development of coastal aquaculture and with freshwater fish culture. The Tilapia International Foundation in the Netherlands assisted with a rural community development project in Kerala, South India, which included farming of tilapia. IFAD funded a project for fish pond construction and fingerling production.

In Indonesia a number of small aquaculture projects have been supported by IFS, including growth and feeding of tilapia; growth and feeding of Macrobrachium; production of 'lablab'; pond culture of marine shrimp; freshwater fish diseases; and freshwater fish production in floating cages. UNDP funded a large seafarming development project (mainly marine Crustacea and fish). The Netherlands government supported a shrimp culture feasibility study in Indonesia; the ODA assisted with the development of shrimp culture in ponds and raceways in Java. USAID funded a large fisheries research and development project which included freshwater fish culture.

In Malaysia the IFS has assisted with three projects; integrated freshwater fish farming, catfish reproduction, and oyster culture.

The ADB provided funding for the Second Aquaculture Development Project in Nepal, which was mainly for carp farming. Freshwater fish culture, nutrition and larval rearing studies were supported by the Swedish based IFS. UNDP also funded carp culture in Nepal.

The ADB in 1988 approved a US$ 15 million loan to Pakistan to help finance the Second Aquaculture Development Project. Designed to continue the efforts initiated under the Bank's first Aquaculture Development Project approved in 1979, this project will carry out development activities to help the government utilize inland water resources and facilitate technology transfer which will support private sector initiatives in fish production. FAO assisted with two freshwater fish culture projects: fish farming in reservoirs and the introduction of low-cost fish farming in rural areas.

In Sri Lanka the IFS assisted with three projects; freshwater fish culture using cheap feeds, mussel culture, and a feasibility study of freshwater fish culture in swamp areas. The Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD) funded a feasibility study on freshwater fish culture in the southeastern part of the island. As part of the huge Mahaweli Authority irrigation (dam) scheme, CIDA and ODA assisted in freshwater fish culture projects.

In Thailand a number of aquaculture projects have received technical assistance. Freshwater fish farming projects have been supported by CIDA, the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (Japan), ODA, ADB, and IFS. Japan also provided a loan for marine and freshwater crustacean culture. The ADB funded two projects dealing with brackishwater prawn culture. The IFS assisted with projects on fish diseases and brine shrimp production in semi-flow-through systems. UNDP/FAO supported a Macrobrachium culture project.

In December 1988 Aquatic Farms Ltd. finalized a contract with the World Bank (WB) to carry out an Asia-Wide Agro-Industry Sector Study. Under this US$ 200 000 contract, a 5-member team will assess the potential for expanded shrimp culture in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

2.8 Capital assistance projects in the sub-sector

Funding for the construction of production facilities in the region has been provided largely by multilateral organizations like ADB, WB, IFAD, and the World Food Programme (WFP). Most of the projects provide credit facilities to either the respective government, or to the private sector through government banks and lending institutions. In most cases credit assistance is also accompanied by components of training and extension, and institutional strengthening, which ensures that the loans are ultimately repaid by the sub-borrowers.

A number of such capital assistance projects exist in the region at the present time. In Bangladesh the Rajendrapur carp hatchery was constructed with part of a loan from ADB. CIDA funded the materials to construct six fish ponds in Burma, as part of a UNDP/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) marine biology project which included brackishwater aquaculture. ADB funding was used in Indonesia to construct a number of small marine shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds. In Sri Lanka ADB funds are being used to construct a demonstration marine shrimp hatchery and 25 ha of demonstration grow-out ponds. In fact, usually in large ADB aquaculture projects (and most West Asian countries have received ADB loans) some of the funds are for capital assistance, i.e. hatcheries, ponds, and canals.

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