Cover- HARVESTING OF TEXTILE ANIMAL FIBRESHARVESTING OF TEXTILE ANIMAL FIBRES


Table of Contents

by
O J Petrie
Wool Testing Authority
Wellington, New Zealand

 

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 122

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 1995

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-25
ISBN 92-5-103759-0

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Contents

INTRODUCTION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

CHAPTER 1.  TEXTILE FIBRE PRDUCING ANIMALS

1.1 Sheep 
      1.1.1 Introduction to Sheep & Wool
      1.1.2 Sheep & Wool Production
      1.1.3 Fibre Characteristics of Wool 
      1.1.4 End Uses of Wool 
1.2 Goats 
      1.2.1 Mohair 
            1.2.1.1 Introduction to Mohair 
            1.2.1.2 Production of Mohair 
            1.2.1.3 Fibre Characteristics of Mohair
            1.2.1.4 End Uses of Mohair 
      1.2.2 Cashmere 
            1.2.2.1 Introduction to Cashmere 
            1.2.2.2 Production of Cashmere
            1.2.2.3 Fibre Characteristics of Cashmere
            1.2.2.4 End Uses of Cashmere 22
1.3 Camel
      1.3.1 Introduction to Camel Hair 
      1.3.2 Production of Camel Hair 
      1.3.3 Fibre Characteristics of Camel Hair 
      1.3.4 End Uses of Camel Hair 
1.4 Llama
      1.4.1 Introduction to the Llama 
      1.4.2 Production of Alpaca Fibre 
      1.4.3 Fibre Characteristics of Alpaca
      1.4.4 End Uses of Alpaca 
1.5 Angora Rabbit
      1.5.1 Introduction to the Angora Rabbit 
      1.5.2 Production of Angora Fibre 
      1.5.3 Fibre Characteristics of Angora 
      1.5.4 End Uses of Angora 
1.6 Yak 
      1.6.1 Introduction to the Yak 
      1.6.2 Production of Yak Hair 
      1.6.3 Fibre Characteristics of Yak Hair 
      1.6.4 End Use of Yak Hair 
1.7 Beaver
1.8 Weasel

CHAPTER 2. PREPARING ANIMALS FOR SHEARING

2.1 Preparing Sheep for Shearing 
2.2 Preparing Angora Goats for Shearing 
2.3 Preparing Alpaca for Shearing
2.4 Preparing Cashmere, Camels & Yaks for Shearing 
2.5 Preparing Angora Rabbits for Shearing 

CHAPTER 3.  FIBRE HARVESTING EQUIPMENT

3.1 Machine Shears 
      3.1.1 The Shearing Stand 
      3.1.2 The Dropper 
      3.1.3 The Handpiece 
      3.1.4 Combs and Cutters 
3.2 Hand Shears (Blades) 
3.3 Combs
      3.3.1 Combs - Cashmere 
      3.3.2 The Mongolian Yak Comb 

CHAPTER 4.  FIBRE HARVESTING TECHNIQUES

4.1 The New Zealand Wool Board Shearing Pattern 
      4.1.1 Machine Shearing Merino Sheep 
      4.1.2 Machine Shearing Crossbred Sheep 
      4.1.3 Machine Shearing Angora Rabbits 
            4.1.3.1 Method
      4.1.4 Machine Shearing Llamas 
      4.1.5 Blade Shearing Sheep 
      4.1.6 Crutching Sheep 
4.2 Combing
      4.2.1 Combing Cashmere Goats 
      4.2.2 Combing Yaks
4.3 Plucking Angora Rabbits
4.4 Slipe Wool Production 
      4.4.1 The Production System 
      4.4.2 Sheep Wash 
      4.4.3 Skin Wash 
      4.4.4 Wringing 
      4.4.5 Trimming and Spreading
      4.4.6 Painting
      4.4.7 Pairing 
      4.4.8 Storing 
      4.4.9 [Pulling and Grading] 
      4.4.10 Drying 
      4.4.11 Binning 
      4.4.12 Pressing
      4.4.13 Elaboration of Specified [] Process 
      4.4.14 Slipemaster Process (for skin pieces) 
      4.4.15 The "Paint" 
      4.4.16 Painting 
      4.4.17 Alternative Paint Mixtures 
      4.4.18 A Non-Paint Alternative 
      4.4.19 Pulling and Grading
      4.4.20 Machine Pulling 
      4.4.21 Pie Wool (Sweating) 
      4.4.22 Grading 
      4.4.23 Fehrer Wash 
      4.4.24 Pelt House Procedure 

CHAPTER 5.  FIBRE PREPARATION FOR SALE OR PROCESSING

5.1 Objectives
5.2 General Requirements
5.3 Preparation
      5.3.1 Preparing Wool
            5.3.1.1 On the Shearing Board
            5.3.1.2 Skirting Annually Shorn Fleeces
            5.3.1.3 Classing Apparel Wool (Merino/Corriedale)
            5.3.1.4 Grading Annually Shorn Coarse Wool
            5.3.1.5 Wools Shorn at 3-9 Month Intervals
            5.3.1.6 Merchant/Factory Sorting & Grading
      5.3.2.1 Preparing Mohair
            5.3.2.2 Preparing Cashmere
            5.3.2.3 Preparing Camel Hair
            5.3.2.4 Preparing Alpaca
            5.3.2.5 Preparing Angora
            5.3.2.6 Preparing Yak Hair

CHAPTER 6.  HARVESTING EQUIPMENT, PREPARATION & MAINTENANCE

6.1 Machine Shears
      6.1.1 Harvesting Equipment
            6.1.1.1 Setting Up The Handpiece
            6.1.1.2 Lubrication
            6.1.1.3 Fault Finding
            6.1.1.4 Replacing Parts
            6.1.1.5 Safety Tips
            6.1.1.6 The Spline Drive/Pin Option
            6.1.1.7 Dressing a New Comb
            6.1.1.8 Grinding
            6.1.1.9 Grinding Procedure
            6.1.1.10 Grinding Equipment
6.2 Hand Shears (Blades)
      6.2.1 Pulling Back (for separating the blades)
      6.2.2 Adjustment
      6.2.3 Setting
      6.2.4 The Grindstone
      6.2.5 Grinding The Blades
      6.2.6 Grinding with a Bat
      6.2.7 The Oilstone
      6.2.8 Sharpening
      6.2.9 Spring Tension
      6.2.10 The Driver

CHAPTER 7.  PACKAGING OF ANIMAL FIBRES

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Essential Requirements 
7.3 Packaging Materials 

CHAPTER 8.  GLOSSARY OF TERMS