A. Risk evaluation
B. Risk management option assessment
C. Implementation of management decision
D. Monitoring and review
ELEMENTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT
· Identification of a food safety problem.
· Establishment of a risk profile.
· Ranking of the hazard for risk assessment and risk management priority.
· Establishment of risk assessment policy for conduct of risk assessment.
· Commissioning of risk assessment.
· Consideration of risk assessment result.
· Identification of available management options.
· Selection of preferred management option, including consideration of an appropriate safety standard.** "Safety standard" here refers to the level of acceptable risk, which is adopted by risk managers or is implicit in the chosen risk management option. Examples include "zero-risk" standards (such as are usually implicit in de minimis and ADI levels), "balancing" standards (such as cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and ALARA), "threshold" standards (where a non-zero level of risk is stipulated as acceptable), or "procedural" standards (where the acceptable risk level is determined by an agreed process, such as a negotiation or referendum).
· Final management decision.
· Assessment of effectiveness of measures taken.
· Review risk management and/or assessment as necessary.
The outcome of the risk evaluation process should be combined with the evaluation of available risk management options in order to reach a decision on management of the risk. In arriving at this decision, human health protection should be the primary consideration, with other factors (e.g. economic costs, benefits, technical feasibility, risk perceptions, etc.) being considered as appropriate. Implementation of the management decision should be followed by monitoring both the effectiveness of the control measure and its impact on risk to the exposed consumer population, to ensure that the food safety objective is being met.
It is important that all interested parties** who are likely to be affected by risk management decisions have an opportunity for input into the risk management process. These groups may include (but should not be limited to) consumer organizations, representatives of the food industry and trade, education and research institutions, and regulatory bodies. A consultative process can be implemented in many ways, ranging from public meetings to opportunities to comment on public documents. Inputs from interested parties can be introduced and considered at every stage of the risk management policy formulation process, including evaluation and review.
** These interested parties are commonly referred to as "stakeholders" in a number of countries.