CAC/GL 22-1997 1
1 In adopting these Guidelines, the Codex Alimentarius Commission requested the Coordinating Committee for Africa to review this text in order to ensure conformity with the revised General Principles of Food Hygiene adopted by the Commission, so that inconsistency between the two texts would be avoided.
SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION - SCOPE
SECTION 2 - DEFINITIONS
SECTION 3 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
SECTION 4 - VENDORS
SECTION 5 - DESIGN AND STRUCTURE
SECTION 6 - APPLIANCES
SECTION 7 - FOOD PREPARATION
SECTION 8 - STREET FOOD CENTRES
The objective of these Guidelines are to provide the necessary provisions to be considered when elaborating street food control measures in the Region of Africa including the elaboration of Codes of Practice. Its aim is to assist relevant authorities in upgrading the operation of the street food industry to ensure that the population has available wholesome, safe and nutritious foods in accessible places.
The Guidelines specify the general hygienic requirements and practices to be recommended for inclusion in Codes of Practice for the preparation and sale of street foods.
For the purpose of these Guidelines, unless indicated otherwise, the following definitions apply:
2.1 Appliances: means the whole or any part of any utensil, machinery, instrument, apparatus or article used or intended for use, in or for making, preparing, keeping, selling or supplying of food.
2.2 Clean Water: means water from any natural source where there is no reason to believe the water is contaminated.
2.3 Crockery: means all glasses, plates, dishes, cups, saucers, spoons, forks, ladles, chopsticks and other articles used in serving and consumption of food, including disposable articles.
2.4 Disposable Articles: means any appliance, container, implement, utensil or wrapper that is intended for use only once in the preparation, storage, display, consumption or sale of food.
2.5 Impermeable: means not allowing the passage of water and/or fluid.
2.6 Microorganisms: means any microscopic living organism that can cause disease or food spoilage.
2.7 Mobile Vendor: means any person with/without a vehicle going from place to place for the purpose of preparing, serving, displaying, distributing or delivering any street food.
2.8 Perishable Food: means food that is of such a type or is in such a condition that it may spoil.
2.9 Potable Water: means treated water which shall comply with WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality.
2.10 Readily Perishable Food: means perishable food that consists wholly or partly of milk, milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish or shellfish, or ingredients that are capable of supporting the progressive growth of microorganisms that can cause food spoilage, food poisoning and other food borne illness.
2.11 Ready-to-eat Food: Any food (including beverages) which is normally consumed in its raw state or any food handled, processed, mixed, cooked, or otherwise prepared into a form in which it is normally consumed without further processing.
2.12 Relevant Authority: means the Ministry having responsibility and any local or officially recognized authority.
2.13 Sealed Container: means food grade containers such as:
(a) hermetically sealed containers;
(b) sealed jars, with anchor and crown type closures;
(c) milk bottles sealed with aluminium caps;
(d) glass jars and bottles with screw caps: and
(e) cans and similar containers with seals.
2.14 Street Food Centre: means any public place or establishment designated by the relevant authority for the preparation, display and sale of street foods by multiple vendors.
2.15 Street Foods: ready-to-eat foods prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers especially in streets and other similar public places (see FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 46).
2.16 Street Food Stall: means a place where street food is prepared, displayed, served or sold to the public. It includes carts, tables, benches, baskets, chairs, vehicles with or without wheels and any other structure approved by the relevant authority where on it or in it, any street foods are displayed for sale.
2.17 Utensil: means any appliance, container and equipment including traditional types used in the preparation, storage and sale of foods.
2.18 Waste Water: means sullage water arising as a result of the activity of vendors.
2.19 Water Container: means any form of food grade container which is used solely for the purpose of storing and serving water and has not been used previously for any other purposes which could cause contamination of the water stored in it.
3.2 LICENSING OF VENDORS
3.3 CONDITIONS FOR LICENSING
3.4 DISPLAY OF NOTICES
3.5 PEST AND ANIMAL CONTROL
3.6 STREET FOOD ADVISORY SERVICE
3.7 CONSUMER EDUCATION
3.1.1 To enable official recognition and control of the street food industry as an integral part of the food supply, appropriate regulations should be prepared either separately or for incorporation into existing food regulations.
3.1.2 The general hygienic requirements and practices to be followed by the vendors should be translated by the relevant authorities into Codes of practice which are recognized as cost effective tools for the control of street foods, by fully taking into account local conditions including specific risk factors that are relevant to each operation.
No vendor shall conduct his/her business of preparation, packing, storage, display and sale of any street foods unless he/she is licensed under the relevant food regulations.
3.3.1 No relevant authority shall issue or renew the license of any vendor who does not commit himself to comply with all the requirements of the Code of Practice established by the officially recognized authorities within a determined period of time.
3.3.2 It is essential that basic training in food hygiene is carried out by the relevant authorities prior to issuing or renewing the license of street food vendors.
3.4.1 Every licensed vendor shall at all times display conspicuously his/her vendor's License and any other notices that are required by the relevant authorities to be displayed.
3.5.1 Every vendor shall at all times take appropriate measures to keep his/her stall free from animals and pests, including rodents, flies, insects or vermin infestation to prevent contamination of the food.
3.5.2 Every vendor shall, on becoming aware of the presence of any such pest or harbourage, immediately take all practicable measures to get rid of the pest or harbourage and to prevent reinfestation.
3.5.3 Any food found to have become contaminated by pests shall be appropriately disposed of in a hygienic manner.
3.5.4 The contamination of food with pest control materials such as poisons must be prevented.
3.6.1 To facilitate the enforcement of the code of practice they have developed, the relevant authority should provide advisors which role would be:
(a) to work with vendors offering them on-site advice and guidance to improve their operations in accordance with the requirements of the Code;
(b) to participate in the design and/or delivery of the formal training of vendors which is to be provided by the authorities in view of issuance and renewal of licenses;
(c) to work in close collaboration with the enforcement personnel, including the officers in charge of registration and renewal of licenses, so that the code of practice is well understood and correctly applied;
(d) when applicable, to train the enforcement personnel and regularly organize joint inspections to monitor progress in the application of the code of practice; and
(e) to inform consumers as per Section 3.7 of these Guidelines.
3.6.2 Advisors should be good communicators, familiar with the requirements of the Guidelines, and have good understanding of both problems of the vendors and the protection of consumers.
3.6.3 Advisors should possess the trust and respect of vendors, consumers and enforcement personnel.
3.6.4 The advisers should be as far as possible conversant with the Codex International Code of Practice -General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3 (1997)), including the Codex Guidelines for the Application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System (HACCP), in order to assist vendors to optimize the use of scarce resources.
3.6.5 Street Food Advisory Services should be established with the necessary capacities to carry-out their mission effectively.
3.7.1 The relevant authority should inform consumers through posters, the media and publicity campaigns about hazards associated with street foods and the steps the authority requires street food vendors to take to minimize those hazards.
3.7.2 Consumers should also be informed of their responsibility in ensuring that they do not contaminate, dirty or litter street food vending sites.
3.7.3 Street Food Advisory Services should have the leading role in the elaboration of information material and in the monitoring of consumers' education.
4.1 HEALTH STATUS OF VENDORS
4.2 PERSONAL HYGIENE AND BEHAVIOUR
4.3 TRAINING OF VENDORS
4.4 VENDOR'S ASSOCIATIONS
4.1.1 Any vendor, helper or food handler who is suffering from jaundice, diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, sore throat with fever, discharge from ear, eye and nose, visibly infected skin lesions (boils, cuts, etc.) shall cease from handling food in any capacity and seek medical treatment.
4.1.2 Any vendor, helper or food handler who has been identified as or is known to be or has previously been a carrier of food borne disease organisms, shall not be involved in any food handling activity until certified by a Medical Officer of Health or any other medical practitioner as a non-carrier.
4.1.3 Any vendor, helper or food handler shall be required to be immunized against food and water borne disease such as typhoid, hepatitis A or any other food and water borne diseases as required by the relevant authority.
Every vendor, helper or food handler, during the conduct of his business, shall observe the following:
4.2.1 Wear an identification tag if issued and required by the relevant authority.
4.2.2 Dress in clean and proper attire.
4.2.3 Wash hands thoroughly with soap and clean water before and after handling food, after visiting the toilet, after handling unsanitary articles, touching animals, touching raw food, after handling toxic and dangerous materials as and when necessary.
4.2.4 Finger nails should be kept short and clean at all times.
4.2.5 Hair should be kept clean and tidy and should be covered during operation.
4.2.6 Non-infected cuts shall be completely protected by a waterproof dressing which is firmly secured and routinely changed.
4.2.7 Shall not smoke or chew chewing gum while preparing or serving food.
4.2.8 Refrain from any unhygienic practices such as spitting and cleaning nose, ears or any other body orifice.
4.2.9 Shall not sneeze or cough onto the food.
4.2.10 The use of gloves is not recommended.
4.2.11 No vendor is allowed to use the stall as a sleeping or dwelling place, or for any other personal activity.
4.3.1 Every vendor, helper or food handler shall undergo a basic training in food hygiene prior to licensing and further training as required by the relevant authority. Training is to be conducted by the relevant authority or other institutions recognized or approved by the relevant authorities. Vendors should also be made aware of their responsibility to consumers and be informed of available credit facilities and other sources of finance to assist and improve their businesses.
4.3.2 Simple posters illustrating the "dos" and "don'ts" of street food preparation and vending should be widely and prominently displayed in relevant places for the benefit of both vendors and consumers.
The formation of street food vendor associations or cooperatives should be encouraged to provide a liaison point with the relevant authorities in view of facilitating the implementation of control measures.
5.1.1 The location of street food stall(s) should be suitable for the purpose of avoiding contamination of the food prepared and served or sold at or from the stall. Stalls shall be located in areas designated by the relevant authorities.
5.1.2 Section 5.1.1 should also apply to mobile vendors.
5.1.3 The area where the stall is located and immediate surroundings should be easily cleaned and capable of withstanding repeated washing and scrubbing.
5.1.4 The space in and around the vendors' stall shall be free of unnecessary stored goods or articles and discarded articles in order to permit easy access for cleaning.
5.1.5 The stall should have a convenient access to an inlet of a drainage system or any suitable means of disposing waste water in a sanitary manner.
5.2.1 Vendors' stalls shall be of a type approved by the relevant authority and shall be constructed from impervious materials that can be easily cleaned such as stainless steel, aluminium, glazed tiles or any other materials as approved by the relevant authority. It shall be properly constructed as to be readily cleaned and maintained in a good state of repair at all times.
5.2.2 Food preparation areas and working surfaces should be made of a smooth and impermeable food grade material.
5.2.3 All cooking ranges, washing equipment, working tables, shelves and cupboards on or in which food is placed should be at least 45 cm above the ground.
5.2.4 There should be adequate provision of artificial light of sufficient intensity to ensure a reasonable standard of illumination for every part of the stall.
5.3.1 Water Supply: Vendors should ensure sufficient supply of potable water at all times. Where necessary, such as in the case of mobile vendors or where potable water supply is not yet available, potable water should be stored in clean water containers in conformance with Section 6.1.
5.3.2 Waste Water Disposal: Vendors' stalls should have an efficient waste water disposal system which should be maintained in a good state of repair. The system should be large enough to carry peak loads and be provided with traps to ensure only liquid waste is discharged into the drain/sewer.
5.3.3 Solid Waste Disposal: Solid waste material should be handled in such a manner as to avoid contamination of food and/or potable water. Waste should be removed from the working area of the stall as often as necessary and at least daily. All solid waste should be properly disposed into suitable containers which are secured with tight fitting lids or placed in rubbish bins or central rubbish bins.
Immediately after disposal of the waste, receptacles used for storage and any equipment which has come into contact with the waste should be cleaned using one of the methods described in Section 6.5. The waste storage area should also be cleaned daily.
Waste receptacles, equipment which has come into contact with the waste and waste storage areas should be disinfected when required by the relevant authority. Only appropriate and suitable sanitizing agents should be used. In areas without garbage collection service, solid waste is to be disposed of in a sanitary manner, as recommended or approved by the relevant authority.
5.3.4 Cleaning: All working surfaces, table tops, floors and surrounding areas should be thoroughly cleaned at least daily, using one of the methods described in Section 6.5.
5.3.5 Toilet facilities: Every vendor, helper or food handler should have access to facilities which are approved by the relevant authorities and kept at all times in a clean and operational condition.
6.1 The appliances should be kept clean. The equipment, including containers for storing drinking water, should be made of materials which do not transmit toxic substances, odour or taste, are not absorbent (unless its use is intended for that purpose and will not result in food contamination), are resistant to corrosion and capable of withstanding repeated cleaning and disinfection.
6.2 Every cutting surface used in the preparation of food should be free from cracks and crevices, with only reasonable wear and tear, and should be cleaned using one of the methods described in Section 6.5 at least on the following occasions:
(a) before and after daily operations; and
(b) especially after having put unclean material or food on it if the surface is subsequently to be used to cut street foods or foods to be consumed raw.
6.3 Cooked and uncooked food should be handled with separate utensils.
6.4 Every vendor should ensure that all defective, damaged, cracked, rusted, chipped and unsuitable appliances and crockery are removed from use and discarded.
6.5 All utensils should be regularly cleaned by thoroughly washing them in warm water containing adequate amount of soap or other suitable detergents and then either immersing them for one-half (1/2) minute in boiling clean water and draining them or, for two (2) minutes in potable water at a temperature of not less than 77°C and draining them.
In the case where non-disposable crockery is used and water at 77°C or boiling temperatures is unavailable, potable water, wash soap or detergent and running water rinse is allowed. However, this method is not preferred.
6.6 Disposable crockery shall be used only once and properly disposed of. In the case where non-disposable crockery is used, the crockery is to be cleaned after each use using the method described for utensils in Section 6.5.
6.7 All appliances are to be maintained in good state of repair.
6.8 All washed and clean utensils and crockery should be handled, stored or transported separately from unclean and used utensils and crockery and other sources of contamination. They shall be stored in a clean and protected area which is not accessible to pests or vermin.
6.9 Only containers made of food grade material, not previously used for non-food use, shall be used.
6.10 Wash basins and sinks for cleaning utensils and washing hands should always be clean and maintained in a good state of repair.
6.11 Towels used for wiping crockery should be clean, handled in a sanitary manner and only be used for that purpose.
6.12 Containers used for table side condiments should be kept clean and maintained in good condition and protected from pests.
6.13 All hand service articles such as napkins, towels and hand wipes should be of the disposable type.
6.14 Hand washing facilities such as hand wash basins, disposable towels and soap should be provided at all times.
7.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR INGREDIENTS
7.2 COOKING AND HANDLING
7.3 SERVING FOOD
7.4 UNSOLD FOOD
7.5 TRANSPORTATION OF STREET FOODS
7.6 FOOD STORAGE
Every vendor should ensure the following:
7.1.1 Supply of ingredients, including ice, must be from known and reliable sources.
7.1.2 The food handling method employed should be such as to minimize the loss of nutrients.
7.1.3 Freshness and wholesomeness of ingredients to maintain quality and safety of food.
7.1.4 Transportation of ingredients should be made in a manner so as to prevent exposure to the environment, spoilage and contamination.
7.1.5 Only permitted food additives should be used and the amount added should follow the specifications provided.
7.2.1 Soak and thoroughly wash fresh vegetables and fruit whether for cooking or consuming raw, with sufficient running potable water, to remove adhering surface contamination.
7.2.2 Where appropriate, wash raw food before using in food preparation to reduce the risk of contamination. Never wash perishable raw food with other foods that will be consumed raw or in a semi-cooked state.
7.2.3 There should be an area for handling, storing, cleaning and preparing raw food ingredients, separate and apart from the cooked, street food display, handling and serving areas.
7.2.4 Thawing: Frozen products, especially frozen vegetables, can be cooked without thawing. However, large pieces of meat or large poultry carcasses often need to be thawed before cooking. When thawing is carried out as an operation separated from cooking this should be performed only in:
(a) a refrigerator or purpose-built thawing cabinet maintained at a temperature of 4°C; or
(b) running potable water maintained at a temperature not above 21°C for a period not exceeding 4 hours; or
(c) a commercial microwave oven only when the food will be immediately transferred to conventional cooking units as part of a continuous cooking process or when the entire, uninterrupted cooking process takes place in the microwave oven.
Note: Hazards associated with thawing include cross-contamination from drip and growth of micro-organisms on the outside before the inside has thawed. Thawed meat and poultry products should be checked frequently to make sure the thawing process is complete before further processing or the processing time should be increased to take into account the temperature of the meat.
7.2.5 The time and temperature of cooking should be sufficient to ensure the destruction of non-spore forming pathogenic micro-organisms.
7.2.6 Water used for the purpose of drinking, preparation of hot or cold drinks and beverages should be of potable water quality, or of clean quality and boiled, or disinfected in any other way such as the use of an appropriate chemical agent.
7.2.7 Ice should be made from potable water. Ice should be handled and stored so as to protect it from contamination. Containers used to transport or store ice should meet the requirements for water containers prescribed by Section 2.19.
7.2.8 Food should not be re-heated more than once and only the portion of the food to be served should be re-heated. A temperature of at least 75°C should be reached in the centre of the food within one hour of removing the food from refrigeration. Lower temperatures may be used for reheating providing the time/temperature combinations used are equivalent in terms of destruction of microorganisms to heating to a temperature of 75°C.
7.2.9 Utensils used for tasting food should be washed immediately after each use.
Every vendor should observe the following:
7.3.1 All vendors purchasing street foods for the purpose of serving or selling must assure that such food is from licensed and reliable sources.
7.3.2 Cooked street foods should not be handled with bare hands. Clean tongs, forks, spoons or disposable gloves should be used when handling, serving or selling food.
7.3.3 All crockery used should be clean and dry and not handled by touching the food contact surfaces.
7.3.4 Plates filled with food should not be stacked one on top of the other during display, storing or serving.
7.3.5 Food grade packing materials should be used.
7.3.6 Printed material should preferably never be used to serve food. Only food grade aluminium foil, waxed paper, food grade plastic and any other suitable material should be used for packing and serving food.
7.3.7 Never blow into plastic bags, wrappers or packages used for food.
7.3.8 All beverages offered for sale should be dispensed only in their individual original sealed containers or from taps fitted to bulk containers and made of food grade plastic or other suitable material. Bulk containers should be covered with tight fitting lids.
7.3.9 Cut fruit or other foods ordinarily consumed in the state in which they are sold may be set out in an enclosed display case, cabinet or similar type of protective device and should be displayed in a manner which will not affect the wholesomeness and cleanliness of such foods.
7.3.10 Food handlers should avoid handling money. If this is unavoidable, the food handler should wash his hands after handling money and before handling food again.
7.3.11 Ready-to-eat foods intended for continuous serving should be protected from environmental contamination and kept at the following holding temperatures:
(a) for food served hot...... 60°C or above;
(b) for food served cold......7°C or below;
(c) for food served frozen..-18°C or below.
7.3.12 A food warmer should be used to maintain continuous holding temperatures (Section 7.3.11 (i)), and should not be used for re-heating purposes (Section 7.2.8).
All unsold cooked food and prepared beverages that cannot be properly preserved should be disposed of in a sanitary manner at the end of the day.
7.5.1 Street foods which require transportation to the point of sale should be placed in a well protected, covered and clean container to avoid contamination
7.5.2 Any vehicle used in transporting food should be clean and in good condition, appropriately equipped to accommodate any special requirements of the food being transported and provide protection from environmental contamination.
7.5.3 Milk should be transported to the point of sale in an insulated container maintained at a maximum temperature of 4°C.
7.5.4 Street foods should not be transported together with raw food and ingredients, animals, toxic substances and any other materials which may contaminate the food.
7.6.1 The food should at all times be kept clean and free from contamination, and be adequately protected from pests, environmental contaminants and stored at proper temperatures where appropriate.
7.6.2 Readily perishable food should be placed or stacked so that it is not likely to be contaminated by contact with raw food, pet food, toxic materials or any other materials which may cause contamination. The bulk of readily perishable foods should be stored in clean containers placed in a clean ice box or refrigerator in which the food should not exceed a temperature 10°C. Quantities displayed for continuous serving should be handled according to the requirements listed in Section 7.3.11.
7.6.3 All dry ingredients should be stored and maintained in their original labelled commercial container or subsequent containers and should be properly labelled as to the content and designed to prevent moisture absorption.
7.6.4 All non-perishable food should be stored in a clean, protected and closed container/cupboard to prevent cross contamination by pests.
7.6.5 Once cleaned, following the requirements of Sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2, the bulk of perishable raw food including wet milled legumes, cereals or pulses should be stored in clean separate containers preferably placed in a clean ice box, a refrigerator or a freezer to prevent spoilage.
7.6.6 Refrigerators and freezers should not be overloaded and their temperatures should be maintained at a maximum of 4°C and -18°C or below, respectively.
7.6.7 All enclosed spaces, cupboards, shelves and racks used for the storage of food should be constructed so as to be easily cleaned and to protect the food from pests.
7.6.8 All food stored in bulk should be stored in an orderly fashion and should be placed so as to facilitate ventilation, inspection and the detection of pests.
7.6.9 All food should be stored and handled separately from toxic, poisonous, deleterious and injurious substances.
7.6.10 The principle "First in, first out" should be applied to stock rotation.
7.6.11 Date marking on all food containers shall be checked before the food is used. Expired food shall not be sold or used for the preparation of food.
8.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
8.2 LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
8.3 LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE
8.4 CUSTOMER FACILITIES
All vendors located in a street food centre should comply with all provisions stated in the officially recognized regulations applicable to street food vendors.
8.2.1 The location of any street food centre is to be approved beforehand by the relevant authority, having taken into consideration the provisions stated in Section 5.1 - Location, of these Guidelines.
8.2.2 The design of the street food centre shall:
(a) be reviewed and approved beforehand by the relevant authority;
(b) provide sufficient and adequate space and orderly placement of vendor stalls, carts, display cases, food preparation, handling, storing, serving and selling areas;
(c) allow for the orderly flow of materials and goods, in and out of the centres, which will prevent possible routes of food contamination;
(d) Allow for the proper placement of client facilities, such as toilets, hand washing and eating facilities and be located or arranged in a manner that prevents routes of food contamination;
(e) provide suitable, sufficient and properly placed areas for solid waste storage and crockery and appliance cleaning, washing and sanitizing;
(f) be adequately ventilated to remove hazardous obnoxious gases and odours, cooking fuel fumes and other offensive airborne materials and provide a continuous and sufficient supply of fresh air to support the activities within the centre;
(g) be provided with sufficient and adequate electrical power supply to support the vendors in the centre to operate appliances, equipment and other implements used in the preparation, handling, storage, serving and selling of food; and
(h) have available an ample supply of potable water, under adequate pressure and of suitable temperature, with adequate facilities for its storage, where necessary, and distribution, and with adequate protection against contamination.
Note: Samples should be taken regularly, but the frequency should depend upon the origin and the usage of the water, e.g. more frequent from private supplies that from public supplies. Chlorine or other suitable disinfectants may be used. If chlorination has been employed checks should be made daily by chemical tests for available chlorine. The point of sampling should preferably be at the point of usage, but occasionally it would be useful to sample at the point of entry of the water to the establishment.
8.2.3 Street food centres shall be properly constructed in a manner using materials approved by the relevant authority, taking into consideration the provisions stated in Section 5.2, Structure, of these Guidelines. In addition to these provisions, street food centres should:
(a) have smooth cement, glazed tile or tarmac paved floors, equipped with properly placed floor drains for the purpose of removing surface water and to facilitate cleaning and sanitizing;
(b) have, where applicable, smooth non-permeable surface walls or partitions, such as glazed tile, to facilitate cleaning and sanitizing;
(c) have, if applicable, a smooth non-absorbent ceiling to facilitate cleaning;
(d) provide sufficient artificial lighting, properly placed to facilitate food preparation, handling, storage, serving and selling for each vendor located at the centre;
(e) provide for smoke hoods and flues above cooking ranges to enable the removal of fuel and cooking gases, smoke and fumes from the centre into the open air.
(f) provide centralized or individualized appliance, crockery, utensil and other implement washing facilities, equipped with hot and cold running potable water, wash basins or sinks with appropriate drains to an approved sewer or drain system, detergent and sanitizing agents to satisfy the proper sanitary and complete cleaning needs of the vendors in the centre; and
(g) comply with any other requirement of the relevant authority related to the structure of street food centres.
8.3.1 Pertaining to liquid waste disposal, street food centres are to:
(a) be equipped with an efficient centralized or individual (for each vendor in the centre) liquid waste disposal system(s) approved by the relevant authority and of suitable size and design to exceed the level of demand for liquid waste disposal at peak levels of activity by the vendors in the centre;
(b) maintain the liquid sewage disposal system in good working condition;
(c) ensure that the liquid waste disposal system exits to a relevant authority approved sewage drain system capable of efficiently carrying away the liquid waste from the centre; and
(d) comply with any other relevant authority requirements related to liquid waste disposal.
8.3.2 Regarding solid waste disposal, street food centres are to have an efficient system for disposal of solid waste complying with all solid waste disposal requirements of the relevant authority, to include:
(a) the allocation of an appropriate and separate amount of space for solid waste storage, located at a convenient but suitably distant location from food preparation, storage, handling, serving or selling areas to prevent contamination;
(b) sufficient number of suitably designed and constructed waterproof solid waste containers with tight fitting lids to adequately contain the volume of accumulated solid waste produced by vendor activity in one day. Containers should be lined with suitable disposable liners or inner containers for securing waste and which are easy to handle at time of disposal;
(c) the daily, and more often if necessary, disposal of solid waste from the street food centre to:(i) rubbish bins approved, designed and intended for the centralized collection of solid waste by garbage service agencies;
(ii) approved sanitary land fill; or
(iii) other disposal methods authorized and approved by the relevant authority.
(d) routine inspection of solid waste disposal areas for the presence or harbourage of pests, taking any and all practical measures to eliminate and further prevent any infestation; and
(e) compliance with any other requirement of the relevant authority related to solid waste disposal.
Street food centres should have sufficient toilet facilities for each sex to accommodate the vendors, their employees and clientele, conveniently located but separate and apart from food preparation, handling, storage, serving and selling areas to prevent contamination of the food. The toilet facilities should be approved and subject to all requirements for such facilities by the relevant authority. Among other requirements the facilities should:
(a) have smooth walls of glazed tile to a height of at least two (2) meters;
(b) should be clean, free of bad odours and provided with a flushing system;
(c) be well lit, ventilated, and routinely cleaned and sanitized and maintained in good working condition;
(d) include hand washing and drying facilities and properly supplied with soap and other needed supplies;
(e) contain posters instructing vendors and employees to wash hands thoroughly after each use of the toilet facilities before returning to work; and
(f) have doors which are equipped with self-closing devices.
In June 1997 the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted three newly revised basic texts on food hygiene. These texts are now published officially in this supplement to Volume 1B of the Codex Alimentarius. Their wide use and understanding by governments, regulatory authorities, food industries, all food handlers and consumers will ensure that food is safe suitable for human consumption.