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Annotated Bibliography: Africa and the Middle East

Bozena Stomal and Jean-Yves Weigel

1. Abdolhay, H. 1996. Aquaculture status and development in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization. 28 p. [Aquaculture Department, IFRTO, P.O. Box 14155-6116, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran]

A preliminary historical overview shows how aquaculture is relatively new in Iran, indicating the various production systems in place. Traditionally, supply and demand for fish products has been low. The author describes conditions affecting the mobilization of different inputs and how the different markets operate, especially with regard to the supply of juveniles or fingerlings and feed. A second part exposes and analyzes the institutional structure as it exists and gives suggestions for improving this structure.

2. Abouhala, A. 1995. L’élevage de la dorade et du loup dans la lagune de Nador (Maroc). In: Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes. Volume 14. MEDRAPII-CIHEAM-IFREMER. pp. 91-111.

"Seabream and seabass rearing in Mediterranean countries has undergone significant development since the 1980s. Ever increasing production has led to a considerable fall in prices. Fierce competition on the Italian market, the main outlet for both species, together with the recession and monetary crisis have worsened the situation. The analysis of the profitability factors of Mediterranean sea farms depends on the economic standards taken into consideration. While certain countries enjoy aid and incentives which even go towards financing various farming costs, other countries have to assume added investment costs, particularly for research or site conditioning. Sea bream and sea bass rearing began in Morocco in 1986. Two rearing systems are currently in practice: an intensive cage system located in the lagoon; and an extensive earthpond system. A case is presented describing intensive gilt-head sea bream and sea bass production in the Nador Lagoon." [from Abstract]

3. Akpan, O.E. 1973. The economics of fish farming in Western Nigeria. An extended paper submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan. [University of Ibadan, Nigeria]

"This paper studies pond fish culture in Western Nigeria and discovered that pond fish culture is an enterprise which is viable. A well-built fish dam is a lifetime investment capable of fully paying back its fixed (investment) cost in 5 to 10 years at the maximum. The estimated cost of N 750 per hectare of small-scale ponds appears to be safe and this could be fully paid back in three years. With a proper management, a 4-ha pond stocked with tilapia is capable of yielding a gross margin of N 380 as against N 850.00 when cultured with carp." [from Abstract]

4. ALCOM. 1994a. Joint evaluation mission by SADC recipient countries, donor governments (Belgium, Sweden) and FAO. ALCOM Programme: Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme and Utilization of Small Water Bodies for Aquaculture and Fisheries. FI: GCP/INT/436/SWE; FI: GCP/INT/555/SWE; FI: GCP/RAF/277/BEL 138 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"The ALCOM Programme’s purpose has been to assist SADC member countries to investigate aspects of aquaculture development, and to test and demonstrate methods and approaches that are socially and economically viable, as well as technically feasible. This is carried out through small pilot projects. The present joint evaluation mission’s purpose is to examine the experience gained and results obtained to date.

The Programme’s results have been prominent, especially with the outputs in extension methodology development and application in eastern Zambia, a country which has been recently identified as having the highest poverty rate in Africa. It indicates the Programme’s potential to contribute to alleviate poverty through food security in the region. For projects to be successful in poverty alleviation, the social and economic objectives need to be balanced; gender issues need to be taken into account; and potential beneficiaries need to be involved in project design and implementation. These are some of the characteristics of ALCOM’s efforts in Zambia. There are good prospects for replicating them in Mozambique and Tanzania". [from Summary of Main Findings and Recommendations]

5. ALCOM. 1994b. Aquaculture into the 21stst century in southern Africa. ALCOM Report No.15. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"This report presents the findings of the Working Group on the Future of ALCOM, which was appointed by the fifth Steering Committee Meeting in February 1992. The Working Group met three times during 1992 and 1993. It gathered information and data on the status and trends in aquaculture in the SADC region, SADC’s and governments’ policies and plans, and donor policies and support to the sector. It analyzed the outlook for aquaculture development (inland fish farming, fisheries and aquaculture on reservoirs, and marine and brackishwater aquaculture) and development needs in a ten-year perspective." [from Introduction]. In addition, macro-economic factors are considered for inland, marine and brackishwater aquaculture.

6. ALCOM. 1992. Aquaculture in southern Africa: a sketchbook. Sketches by Jonathan King. Harare, Zimbabwe, FAO. 60 p. [ALCOM, FAO / UN, PO Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"This publication presents a number of sketches on aquaculture in southern Africa. The artist, Jonathan King, drew the sketches during a two-month assignment for ALCOM, which included travels to Zambia and Tanzania apart from Zimbabwe. The sketches take up the bulk of this book. Supplementing them is some factual text about aquaculture in the region ". [from Foreword]

7. Ali, S.M. 1985. Final report 1979-1985/Financial, technical and administrative report of Sudan - IDRC Oyster Culture Research Project (Draft).

8. Allsopp, W.H.L., L’Heureux, R. and Yte Wongbe, A. 1988. Rapport de la mission d’évaluation du Projet IVC/87/001/B "Développement de la Pisciculture en Milieu Rural, phase III", PNUD. Côte d’Ivoire, FAO. Unpublished typescript. 34p.+5 appendixes.

This paper evaluates the project for the development of rural aquaculture in Côte d’Ivoire. Although most rural fish farming is carried out in small ponds by smallholders, the tendency towards the development of larger commercial units (1.5 to 5.5 ha) is very strong and should be encouraged. As such farms have had outstanding results, the authors believe that they should be regarded as a model for the development of rural aquaculture in Côte d’Ivoire.

9. Al-Sahli, M.J. and Dass, S.M. 1995. Aquaculture in Saudia Arabia. World Aquaculture 26(2):33-34. [Department of Aquaculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh-11195, Saudi Arabia]

After discussing the country’s aquafarming potential, the authors examine some constraints which affect the availability of production factors (land, capital and labour), and the comparative advantages of Saudi Arabia. Finally, they raise environmental considerations and the economic consequences of the different biotechnical options.

10. Ambali, A.J.D. 1996. The relationship between domestication and genetic diversity of Oreochromis species in Malawi: oreochromis shiranus shiranus (Boulenger) and oreochromis shiranus chilwae (Trewavas). Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

"Socio-economic analysis of small-scale farms in Malawi showed that grow-out operations were economically viable primarily because pond inputs comprised recycled on-farm and household waste. The predominance of integrated crop/livestock/fish farming system was a favourable indicator of the possibility of involving farmers in community-based aquaculture biodiversity conservation programmes at farm level. The programmes would benefit from the knowledge and experience farmers had already acquired in conserving indigenous breeds of livestock and crops." [from Abstract]

11. Anadu, D.I. 1996. Aquaculture Development in Nigeria. Aquaculture Magazine March/April 1996:37-49. [Donald I. Anadu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria]

Aquaculture in Nigeria is analyzed from the perspective of its historical development, incumbent facilities, infrastructures and policies. Nigeria has taken some positive steps toward aquaculture development over the past twenty years. There has been increased awareness and production in fisheries resources, both marine and fresh water. Fish farming has grown steadily. As a result of the growing population, however, Nigerian fisheries production falls well short of the demand for fisheries products and animal proteins.

The problems of aquaculture development in Nigeria are identified and analyzed, culminating in a series of recommendations: "A more aggressive and intensive fish farming and management practice is needed, including the farming of species other than fishes, such as shrimps, crayfish, crabs and maybe oysters. There is enormous demand for fresh and brackishwater crayfish (crawfish) in the Nigerian market, yet there is no record of any attempts to farm them. There is a need for: more comprehensive use of the inland waters for stocking of adequate fish species; the implementation of government aquaculture policies to the grassroots; improvement and enforcement of marine and inland fisheries legislation for conservation purposes; increased budgetary allocation to the fisheries sub-sector and proper monitoring; provision of credits to fish farmers; the utilization of local materials in aquaculture practices; the use of trained practising professionals in project design and supervision; and finally, the mobilization of the community for fisheries development are recommended." [from Conclusions and Recommendations]

12. Andrianaivojaona, CH., Kasprzyk, Z.W. and Dasylva, G. 1992. Pêche et Aquaculture à Madagascar. Bilan Diagnostic. Ministère de l’Elevage et des Ressources Halieutiques, Direction des Ressources Halieutiques. 154 p. [Organisation des Nation Unies pour l’Alimentation at l’Agriculture, Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement Antananarivo, Madagascar]

This assessment investigates every aspect of the fisheries sector, including: its role in the national economy; its halieutic potential and the degree to which it is exploited; descriptions of different marine and inland fisheries; aquaculture; infrastructures and means of transportation; the export and import of fisheries products; marketing; and questions of institutional support. As far as aquaculture is concerned, it presents the different stages of its development and present status.

13. Anon. 1996a. Evaluation de l’action pour le développement de l’aquaculture au Niger (ADAN) et de la filière aquacole. Rapport final. Ministère de la Coopération, Direction du Développement. 71 p. [SEPIA Conseil, 13, avenue de la Gare, 78181 Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Cedex, France]

This report evaluates the multi-phase aquaculture project on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming in floating cages on the River Niger. Following the initial phase (1981-1986), during which production techniques were adapted to the Nigerian context and economically-viable extension methods were elaborated, Phase II (1986-1990) enabled the production system to be extended to private operators and the whole vertically-integrated aquaculture venture to be introduced. The major goal for Phase III (1990-1995) was to render every component of the vertically-integrated aquaculture autonomous and economically viable. Each compnent must act according to the rules of the market economy. The Fishermen’s Association of Niger was created for the purpose. It has had to take over from the project vis-à-vis its technical and marketing functions, and as a credit agency and feed producer. Analysis of the technical and economic results at the end of Phase III shows the project’s outstanding achievements, but the economic viability of this aquaculture venture has not been proved.

14. Anon. 1996b. Schéma Directeur de la Crevetticulture en Guinée. (Rapport de synthèse). Republique de Guinée, Ministère des Peches et de l’Aquaculture/Fonds Africain de Développement. Report prepared by SEPIA and ROCHE International. 78p.+8+10 tabeaux. [SEPIA Conseil, 13, avenue de la Gare, 78181 Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Cedex, France]

This document is a synthesis of the seven-volume final report of the Master Plan for Shrimp Farming in Guinea. It contains two sections: first, the Master Plan itself and second, a macro-economic analysis of the development programme proposed by the Master Plan. The studies done for the Master Plan have helped achieve the following: (i) to draw up an inventory of the favourable sites for shrimp farming in coastal areas of Guinea; (ii) to define shrimp production techniques adapted to these sites; (iii) to evaluate the potential for shrimp production in Guinea and determine the types of exploitation; (iv) to develop the marketing strategy; (v) to draw up a 10-year strategy for production development, taking into consideration the environmental, social, economic and institutional constraints; (vi) to perform economic analysis of the various types of exploitation proposed, and study the conditions for their profitability; (vii) to define and assess the institutional and financial measures necessary for developing production and; (viii) to define the action to be taken in the fields of research, training, administrative organization and regulations supporting the development of shrimp farming in Guinea.

The report argues that the climatic and geomorphological conditions of Guinea’s coastal areas are very favourable for shrimp farming and that the European market - a natural outlet for products from the coast of West Africa - offers great development potential for tropical shrimps. Logically, therefore, shrimp farming should develop well in Guinea. The development of shrimp farming has already begun with the creation of the Koba shrimp farm whose performance has been very promising.

15. Anon. 1993. Développement de l’aquaculture de crevette. Programme d’utilisation de la ferme pilote de Grand Lahou. Republique de Côte d’Ivoire, Ministère de l’Agriculture et des Ressources Animales. 68 p.

In 1988, the Blohorn company (part of the Unilever group) decided to set up an industrial shrimp farm near Grand Lahou, in Côte d’Ivoire. In 1989, before implementing the project at the industrial level (200 ha having been bought for the purpose), Blohorn built a 16-ha pilot farm in order to test the technical and economic parameters of the intensive industrial farming of P. monodon. In view of the very low overall output obtained during the three-year trial exploitation (1989-1992), Blohorn decided not to proceed with the industrial project. The company withdrew from operations despite having invested 2 billion CFA francs in the pilot farm. This report describes and analyzes the Blohorn aquaculture pilot operation within the context of the following: (i) the world evolution of shrimp farming and consumption; (ii) tropical Africa, with reference to aquaculture pilot operations in Madagascar and Guinea; and (iii) the Côte d’Ivoire and the main constraints there to the development of aquaculture.

16. Anon. 1992. Les producteurs privés d’alevins en milieu rural dans la région pilote du Vakinankaratra (Madagascar). Document technique No. 5. Projet promotion de l’aquaculture et privatisation de la production d’alevins. FI/DP/MAG/88/05. [In:van der Hoeven, G.; Leendertse, K. and Townsley, P. (comps.) Socio-economic surveys in fisheries in Africa, an annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 837 Revision 1.]

This report presents the first analysis of a fry production system in the Vakinankaratra region. The objective of the study was to analyze the production system of the private producers, in order to better understand the diverse obstacles that stop expansion of this promising activity for the villagers.

17. Anon. 1987a. Le développement de la mariculture en Libye. INFOFISH Marketing Digest, March-April 1987:91-95. [INFOSAMAK, Manama, Bahrain]

Mariculture is shown to be the only viable possibility for aquafarming in Libya. Techno-economic alternatives to the fish farming of seabass and seabream are given, while the nutritional and macro-economic consequences of these alternatives are explained.

18. Anon. 1987b. Aquaculture in Egypt: an old tradition and a bright future. INFOFISH Marketing Digest (4). [INFOSAMAK, Manama, Bahrain]

"With inputs such as artificial feeds, water management and seed production techniques, aquaculture holds immense potential for growth in Egypt. The Government has, therefore, set out to develop this sector. Besides providing additional food supplies, aquaculture will also help improve the socio-economic conditions of the rural population." [Abstract]

19. Anon. 1987c. Socio-cultural, socio-economic, bio-environmental, and biotechnical aspects of aquaculture in rural development. Reports prepared for the Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme. FAO FI/GCP/INT/436/SWE-1. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

Reports are given of studies conducted in southern Africa regarding the integration of aquaculture in rural development, which investigate the following four aspects: socio-cultural, socio-economic, bio-environmental and biotechnical.

20. Anon. 1982. Coastal aquaculture development in Mozambique. Pilot Project for the Development of Aquaculture for the Socio-economic Improvement of Coastal Communities in the Maputo Bay area. FAO ADCP/MR/83/18. Rome, Italy, FAO/UNDP Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme.

21. Anon (ed.) undated. Proceedings, SADCC Workshop "The Development of Village Level and Commercial Aquaculture in the SADCC Region". Kariba, Zimbabwe, September 29 - October 3, 1986. Lilongwe, Fisheries Department. (mimeo).

22. Ayinla, O.A., Oladosu, G.A., Ajiboye, M.O. and Ansa, E.J. 1994. Pollution and health hazards of the integrated livestock-cum-fish-farming system as observed in Nigeria. In: The CIFA Seminar on African Inland Fisheries, Aquaculture and the Environment. Harare, Zimbabwe, December 5-7, 1994. [African Regional Aquaculture Centre (ARAC) of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), PMB 5122 Port Harcourt, Nigeria]

"Adverse environmental conditions induced by heavy loading of fish ponds with livestock manure constitute serious pollution and health hazards. Losses in the form of fish mortalities, poor growth performance and the outbreak of pathogenic diseases of fish and man have been observed. The extension of well documented information on the practice of integrated livestock-cum-fish-farming will go a long way in solving these problems." [Abstract]

23. Balarin, J.D. 1988a. Development planning for tilapia farming in Africa. In: Pullin, R.S.V., Bhukaswar, T., Tonguthai, K. and MacLean, J. (eds.). The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 15. Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Fisheries, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [ICLARM/GTZ Africa Aquaculture Poject, Zomba, Malawi]

"Tilapia farming in Africa has a long but fragmented tradition. Pond culture activities became widespread from 1940 to 1960, but subsequently declined. Recently there has been renewed interest. This paper gives a historical account of tilapia farming in Africa and puts forward factors to be considered when planning tilapia culture. Socio-economic, agro-climatic, economic and social constraints to aquaculture development are discussed. Attention is paid to the rationale for the selection of appropriate systems (particularly integrated farming), species, and the degree of intensification. Marketing, resource appraisals, manpower availability and infrastructural support are considered. Climatic data are used to present an indicative tilapia farming zonation of Africa." [Abstract]

24. Balarin, J.D. 1988b. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 17. Sudan. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.17. FIRI/C770.17. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Sudan’s mariculture has perhaps one of the earliest and best documented histories. Mother-of-pearl shell was cultivated as early as 1905 but collapsed in 1923 and is now being reactivated. Fish farming started at the El Shagara Fish Farm in 1951, during which time stocking of ‘haffirs’ was also advocated. Progress has been slow and several activities have subsequently been abandoned. Currently, only 25.2 ha are functional producing 20 t/yr mainly from estate or private farms. In the south, plans are underway to reactivate over 50 ha of ponds. Fisheries administration and research in the norh and south are by two separate, autonomous bodies. Lack of trained personnel, low government priority accorded to fish farming, poor extension and research facilities, are all attributed as the cause of slow progress in aquaculture. On the basis of the environmental, technological and socio-economic conditions, available fish species and existing infrastructure it is concluded that Sudan has a below average scope for a successful aquaculture industry. The greatest opportunity for development exists near the main markets and especially in combination with existing irrigation schemes. Possible zonation is indicated and integrated practices may be more beneficial in remote community areas." [from Abstract]

25. Balarin, J.D. 1988c. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 18. Ghana. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.18. FIRI/C770.18. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Current development policy in Ghana encourages aquaculture and the African Development Bank is embarking on an investment and loan scheme. Any recent irrigat on projects are obliged to allocate 5% of the area to fish culture. The Fisheries Department (FD) is active in extension and the Institute of Aquatic Biology (IAB) as a research base institution is constructing a large experimental farm at Akosombo. In all, the FD has 17 stations of which only 7 to 8 are operational. The National Service Board (NSB) has recently started up a fish culture extension programme as part of their Youth training services.

Ghana has recently entered a major economic reform brought about by a collapse in its major export industry, cocoa. Consequently inflation is high and cost of living has risen but fish still remain a relatively cheap protein source. Demand is high but aquaculture development has not increased to meet that demand. Reasons are numerous such as lack of trained manpower, poor extension support and limited government expenditure, lack of funds or loans, poor in-house data, no successful demonstration and a growing history of failure. FD efforts to help however are hampered by lack of funds for vehicles and support services. Potential for development is enormous wherever water is available, especially in the south which is a warm lowland zone conducive to tilapia production all year round.

Examining all aspects of environmental, technical and socio-economic related factors, Ghana has a favourable chance of success in fish farming but there is need for major extension support." [from Abstract]

26. Balarin, J.D. 1987. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 12. Malawi. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.12. FIRI/C770.12. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Malawi has a relatively short history of aquaculture research. Over 30 species have been tested, of which nine are exotic and only a few are considered favourable. Even then the use of the best candidate, common carp, has been limited by the fisheries policy preventing its introduction into the Lake Malawi watershed. Tilapias, therefore, are considered to have the best prospect there. The use of cyprinids is also encouraged in the Lower Shire Valley. Trout and freshwater prawns hold promise for commercial development but the local technology is limited.

The main factor determining aquaculture development is the extension service. Altitude appears as the prime criterion for site selection and Malawi has a marked fish culture zonation, the greater part of the country being suitable for carp. The perennial nature of the rainfall implies that highland areas of high rainfall or permanent water bodies are a suitable source of fish-farm water supply. So too are the lakeshore plains, Phalombe-Mulauji plain and medium-altitude areas where water is abundant. Livestock distribution, crop production and irrigation schemes indicate the potential for integrated practices. There is also a considerable surplus of agro-industrial by-products which could be used as fish feeds in ponds.

On the basis of the environmental, technological and socio-economic conditions, it can be concluded that Malawi has an above average chance of success in aquaculture. To this end, an EEC- funded project is about to start. The paradox of the situation is that regions which could benefit most from fish culture are too cold for the favoured tilapia species. As carp is not legally permitted, there is an urgent need to review the approach to upland fish culture techniques." [from Abstract]

27. Balarin, J.D. 1986. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 9. Ethiopia. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.9. FIRI/C770.9. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Despite the fact that fish can be eaten during religious fast days, the fishery does not appear to have developed to any significance. With an estimated MSY of 46 000-150 000 t/yr it is possible to achieve a per capita consumption of 0.8-2.5 kg/yr by the turn of the century. Current production is less than 4 000 t/yr, providing a low 0. kg/ind/y consumption. To attain the maximum potential, fishery resources output would have to increase annually by 2 900-9 400 t/yr to the year 2000. However, in order to achieve a balanced nutrition the annual increase would have to be 35 000 t/yr. Fish proteins are therefore urgently needed to improve nutritional budgets. In the short term, the development of the existing fishery resources could alleviate the problem but, in the long term, alternative sources of production such as aquaculture would be necessary.

Although there is a desperate need for animal protein as well as a religious tradition for fish eating, and although there are relatively large fishery resources, Ethiopia has a poor history of fishery development and a virtually non-existant fish farming industry. The Fisheries Department has been more concerned with fish stocking in waterbodies. Fish introductions were initiated as early as 1925, but only recently in 1975 were the first fish ponds built at Sibeta as a Fisheries Research Station. Subsequently, an IFS grant for research was obtained and more recently the stocking of livestock water storage reservoirs has been activated. Tilapia form 80-88.8% of fishery landings and, together with common carp, are the most likely fish farm candidate. But areas suitable to intensive tilapia production are lowlands and semi-desert areas where water resources are usually limited." [from Abstract]

28. Balarin, J.D. 1986. National reviews for aquaculture in Africa. 8. Egypt. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.8. FIRI/C770.8. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"It appears that the scope for aquaculture development is enormous and that support services and trained manpower are being developed to exploit this potential. There are a number of problems however. Primarily, seed supply is dependent to a large extent on wild-caught fry. Hatcheries for controlled breeding are necessary. Soils in most areas are saline and unstable, requiring special system designs. Established technology is an old tradition and its modernization may represent a conflict of interests alienating extension workers. Most developments are of magnitude never before tested in Egypt and experience is necessary before full protection can be realized. Large, externally-funded projects have recently materialized to help realize the potential.

Considering the environmental, technological and socio-economic conditions, as well as available fish species and existing infrastructure, it can be concluded that aquaculture development in Egypt could develop rapidly to meet demand, provided some caution is exercised. Careful site selection and system choice are essential. Tilapia may not have as productive a potential as mullet due to poor growth in winter, but they are readily available, while common carp remains an unknown entity. Possible zonation is suggested for areas of water availability and new resources are enumerated. The likely trend of aquaculture development seems to favour semi-intensive, polyculture operations integrated with some form of agricultural development." [from Abstract]

29. Balarin, J.D. 1985. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 6. Cameroon. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.6. FIRI/C770.6. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Aquaculture development has a 35-year history in Cameroon and has been assisted by FAO, France, Oxfam, USAID, the US Peace Corps and the World Bank. The Peace Corps Volunteer (PCV) programme was once hailed as a good example of successful fish farm extension. Recent changes in the fisheries administration from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries, have created a complex, confused situation, greatly hampering extension work. There are 38 fish culture stations but all are in need of renovation and improved management. Over 12 000 family ponds were at one stage in operation. Today, between 1 000 and 4 000 only are functional with the assistance of 110 extension agents and 26 PCVs. Production is between

23-200 t/yr, but statistics are confused. A recent survey has set about creating an inventory of fish stations and large-scale fish projects, as well as examining prospects for commercial ventures.

Water resources are good, over 40 000 million m3, however climatically only certain areas are suited to intensive and semi-intensive operations. Food by-products and manures are relatively abundant and there is scope for rural as well as large-scale commercial ventures. The infrastructural and industrial status of Cameroon is sufficiently well-developed to support this. Tilapia is favoured, but carp is more suitable for high altitude areas and shrimp culture is possible. Cool conditions in high plateau regions may restrict production during the winter months.

Therefore, Cameroon has a high rating for success in aquaculture but there remains an urgent need to train middle- to high-cadre staff to better manage stations, revitalize existing units and remotivate extension staff." [from Abstract]

30. Balarin, J.D. 1985. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 10. Uganda. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.10. FIRI/C770.10. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Aquaculture development in Uganda has a relatively recent history starting with the construction of the Kajansi Experimental Fish Farm. Renowned for its research in pond culture, this station has provided the mainstay to rural extension by distributing over 550 000 fingerlings since 1968. There are 14 fish culture stations but they are all in need of repair. Whereas effective extension services by the early 1960s had established over 11 000 ponds totalling 410 ha and yielding 800 to 900 t/yr, today less than 25% of them are still functional. Poor equipment, lack of transport, economic hardships and prevailing conditions have practically stopped the fingerling distributions. Average pond yields have declined from 400 to 900 kg/ha/yr to less than 200 kg/ha/yr. Although no commercial projects were developed, some rural farms are of a substantial size, implying an interest in semi-commercial production.

There is a need to reactivate government fish culture stations and retrain extension personnel. The present economic situation precludes any commercial development and any rehabilitation of rural fish farms would require external aid. By far the most wide spread farmed fish are Cyprinus carpio (83%) and tilapia. The greater part of Uganda has an altitude/temperature regime unsuitable for all-year-round growth of a warmwater species and carp, therefore, is better adapted for fish farming.

Considering prevailing conditions, available fish species and resource infrastructure, the reactivation of rural fish farming could be possible. Careful species selection is important, tilapia being best suited to lowland areas and common carp to higher zones. But to be effective, priority needs to be given to the rehabilitation of the seed centres and to the re-organization of an effective extension service." [from Abstract]

31. Balarin, J.D. 1985. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 7. Kenya. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.7. FIRI/C770.7. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Aquaculture has a long history, over 50 years, and Kenya has been responsible for a large portion of pioneer work in Africa. Current plans include a 44 500 t/yr increase by 1988 in fish production through aquaculture, from activities planned by the Fisheries Department, LBDA and TARDA. This sector also receives a substantial contribution from various aid agencies. Plans are underway to train over 800 extensionists by 1988. A new fisheries training institute is under construction and existing research institutes are to take a more active part in development.

Trout and tilapia are the most popular fish, and carp is being encouraged. Other species are still very much at an experimental stage. Seed centres provide limited seed. More are needed and any large-scale unit needs to be self-sufficient. Climatically, appropriate species choice is important for success. Limited areas are suited to intensive operations and most areas are marginal, favouring temperate species. The well-developed national infrastructure, the feed manufacture industry and the availability of food by-products, provide support for semi-intensive/intensive operations with a reasonably good technical manpower pool available in the country to ensure success. Site location and project feasibility are important to economic viability, especially in view of the likely competition between farm-raised fish and fishery products. Intensive units need to be near distribution routes, service centres and have a good market outlet and supply line. Irrigation schemes have a potential for the development of aquaculture, but rural schemes need rehabilitation and existing fish farms require a more practical and dynamic technical assistance. There is a need to implement the available technology to improve production in Kenya." [from Abstract]

32. Balarin, J.D. 1984a. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 5. Benin. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.5. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"There is particular concern for traditional forms of aquaculture developed in Benin (acadjas and whedos). Fish farmers have been seriously harmed by changes in salinity in Lake Nokoué and by the rising price - due to the deforestation of areas near lagoons - of wood used to install the acadjas. A dam was built on Lake Nokoué to control the water level, and methods to replace acadjas such as net enclosures are currently being experimented. Acadjas provide an annual yield of 2 to 38 t/ha. After construction, average yield increases exponentially with time. Productivity is also directly related to branch density. Whedos are used in flood plains where fish are trapped in artificial trenches when the water level rises and then subsides. An annual production of 1.5 - 2.1 t/ha is possible. Problems with this system are examined, emphasizing the need to conduct in-depth studies in order to better understand how they work and improve construction techniques.

Fish farming in ponds was started back in 1954. Only a few ponds operating with UNDP and EDF aid are still being used. A recent project farming fish in enclosures has been initiated with a new hatchery and a current total of 55 ponds. Production is definitely better than in acadjas, but capital expenditures are much higher and net income from investment is proportionally lower.

The social aspects of introducing new technologies, as well as the current infrastructure situation and the current level of economic development in Benin, suggest that it is necessary to start reintroducing acadjas. Moreover, alternatives to branches must be studied, reforestation programmes implemented, and biological studies done. The development of any other form of aquaculture would mean setting up demonstration units and breeding ponds, as well as training extensionists. The prospects are good for fish farming in ponds in the south and west, but the northeast may be too dry. Studies recently carried out in these areas should make it possible to draw up a development programme." [from Abstract]

33. Balarin, J.D. 1984b. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 4. Togo. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.4. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Acadja techniques were brought into Lake Togo, but had to be halted for creation in villages; both these and state-run farms gradually deteriorated and were finally abandoned. In certain cases, this situation can be attributed to the seasonal nature of the water flow, but in general, the ponds were abandoned because public authorities neglected breeding farms and extension services.

The only new development is research on cage farming which was begun in 1981 and is coming to an end. The development of aquafarming was recently reactivated by a non-governmental organization with the help of Peace Corps volunteers. A long-term programme is underway in the wettest part of the western highlands where the Agou-Akaplolo breeding centre is located." [from Abstract]

34. Balarin, J.D. 1984c. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 1. Zimbabwe. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.1. FIRI/C770.1. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"A large portion of aquaculture practices in Zimbabwe consists in the stocking of reservoirs with fish. Generally, tilapia are chosen, but up to 31 exotic species have also been introduced. To date, the farming of trout and freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium) has been developed to a commercial level. Trout were the first actively farmed fish, with trials initiated as early as 1910, but the production is limited by the small market demand. Tilapias are considered more generally acceptable. There are five fishery stations with limited research and extension facilities, managed by the Branch of Aquatic Ecology of the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management. They serve to provide farmers with fish juveniles for dam stocking.

Private investors have shown an increasing interest in commercial fish farming, and a large number of pliot projects has been initiated. However, lack of technical expertise has resulted in poor site selection, inappropriate technology, and lack of genetic control. It has led to a poor history of failures. The long isolation of Zimbabwe before independence has aggravated the situation, depriving the country of scientific and technical exchanges. The attitude that fish culture was only a sideline to a major farming activity has also hampered development. Current national programmes are underway to hire technical expertise, establish demonstration centres and build an aquaculture institute for training, research and seed supply. Progress, however, has been slow for lack of funding.

Considering the environmental, technological and socio-economical conditions, the available fish species and the existing infrastructure, it is concluded that aquaculture development has a favourable chance of success in Zimbabwe. Possible zonation is indicated, and it is felt that where sites are available near water, in the lowveld areas, tilapia farming is possible both at subsistence and commercial levels. Unfortunately, such areas tend to be dry and remote, so that fish farms could be established in small isolated areas only." [from Abstract]

35. Balarin, J.D. 1984d. National reviews for aquaculture in Africa. 2. Liberia. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.2. FIRI/C770.2. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Aquaculture has a long history in Liberia, with early projects started in the early 1950s. However, recent technical assistance in 1979 helped reactivate village ponds. Over 300 ponds are now in operation, producing about 4.5 t in 1982. The Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture operates a research station at Suakoko, which function as seed and demonstration centre. Activities have been hampered by lack of funds and understaffing so that extension effort is low. Similarly training is limited to the input by Peace Corps Volunteers and each of them has trained a counterpart extension aide. Generally small ponds are built and stocked with tilapia (especially O. niloticus), feeding with rice bran, composted rice stalk greens and other vegetable wastes. A large-scale fish farm was started in 1979 but was soon abandoned due to operational difficulties.

Liberia has made slow progress in fish culture development. There is an ever increasing need to expand activities. Water resources are abundant and if only 10% of existing rice paddies were put to integrated use, nearly 5 000 t/yr of fish could be produced. Small-scale projects are favoured but institutional development is in need of revitalization, with an emphasis on the training of extension agents as well as on organized supporting services and pilot demonstrations." [from Abstract]

36. Balarin, J.D. 1984e. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 3. Sierra Leone. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.3. FIRI/C770.3. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"The main fish landings are coastal and isolated inland floodplains. At the source, fish fetch a low price and are sold fresh. Distant markets receive processed fish at nearly five times the landed price due to the cost of transportation and handling. Consequently, inland populations receive proportionately less fish protein and these areas are likely to benefit most from aquaculture projects.

Aquaculture endeavours to date have included a 10-year oyster culture research programme and a number of integrated agricultural development projects administered by the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources, with foreign assistance.

To date over 149 ponds have been built through the extension services of 11 extension agents and seven US volunteers. Ponds are generally integrated into existing rice-paddy schemes and wastes from rice production are used as fish feed. A fish culture station exists at Makali, where seeds and demonstrations are provided. O. niloticus is the sole fish farm candidate attaining yields of 2 500 kg/ha/year. National production amounts only to 3-4 t/year.

Aquaculture has only recently been introduced to Sierra Leone and has made slow but favourable progress. Prospects are good for further development. Water resources are abundant and even if 10% of existing rice paddies were used, over 8 000 t/year fish production could be possible. The socio-economic and infrastructural conditions limit intensive large-scale developments, but small-scale projects are favoured. Climatic conditions are ideal, with perhaps a need for caution due to possible cold conditions in the north creating a loss in production for not more than 1-2 months. There is however, an urgent need to train further extension agents. Aspects of pond nutrition also need attention." [from Abstract]

37. Balarin, J.D. 1984f. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 11. Tanzania. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.11. FIRI/C770.11. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Baobab Farm Ltd, Mombasa, Kenya]

"Aquaculture was first introduced in 1949. Fish farming mainly developed in rural fish ponds and in farm dams. Statistics suggest that between 6 000 and 10 000 ponds were built, of which only 10% are still currently functional. Most of these ponds are located in the Ruvuma and Mbeya regions. Recently there has been interest shown in commercial large-scale farms for shrimp or tilapia, but other than a trout farm at Ngare Sera Mt no such development has taken place. The general interest, therefore, has been in tilapia and the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism has established about 15 stations with 58 ponds as seed and demonstration centres. A number of these stations have been recently rehabilitated under a FAO/UNDP Programme. The Fisheries Department has a limited budget for aquaculture and transport is problematic. Most stations have no offices and regional administrators operate out of district headquarters too far removed from the stations to ensure proper administration. Records of activities are therefore poor and there is an urgent need to obtain a census of the status of these stations.

The potential of a site greatly depends on an adequate water supply. In Tanzania, areas of high water surplus border the most productive fishery zones. Major rivers offer permanent water but because of the seasonality of the rainfall, most areas experience a dry season during which small streams may dry up. The most important feature, however, is temperature zonation which indicates that most of Tanzania is too cool for all year production of tilapia. Carp therefore might be favoured. Considering all aspects of environmental, technical and socio-economic factors it is concluded that aquaculture development has a favourable chance of success, but major extension support is needed." [from Abstract]

38. Balarin, J.D., Chishawa, A. and Evans, R. 1995. Commercial fish farming poised to take off in Zimbabwe. ALCOM News 23:10-11. [ALCOM, FAO/UN, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"The FAO Regional Office in Accra, Ghana, recently initiated a survey of aquaculture development in the region. The directory generated for Zimbabwe lists 57 commercial fish farmers. The results suggests that there is a recent resurgence of interest in large-scale aquaculture in Zimbabwe." [From Foreword]

39. Banda, G.A. 1987. Smallholder aquaculture development in Malawi: a preliminary socio-economic study of smallholder fish farming in Mwanza and Zomba districts. Zomba, Malawi, ICLARM Africa Office. (mimeo).

40. Barg, U.C. 1992. Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 328. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 122 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"This document is directed to aquaculture development specialists, coastal resource use planners and government officials involved and interested in the planning and management of coastal aquaculture development within the wider context of resource use in coastal areas. It is intended to serve in the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture. Guidelines are given for improved environmental management of coastal aquaculture based on an overview of selected published experiences and concepts. Potential adverse environmental effects of and on coastal aquaculture practices are addressed with consideration of the main socio-economic and bio-physical factors. Methodologies are presented for the assessment and monitoring of environmental hazards and impacts of coastal aquaculture. Selected environmental management options are described for application both at the policy level and farm level." [from Abstract]

41. Ben Yami, M. 1996a. Demand and supply of fish products in North Africa. perspectives and implications for food security. Doc ronéo. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries Department. 17 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

The author describes regional characteristics in detail and focuses on the generally low consumption of fish products in two groups of countries: (i) Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco, with an annual per capita consumption between 7.5 and 9.5 kg; (ii) Algeria and Libya, with consumption at less than 4 kg/yr. A general presentation of fish and aquaculture products on the market is followed by an evaluation of the economic development of fish products and an estimation of the overall market for the year 2010. The author emphasizes the issue of population growth, and thus the economic and nutritional importance of an adequately developed fishing sector and of an aquaculture sector intended for export, as well as for the domestic market.

The author details intervention policies pertaining to this sector and the role which can be played by the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean (GFCM) and, especially, the Mediterranean Regional Aquaculture Programme (MEDRAP) in the elaboration of such policies. He advocates legislation favourable to the private sector. Finally, there is mention of the need for integrated coastal facilities to monitor pollution risks and the role of the GFCM in these matters.

42. Ben Yami, M. 1996b. Demand and supply of fish products in the Middle East. Perspectives and implications for food security. Doc ronéo. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries Department. 21 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

The author describes regional characteristics in detail, emphasizing that supply and demand is generally weak even though the Gulf States (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar) have a per capita consumption averaging 20 kg/yr. A general presentation of fish and aquaculture products on the market is followed by an evaluation of the economic development of fish products and an estimation of the overall market for the year 2010.

An estimation of consumption in 2010 is followed by considerations regarding food security, stressing the role of aquaculture in this area: the author underscores the dangers of massive fish meal use for aquaculture export purposes. The author details intervention policies pertaining to this sector, especially as it concerns aquaculture. He recommends legislation favourable to the private sector and to foreign investment, especially for aquaculture, as a means of encouraging the transfer of aquaculture technology.

Finally, mention is made of the need for integrated coastal facilities to monitor the risks of pollution and eutrophication linked among other things to fish farming in cages. In order to encourage technology transfer, regional cooperation in training is recommended. In the area of international trade, the positive work of the Centre for Marketing Information and Advisory Services in the Arab Region (INFOSAMAK) is highlighted.

43. Berg, H., Michelsen, P., Troell, M., Folke, C. and Kautsky, N. 1996. Managing aquaculture for sustainability in tropical Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Ecological Economics 18:141-159. [Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden]

"In Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, small-scale pond farming and the experimental cage-culture of tilapia fishes have been running for some years and there are now plans for large-scale aquaculture. As a basis for deciding on how aquaculture could be developed to improve the chances for sustainable resource use and long-term maximized fish production in the lake, we compare the potential ecological life-support demand of two alternative aquaculture methods. First, the ecological and resource demand, expressed in industrial and solar energy units, respectively, were estimated for semi-intensive pond farming and intensive cage farming. Next, the ecosystem areas appropriated by the two farms for production of feed, oxygen and phosphorous assimilation were estimated." [from Abstract]

44. Berger, A. (ed.). 1986. Seminar on Socio-economic Aspects of Aquaculture Development in the Mediterranean countries. Djerba, Tunisia, November 14-24, 1985. FAO/UNDP, Tunis, Tunisia, Aquaculture Project: 9. [Cent. Nat. Rech. Sci. CRPEE, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier, France]

A report is given of the seminar which was represented by the following countries: Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Cyprus, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Egypt, Syria and Malta. After a general overview of aquaculture in each of these countries, the socio-economic aspects are described and the marketing of aquaculture products examined.

45. Bonzon, A. 1995. Demand and supply of fish and fish products in Sub-Saharan Africa. Perspectives and implications for food security. In: International Conference on Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security. Kyoto, Japan, December 4-5, 1995. Organized by the Government of Japan in collaboration with FAO. KC/FI95TECH/10. pp. 180-197 [FAO, Rome, Italy]

This paper presents the characteristics and issues of the fisheries in Sub-Saharan Africa and analyzes the present trends in supply and demand and anticipated developments for fish and fish products in the region. The author argues that the aquaculture sector in the region is globally better geared than capture fisheries to respond, in the medium term, to important increases in demand for fish. This will be supported by the rarefaction of additional supply from capture fisheries, constrained imports and the likely rise of fish prices in the region.

46. Bonzon, A., Ngouembe, A. and N’Goma, G. 1995. Revue du secteur des pêches et de l’aquaculture: Congo. FAO Circulaire sur les pêches No. 887. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 30 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

Aquaculture is still a marginal activity in the Congo despite the major efforts that have been undertaken to develop it. Bearing in mind the new macro-economic orientations, policy must be adapted for the development of fisheries and fish farming. Towards such an end, the institutional and administrative framework of the fisheries sector is presented, strategies are put forward for development within the national sector plan, and policy-making tools are identified.

47. Bourgoignie, G.E. 1972. Les hommes et l’eau. Ethno-ecologie du Dahomey lacustre. Editions Universitaires.

48. Boutouchent, T. 1996. Situation de l’aquaculture en Algérie. Equinoxe, mars-avril 96:28-33. IFREMER. [Ministère de l’Agriculture, ANDP, Algeria]

This article first focuses on the Algerian Aquaculture Association, set up in 1993, which brings together private promoters with an interest in aquaculture. Secondly, it evaluates the potentialities of freshwater mariculture and pisciculture. Thirdly, it retraces the main lines of the development plan (1995-2005), emphasizing objectives and concrete projects. Finally, it presents the development plan’s province-by-province proposals for action in favour of aquaculture.

49. Brainerd, T.R. 1984. Lessons from fisheries development in West Africa: the Oyster Culture Project, Sierra Leone. FDSS Working Paper No.6. [University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA]

This paper describes and evaluates an oyster culture project in Sierra Leone. It discusses the possible factors that prevented the non-implementation of the extension phase of the project. It also presents a financial and socio-economic analysis of the project.

50. Breuil, C. 1996. Revue du secteur des pêches et et de l’aquaculture: Republique centrafricaine. FAO Circulaire sur les pêches No. 912. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 34 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

Pisciculture was first introduced into the Central African Republic in the 1950s. After a long implementation phase, marked by the relative failure of a number of different projects, it is now a fully recognized activity in Central African society, currently undergoing progressive expansion. At present, output is about 300 t/yr. Two chief forms of pisciculture can be differentiated according to the degree of intensive farming and professionalization: subsistence fish farming in rural areas and small-scale commercial fishfarming in peri-urban areas. However, fish farming activity still faces problems of a social and economic order. Development policy is being formulated for the sector in the Central African Republic. As a starting point, the institutional, administrative, and planning frameworks are being defined along with government policy tools.

51. Breuil, C. 1995a. Revue du secteur des pêches et de l’aquaculture: Burkina Faso. FAO Circulaire sur les pêches No. 888. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 31 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

Aquaculture has not yet arrived at a significant stage of development in Burkina Faso, in spite of the efforts that have been undertaken to extend the farming of tilapia. Stocking small reservoirs as a means of increasing their natural productivity is interesting for rural areas. The paper identifies the administration and services as well as the planning framework and policy tools needed for the fisheries sector, and suggests some strategic approaches for the sector’s development.

52. Breuil, C. 1995b. Review of the fisheries and aquaculture sector: Ethiopia. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 890. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 29 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"This document describes the status of inland capture fisheries and aquaculture sector in Ethiopia as of mid-1993. Current production, from the main lakes, is estimated to be only at about 20% of the potential. The sector appears to be in an evolutive phase following price liberalization and the end of the monopolistic situation which the State-owned fish marketing corporation had until recently. Individual fishermen are now allowed to operate outside the framework of cooperatives. Over recent years, fish demand has grown significantly and is forecasted to be at least the double of present production by the year 2000. However, important efforts are required to upgrade fishing technologies, to improve infrastructure support such as feeder roads and market sheds, and to consolidate the institutional and legal framework for servicing the development of the industry." [Abstract]

53. Brummett, R.E. 1995. In praise of integrated aquaculture. Its prospects in the SADC region. ALCOM News: 17:10-12. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"The author, a research scientist with the International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) in Malawi, argues that integrated aquaculture can build up the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, feed people and protect the environment in southern Africa." [from Foreword]

54. Brummett, R.E. (ed.). 1994. Aquaculture policy options for integrated resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa: extended abstracts and discussions. Proceedings of a workshop held in Zomba, Malawi, February 22-25, 1994, Zomba, Malawi. ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 46. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). [ICLARM/GTZ Africa Aquaculture Project, P.O. Box 229, Zomba, Malawi]

"This volume contains brief papers which review the socio-economic and biophysical environment in which integrated aquaculture must function in Sub-Saharan Africa; presentations of experiences from research and the field, including both biotechnical and anthropological studies; and a summary of discussions and conclusions about integrated aquaculture’s potential role in African rural development. It was concluded that the potential for integrated resource management to improve economic and ecological sustainability of smallholding farming systems is substantial. However, further research is needed to clarify its role and limits". [Abstract]

55. Brummett, R.E. and Noble, R. 1995. Aquaculture for African smallholders. ICLARM Tech. Rep. 46. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 69 p. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"This volume reports the findings of the ICLARM-BMZ/GTZ Africa Aquaculture Project (1986-1994). The project studied smallholder farming systems and developed integrated aquaculture technologies in collaboration with the Malawian Department of Fisheries, the University of Malawi and the Ministry of Research and Environmental Affairs. The project began with a comprehensive survey of the ecological and socio-economic context in which Malawian smallholding farmers must earn their living. The majority of the enterprises on these farms are resource-limited and use, for the most part, traditional farming methods which are increasingly unproductive and inadequate in light of expanding population pressure. One important consequence of the failure of traditional agriculture to meet human needs is environmental degradation associated with bringing marginal land into agriculture, and the overexploitation of fragile ecosystems.

To ameliorate this situation, technologies which could take advantage of existing on-farm resources to improve productivity and environmental sustainability were developed in on-station trials. However, adoption of these technologies by smallholders using the existing extension approach and infrastructure was less than anticipated. The project found that constraints to adoption were best dealt with by letting the farmers decide what technology they would like to use, regardless of its productivity relative to other technologies. In other words, the socio-economic constraints to adoption of aquaculture (e.g., lack of investment capital and social leveling mechanisms) are exacerbated when extension agents and scientists attempt to impose technology on farmers. To determine how farming system evolved as a result of the adoption of fish farming, methods of participatory rural appraisal were adapted for use by researchers." [from Abstract]

56. CEA/FAO. 1994. L’Afrique pourra-t-elle jouer un role dans l’aquaculture mondiale? In: Seminaire du CIFA sur l’Environnement, les Pêches continentales et l’Aquaculture en Afrique, Harare, Zimbabwe, decembre 5-7, 1994. Papier présenté par la Section "Pêches et Ressources Vivantes de la Mer" de la Division Conjointe CEA/FAO de l’Agriculture (JEFAD). CIFA/94/Sem.B-11. 22 p. [JEFAD, CEA, P.O. Box 3001, Addis-Abeba, Ethiopie]

World aquaculture is booming. Between 1984 and 1991, production underwent a steady annual growth of 8 %, with rises of 10 to 16 million t/yr. Estimates suggest that the sector’s production will be about 20 million t/yr in the year 2000 and 60 million t/yr by the year 2025. Meanwhile, it is now almost certain that world fishery catches during the same period will not rise beyond (at the most) between 95 and 100 million t/yr. The aquaculture sector is likely to have a crucial global role in human food supplies. But the overall growth in aquaculture production of the last decade masks strong regional disparities. If Asia and Latin America underwent a major increase in production, African development remained very limited.

This document aims to show how the new world economic order opens up favourable opportunities for the emergence of aquacultural activity in Africa in the near future. If the recent development of industrial shrimp farming in Asia and Latin America has proved advantageous for their respective economies, it also shows that this development might not be sustainable if it is anarchical and at the expense of the Environment. Analysis of this example helps to produce the recommendations that should be followed for developing sustainable Aquaculture in Africa.

57. Charmes, J., Couty, Ph. and Robineau, C. 1985. Economies en transition. Concepts, analyses, méthodes d’investigation. Equipe ORSTOM-AMIRA. [ORSTOM, Paris, France]

58. Chimatiro, S.K. and Janke, A. 1994. Socio-economic assessment of smallholder aquaculture: a case study of smallholder farmers in Mwanza and Zomba Districts. In: Brummett, R.E. (ed.). Aquaculture policy options for integrated resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa: extended abstracts and discussions. Proceedings of a workshop held in Zomba, Malawi, February 22-25, 1994, Zomba, Malawi. ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 46. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) [S.K. Chimatiro: Malawi National Aquaculture Center, P.O. Box 44, Domasi, Malawi]

"The study was carried out in the Zomba and Mwanza districts of southern Malawi between July and September 1991. A random sample of 150 fish farmers was selected, representing 35% of the total fish farming population of these areas. Quantitative and qualitative socio-economic data were collected with a questionnaire administered by local extension agents. Gross margins and the return to labour were used to assess the viability of fish farming operations." [Methodology]

59. Chondoma, E.C. 1988. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 20. Swaziland. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.20. FIRI/C770.20. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Maseru Fish Hatchery, Lesotho]

"Although protein intake is adequate for the urban population and the other high income groups, there is still serious protein deficiency in the diets of the rural poor. Current fish production provides about 200 g/ind/year. To sustain this consumption level and provide optimum daily fish protein requirement, an annual production of between 230-11 000 t will be required by the year 2000. The current fish production is about 150 t and the potential fish production from inland waters is estimated to be 200 t. Therefore, any increase in fish production will have to come from aquaculture.

Swaziland’s climate is favourable for fish farming, ranging from warm water fish in the lowveld to cold water fish in the upper reaches of the highveld. A possible fish farming zonation is proposed. The current fish culture practice concentrates on the production of tilapia, common carp and catfish in small family ponds for subsistence.

However, a number of factors limit the rate of aquaculture development in Swaziland. Among them are the lack of trained manpower, the lack of aquaculture policy and development plan, and an inadequate infrastructure particularly for fish seed production.

Swaziland has a potential for aquaculture development especially in the lowveld in integration with irrigation schemes. Given the climatic conditions, the development of infrastructure and the current nutritional and socio-economic situation, aquaculture has a high chance of success in the country.

However, Swaziland will need long-term financial and technical assistance if aquaculture is to succeed." [from Abstract]

60. Christensen, M.S. 1995. Small-scale aquaculture in Africa - does it have a future? World Aquaculture 26(2):30-32. [Mikkel Christensen : PAPEC Inland Fisheries Development Project, C.Postal 52731, CEP 6O151-970 Fortaleza-CE, Brazil]

This paper discusses one aspect of fish farming: the inherent risk in investing human capital to build and manage the pond. A case study from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, is presented to illustrate what is meant by human capital investment. The author believes that two problem areas must be addressed in order to help introduce aquaculture to African smallholders. Firstly, labour input requirements need to be carefully researched and methods elucidated to reduce them. Secondly, novel methods need to be developed to minimize risk.

61. Coche, A.G. (ed.). 1994. Aquaculture development and research in Sub-Saharan Africa: national reviews. CIFA Technical Paper No. 23, suppl. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"This document assembles (in their original languages) the twelve national reviews (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe) prepared by senior aquaculturists as part of the FAO/SIFR Study on Aquaculture Development and Research in Sub-Saharan Africa. In each of these reviews, the aquaculture development and research sectors are first characterized in detail. Then, on the basis of this information, short- and medium-term national priorities are identified for each of these two sectors." [Abstract]

62. Coche, A.G. and Demoulin, F. (eds.). 1986. Report of the Workshop on Aquaculture Planning in the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) Countries. CIFA Technical Paper No. 15. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resources and Environment Division, FAO, Rome, Italy]

"A workshop on aquaculture planning in the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) countries was organized in Lusaka, Zambia, from 7 to 11 October 1985. During nine technical sessions the major factors related to aquaculture planning were reviewed and discussed. These included socio-economic aspects, cultural systems, training and extension, the private versus public sector and regional cooperation. A series of specific recommendations were agreed upon by the participants." [Abstract]

63. Coche, A.G., Haight, B.A. and Vincke, M.M.J. 1994. Aquaculture development and research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Synthesis of national reviews and indicative action plan for research. CIFA Technical Paper No. 23. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"This document is based on twelve national reports of the most important aquaculture countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. It analyses the present situation of aquaculture countries in Africa in terms of historical development, public-sector involvement, support activities for development of the sub-sector and planning experiences, and briefly reviews the external assistance received for development projects. The research sub-sector is then analyzed to verify the correspondence between its structure, programmes and plans and the identified needs for aquaculture development. Through a logical process for priority-ranking and correspondence with the development objectives, an indicative action plan emerges that includes nine regional programmes which would assist in fostering aquaculture development in the short and medium term through support to research. These research programmes, involving centres of the five agro-ecological regions of Sub-Saharan Africa working as activity networks, include a project for aquaculture information centres in support of all other eight proposals.

Other programmes include those for socio-economics, aquaculture production indicators, pond fertilization and feeding strategies, fish broodstock improvement and management, small water bodies fisheries’ enhancement, aquaculture in irrigation shemes, indigenous fish culture and marine aquaculture." [Abstract]

64. Copin, Y. and Oswald, M. 1993. Orientation des techniques d’élevage de la pisciculture artisanale dans le Centre Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. In: Barnabe, G. and Kestemont, P. (eds.). Production, Environment and Quality. Bordeaux Aquaculture ‘92. Special Publication No. 18. Ghent, Belgium, European Aquaculture Society. pp. 407-419. [Y. Copin : CEREMHER, BP 118, F-34140 Meze, France]

"The orientation of local fish farming techniques in the west of Côte d’Ivoire is explored in detail. Local suburban fishfarmers reveal a real ability to put into use a complex fish farming technicality and at the same time an inability to advance towards more ‘intensive’ techniques (referring to financial investment). Initially, these fish farmers adopted a single sex breeding technique with Oreochromis niloticus associated to a predator and also have their own fry production. The inputs are rice bran and an organic fertilizer (breeding and slaughterhouse wastes). The fish farmers sell Oreochromis when they reach the average weight of 200 g. Net yields of Oreochromis often exceed 4 t/ha/yr. The fish farmers have also adopted the polyculture with Heterotis niloticus and Heterobranchus isopterus. Frequently the yields reached for these species are respectively found between 0.8 and 1.2 t/ha/yr and 0.6 and 0.8 t/ ha/yr. This polyculture increases the production value. Fry production exceeds the farmer’s needs for Heterotis, but they still depend on the catch in open surrounding water for Heterobranchu.. The choice of these techniques used by the local fish farmers leads towards a greater use of labour (abundant factor) instead of capital (scarse factor) on their fish farming units. The fish farmers do not worry about the present economic crisis because the selling price depends essentially on how they pay their work, and fish meat is still the most accessible protein. To conclude, paths taken by the fish farmers do not lead either to an extensification or an intensification, but to an extensification of the capital and an intensification of the labour by area used. The fish farming evolution can only be understood if we integrate all the farming system’s evolution of the fish farmers concerned." [from Abstract]

65. Costa-Pierce, B.A., Lightfoot, C., Ruddle, K. and Pullin, R.S.V. (eds.). 1991. Aquaculture research and development in rural Africa. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 27, Summary Report on the ICLARM-GTZ/Malawi Fisheries Department/University of Malawi Conference, Zomba, Malawi, April 2-6, 1990. Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

These conference proceedings contain abstracts on the social, cultural, bio-economic and technical basis of aquaculture research and development. Relevant articles include: ‘An Economic Analysis of Fish Farming in Malawi’, ‘Socio-economic Constraints to Fish Farming Integration and Impediments to the Acceptability of Fish Cultured in Manured Ponds in Malawi: the Cases of the Dedza Hills and Lilongwe Northeast Rural Development Projects’, and ‘Socio-demographic and Socio-economic Profiles of Fish Farmers in the West and Northwest Provinces of the Republic of Cameroon’.

66. Deceuninck, V. 1990a. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 28. Zaire. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.28. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"In Zaire, gross national product per capita is extremely low, the country is grappling with heavy financial difficulties and a negative balance of trade. The Government’s general development plan calls for developing the agricultural, forestry, farming, fishing, and fish-farming sectors, in order to diversify revenues and ensure a self-sufficient food base. The country has great potential in terms of inland fishing, but sea fishing is limited by a narrow coastline. Currently, the population’s needs in terms of animal proteins are far from being met. The Government is thus seeking technical aid to help it further increase its inland fishing catch.

At present, fish farming only produces a few hundred tonnes of fish per year, whereas its potential is much higher. Though hard to judge, it is estimated at 10 000 to 20 000 t/yr in the middle term in priority zones, and 30 000 t for the whole country. One advantage of fish farming is that it can produce fish in remote areas, and the Government thus wishes to develop it through projects and joint technical assistance programmes." [from Abstract]

67. Deceuninck, V. 1990b. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 27. Rwanda. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.27. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The animal protein needs of the people can be satisfied only if agricultural production is stepped up and fish farming integrated into the agricultural development plan. Fish farming, initiated long ago, remained marginal, but has now been targeted by a five-year national fish-farming project: fish farms are being rehabilitated and an intensive extension campaign has been launched with positive results. A follow-up to this project would be desirable. Despite considerable limitations, aquaculture through rural fish farms, fish culture in cages and enclosures, rice-fish culture, etc., can significantly increase the country’s fish protein supply." [from Abstract]

68. Deceuninck, V. 1990c. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 26. Burundi. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.26. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The animal protein needs of the people can be satisfied only if agricultural production is stepped up and fish farming integrated into the agricultural development plan. Fish farming, initiated long ago, remained marginal, but has now been targeted by a five-year national fish-farming project: fish farms are being rehabilitated and an intensive extension campaign has been launched with positive results. A follow-up to this project would be desirable. Despite considerable limitations, aquaculture through rural fish farms, fish culture in cages and enclosures, rice-fish culture, etc., can significantly increase the country’s fish protein supply." [from Abstract]

69. Deceuninck, V. 1989a. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 25. Senegal. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.25. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"In order to offset losses in inland fishing, the Government’s development plan provides for a series of measures to support both this sector, as well as aquaculture. As regards the latter, this plan seeks to take advantage of all available possibilities: irrigated zones and wetlands for setting up pond sites; stocking of ponds and lakes; utilization of cages and enclosures; and shrimp and oyster farming. Aquaculture’s benefits will also enable the country to reduce careless hunting practices and better control the ‘helter-skelter’ spread of livestock farming which puts a severe strain on an ecosystem already seriously threatened by crop farming.

The Government has decided to boost shrimp culture by setting up a pilot project in the Basse-Casamane area, as well as to encourage oyster culture and the stocking of ponds and lakes. A programme of semi-intensive commercial fish farming has been started in the Senegal River Valley and financing is being sought for a series of other projects in the aqua farming sector. In addition, there are plans to revive old fish farms in the Senegal River Valley. These facilities include the Richard Toll fishery, several demonstration ponds and about twenty community ponds. It is clear that the potential of aqua farming in Senegal is handicapped by limited rainfall, human and budgetary resources. However, irrigated zones can be used to combine fish culture with rice-fish culture, while ponds and lakes can be suitably adapted to fish-farm stocking and to the use of cages and enclosures; shrimp and oyster farming also offer significant possibilities.

In order to make up for existing limitations, the Government needs to strengthen its Department of Fish-Culture, by providing a well-trained staff with adequate funds so they can efficiently and competently oversee the development of the country’s aquafarming potential, in conjunction with a viable technical assistance." [from Abstract]

70. Deceuninck, V. 1989b. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 24. Mali. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.24. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"In order to offset losses sustained by the fishing sector, the Government wants to take advantage of all the aqua farming possibilities available to the country: irrigated zones and wetlands for setting up pond sites; stocking and making water bodies (ponds, dams and reservoirs) productive; and the use of cages and enclosures, etc. Fish farming, initiated a decade ago with the construction of a fishery and the setting up of 150 ponds in rural areas, is currently covered by a five-year project.

There is significant aqua farming potential, despite considerable limitations, in the different water bodies found in Mali; production is possible given the appropriate legislation, restocking procedures, and the use of cages and enclosures. In irrigated zones, ponds can be set up and more intensive fish farming be done in combination with animal farms and rice-fish culture. The extension of fish farming and the rationalization of fishing practices will only be successful if, from the outset, breeding ponds (both the old and new ones planned) are rapidly functional and if the Fishery Department is used to good effect, equipped with a well-trained staff and an adequate budget." [from Abstract]

71. Deceuninck, V. 1989c. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 23. Burkina Faso. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.23. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"Fish farming, initiated long ago, has continued to be marginal. Efforts are now being made to revive it, for example by introducing fish culture into irrigated zones and setting up similar, but larger operations in the Sourou Valley.

Significant aqua farming potential exists, despite considerable limitations, in Burkina Faso’s different water bodies through the use of restocking, enclosures and cages. In irrigated zones, ponds can be set up and intensive fish farming achieved in combination with animal farms and rice-fish culture. Industrial fish farming is no longer practised, but ought to be taken up experimentally and on a limited scale. Any fish-farming extension plan must, from the outset, see to it that the Fish-Farming Division is used to good effect, and that breeding and research networks are consolidated, in order to have a sufficient supply of young fish and resolve the problems that hinder fish-farming development." [from Abstract]

72. Deceuninck, V. 1988a. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 16. Gabon. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.16. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The development of aquaculture, estimated at 540 t/yr, has practically come to a halt. Potential is limited primarily because the country is thickly forested (85%) and sparsely populated. In the past, however, fish farming had attained a significant level of development with 11 fisheries and

2 000 private ponds. It then dropped to a very low level, and a UNDP/FAO regional project re-stimulated development from 1968 to 1972; carrying out research, rehabilitating fish farms and training personnel. But it turned out to be too short, and after the technical assistants left, fish farming development fell back to its former level. Since 1972, various FAO missions have given rise to project proposals and a master plan, but so far nothing concrete has come of them.

New studies will hopefully result in the application of recommendations made by previous missions: training at all levels in both fishing and fish-farming practices, establishment of a master plan for the fishing sector with optimal use of all fishing potentialities, reinitiation of fish farming in fisheries and rural areas through renewed extension programmes." [from Abstract]

73. Deceuninck, V. 1988b. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 15. Congo. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.15. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"For self-sufficient food security, the country has good potential for sea fishing, inland fishing and fish farming. As a means of further increasing fish production and reducing imports, small-scale sea fishing and inland fishing are both included in development projects.

Currently, fish farming annually produces only a few dozen tonnes out of a potential yield which may be estimated at more than 2 000 t/yr. Since it has the advantage of being able to produce fish in areas far removed from supply markets, and since results have been encouraging, the Government would like to step up this practice. At present, fish farms are small-scale or family-run rural operations. A pilot project for industrial pisciculture has been set up." [from Abstract]

74. Deceuninck, V. 1985. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 13. La République centrafricaine. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.13. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"In recent years, intensive action has been taken in favour of aquaculture. Yet, while yield potential is estimated at 3 600 t/yr of fresh fish, current production stands at 360 t.

After a period of highs and lows, fish farming was promoted in 1968 by an UNDP/FAO regional project, and this was followed by three UNDP/FAO national projects. These projects supported research and the subsequent application of the results of this research through intensive extension work; they also supported the rehabilitation of fish farms. To ensure the continuation of fish farming, the last project in 1980, a global project, had the task of making the three main fisheries self-financing, of integrating all aquaculture activities and of organizing the Department of Fish Farming.

This department, now staffed by personnel trained during these projects, has been operating in the field since 1984 through the semi-state-controlled Bangui-Laandjia Fish Farming Centre. The Centre, through extension and in conjunction with two fisheries in Bouar and Bambari, oversees 8 500 fish-farmers working almost 10 000 ponds which comprise a total surface area of 127 ha, and every available possibility is put to use.

The development of aquaculture in the Central African Republic has been consistent with the means at its disposal. However, if fish farming - as well as fishing - is to reach its full potential, there will have to be an increase in the purchasing power of the population in order to create a market for products." [from Abstract]

75. Deceuninck, V. 1984. L’impact socio-economique de la pisciculture sur la population Centrafricaine. Bangui, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (unpublished manuscript).

76. de Kartzow, A., van der Heijden, P. and ven der Schoot, J. 1992. Integration of fish farming into the farm-household system in Luapula Province, Zambia. Report of a Mission, August 13 - October 10, 1989. ALCOM Field Document No. 16. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"A three-member ALCOM mission visited Zambia during August-October 1989, to study and promote the integration of fish farming into the traditional farm household system in Luapula province. The mission spent six weeks in Luapula Province and two weeks in Lusaka. Information was gathered on household resources and production systems. Political, economic and socio-economic data were also collected." [from Summary]

77. Doumenge, F. 1986. La révolution aquacole (II). Annales de Géographie (531):529-586. [Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France]

"A new branch of agro-business, fresh water and marine aquaculture started a worldwide expansion from the 1960s. Specific technologies were integrated with different socio-economic systems. Now, in a growing process, aquaculture is building up a new seashore landscape and opening the way for more valuable use of inland water.

From catching spores, spats, baby shrimps and fry in their natural environment water farming needs first a safe supply of hatchery and nursery manmade seeds. The specific biology of water organisms must be taken in account not only for reproduction, but also for nutrition and pathology. High technologies and water environment control need heavy public investment and plenty of private funding. The average capital for starting a penaeid shrimp, catfish or salmon farm is $US 1 to 2 million. Taiwan (P.C.) and East Asian countries are pushing intensive farming for fishes and crustaceans. In Japan, aquaculture takes into account a very strong market and a long history of integrated coastal life through the ‘kumiai’ system. The present production is of a very high standard, but future ‘marinovation’ will use marine farming as a support for a multipurpose socio-economic progressive organization.

Looking now to the status and trends of aquaculture the present ‘Blue Revolution’, it is stronger and deeper than the former agricultural ‘Green Revolution’." [from Abstract]

78. Dural, D. 1994. Le développement de la (rizi) pisciculture en milieu rural sur les hauts plateaux malgaches. Mythe ou réalité? Mémoire présenté en vue de l’obtention du Diplôme d’Agronomie Approfondie mention "Halieutique" (ENSA.R) et du Diplôme d’Ingénieur en Agronomie Tropicale (ESAT-CNEARC). 58p.+ 8 annexes. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes. 65, rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France]

"For nearly forty years, fish farming and/or rice-fish farming development projects have been proceeding in rural Madagascar, without success. Via an analysis of the workings of agrarian and production systems, this study highlights a certain number of structural obstacles that have hindered the models for rice-fish farming proposed so far. The first two obstacles are the pressure on land and the pre-eminence of rice among production systems, accounting for the smallness and fragmentation of Malagasy farms, on which the vast majority of country people can now only just manage to survive. As a result, people often abandon agriculture for other, more lucrative, activities external to the family-run farm. More specifically, the development of rice-fish farming in rural areas is handicapped by problems over the social management of water, which complicate its technical control, as well as market-related problems (input supplies, openings, prices). Once the socio-economic obstacles have been exposed, rice-fish farming models that take them into account are proposed (e.g., simply putting in rice paddies or reservoirs) and their limits are discussed. A complementary study of the urban environment in Fianarantsoa confirms the advantages of this type of environment for the development of rice-fish culture and suggests that a fish farming model might be devised linking several different species of fish." [from Abstract]

79. Dural, D. 1993. Perspectives de développement piscicole dans les bas-fonds periurbains de la ville de Daloa (Centre-ouest ivoirien). Mémoire presenté en vue de l’obtention du Diplôme d’Agronomie Tropicale (ESAT-CNEARC) et du Diplôme d’Ingénieur Agronome (ENSA.M). Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie Tropicale. 58p.+12 annexes. [1101, avenue Agropolis BP 5098, 34 033 Montpellier Cedex 1, France]

Utilizing the agrarian and production system approach, this report attempts to analyze the status and role that pisciculture could play in the agriculture of the peri-urban lowlands of Daloa town, Côte d’Ivoire. First, it describes the Daloa peri-urban lowlands within the national context, identifying the physical, social and economic environment and providing some historical references. It then characterizes the production systems and analyzes them by type, according to their main activity: rice cultivation, vegetable crops or fish farming. Finally, the report examines the development of pisciculture within this broad context, assessing various ways in which it can be integrated into the existing production systems.

80. Elliott, J.W. 1984. Oyster culture economic study: final report. Freetown, Sierra Leone, University of Sierra Leone, Economics Department. [Freetown Economics Department, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone]

81. El Sayed, A.F.M. 1996. Aquaculture potential and development in Egypt. In: Proceedings of the VIII Conference of the European Association of Fisheries Economists. Barcelona, April 1-3, 1996. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion. pp. 77-84.

"The aquaculture industry is expanding very rapidly in Egypt. About 100 000 feddans (42 000 ha) are currently in use. The production of farmed fish has leapt from 15 000 t in 1984 to 53 000 t in 1994, a rise of 253 %. Special attention has been given to brackishwater and marine fish farming. As a result, the production of these fishes was increased from 1 500 to 9 700 t during the period 1984-1992, a rise of 647 %. The main problems facing the aquaculture industry in Egypt are: seed production, shortage of artificial feed and lack of technical experience and extension services. These problems and the solutions adopted by the Egyptian Government are discussed." [Abstract]

82. Engle, C.R., Brewster, M. and Hitayezu, F. 1993. An economic analysis of fish production in a subsistence agricultural economy: the case of Rwanda. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 8:151-165. [Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, USA]

"A survey of 55 fish farmers in Rwanda provided data to analyze the economics of fish production in a subsistence agricultural economy. Survey results demonstrated that fish are primarily a cash crop and secondarily a source of food for the family.

Net cash returns to labour per 100 m2 varied from FRW 510 at high altitudes to FRW 1308 at low altitudes and represented approximately 7% and 29%, respectively, of average annual income on high- and low-altitude farms. Labour was the primary resource utilized in fish farming and yielded cash returns that were competitive with daily wage rates, even though realistic employment opportunities were scarce. Income from fish farming represented a significant proportion of total cash income in addition to its food value for the household." [Abstract]

83. Ersan, O. 1997a. Status of aquaculture in Turkey. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey. 12 p.

This report presents an overview of aquaculture production, by production environment, over the last ten years. A detailed survey done in 1993 is presented and is followed by a description of aquaculture potential. Stress is laid upon the problems of hatching and marketing: aquaculture production on a medium-term basis could offer an alternative to offset the dramatic decrease in Black Sea pelagic catches.

The author describes the efforts made in the field of research and development due to the creation and enhancement of a number of institutions. The necessity of introducing new aquaculture technologies, as well as the related problems, is emphasized. Finally, the long delays in licensing procedures for aquaculture ventures, the overly high density of cage farm holdings, the huge number of unlicensed farms, and the conflicts between aquaculture activities and tourism are given as the specific constraints for aquaculture development in Turkey.

84. Ersan, O. 1997b. The situation of seabass and seabream aquaculture production in Turkey. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey. 9 p.

This report focuses on seabass and seabream aquaculture and presents an overview of the quantity and value of output over the past ten years. Comparison is made with the production of banded bream, salmon and shrimp.

Farm locations per region and their output capacity figures are given in an introduction with reflections on credit programmes for production and commercialization. The conditions for receiving a loan involve the following steps: one must have prior approval from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA); 40% of equity must be paid by the investor; collateral security must be deposited at the Bank; and fixed assets must be insured.

After describing the various technologies for seabass and seabream aquaculture, the report discusses the constraints faced by small-scale commercial holdings wishing to market their products. The author ends with a focus on the limitations linked to mobilizing the factors of production for hatcheries and grow-out farms.

85. Esobhawan, A.O. 1986. Resource-use efficiency in fish farming in Cross River and Ondo States. An extended essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in the Department of Agricultural Economics at the University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. [University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Oyo State, Nigeria]

"This study examines the resource-use efficiency in fish farming in the Cross River and Ondo States of Nigeria. The paper has the major objectives of estimating input-output relationships in fish farming, estimating the elasticity production and returns to scale, and determining the optimum resource use level in the study areas.

A cross-sectional study of 47 fish farms were made. The study showed that resources were efficiently utilized in fish farms in the two states. The computed elasticity of production showed that the fish farmers were operating in Stage II of the production process, which is the rational zone of production. It was also found that the farms were enjoying increasing returns to scale. The study goes further to identify shortage of fingerlings, scarcity of feeds and inadequate training as the major problems hindering the development of fish farms in the two states." [Abstract]

86. FAO. 1996a. Aquaculture status and development requirements in Morocco. Cairo, Egypt, FAO Regional Office for the Near East. 54 p.

"The sustainable development of aquaculture in Morocco might require a National Master Plan. It would help to develop many legislative features and control the introduction of new, non-indigenous species that may upset the balance in the environment. Morocco may also need specialized programmes for aquaculture training and extension. Freshwater aquaculture is governed by the Ministry of Agriculture, while marine aquaculture comes under the Ministry of Fisheries. However, acquiring a permit to practice aquaculture in Morocco has become very complicated due to the involvement of several Ministries. Another handicap for aquaculture development is the absence of popularization and awareness-raising programmes to encourage fish consumption and publicize the benefits of aquaculture. Both the private and public sector must find ways of acquiring knowledge on the international marketing of aquaculture products.

For extension activities, the government agencies or institutions may need full financial support and staff training. There are two government institutions responsible for aquaculture research: the Centre National d’Hydrobiologie et de Pisciculture (Eaux et Forêts) for freshwater and the Institut Scientifique des Pêches Maritimes (Ministry of Fisheries) for marine. Meanwhile, aquaculture research remains very rudimentary in Morocco. Government institutions may need technical and financial assistance from national and international organizations." [Abstract]

87. FAO. 1996b. Aquaculture production statistics (1985-1994). FAO Fisheries Circular No. 815 Rev. 8. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 189 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"This publication is a compilation of aquaculture production statistics for fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic animals, residues and plants. The following combinations of production statistics are presented: by species and by country; by country and by species; and by species and by environment. Values of production expressed in terms of US dollars are provided by country, species and species group, thus providing more detail than previous issues of Fisheries Circular No.815. A number of charts facilitate the interpretation of the data. Although the statistical coverage of the FAO aquaculture database is for the period 1984-94, this publication contains data for 1985-94. Where officially reported national statistics are lacking or are considering unreliable, FAO makes estimates based on the best information available. Quantities produced are expressed as live weight equivalents and so are equivalent to the nominal catch statistics published in the FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics - Catches and Landings." [Abstract]

88. FAO. 1996c. Aquaculture status and development requirements in Egypt. Cairo, Egypt, FAO Regional Office for the Near East. 46 p.

"Egyptian aquaculture is one of the oldest in the world, as its basic principles were established several thousands of years ago. However, the first scientific approach only emerged about 60 years ago. The overall situation promoting the expansion of aquaculture in Egypt, especially the key supporting elements for that expansion, do exist. Aquaculture now accounts for about 15 % of total fishery production. Tilapia are the most favored species, especially Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Carp which were introduced at various times are now significantly contributing to freshwater aquaculture, particularly in the rice fields where the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the currently stocked species. Because of freshwater shortages, only hatcheries are allowed to use the best freshwater, while fish farms are totally dependent upon agricultural drainage water. Other water sources are not adequately exploited. Marine water seems promising. But marine fish farming will rely on wild fry for some time. Small-scale production of marine fish seed is currently underway. More fish species are being selected for aquaculture. African catfish (Clarias lazera) is one such example.

In order to achieve significant aquaculture development in Egypt, the required fish seed should be made more readily available. Development of hatchery technology for certain freshwater species (e.g., tilapias, catfish) and marine fishes (e.g., mullet, seabass and seabream) is necessary for aquaculture development. Extension services are essential for transferring problems encountered in the field to the lab for investigation, and in turn transfer the results back from the lab for application in the field." [Abstract]

89. FAO. 1996d. Aquaculture status and development requirements in Tunisia. Cairo, Egypt, FAO Regional Office for the Near East. 23 p.

"Although aquaculture is a relatively recent occurrence in Tunisia (i.e., three decades), during the last few years two main development periods may be considered: an active period during the 1980s and a ‘wait-and-see’ period since the beginning of the 1990s. The recently prepared Aquaculture Master Plan is a very useful tool. Nevertheless, during the preparation period a decrease of interest in this activity was noted due to the break of the initial impulse and the drop of the sale price of the two main finfish marine aquaculture species: seabass and seabream. Financing institutions are distrustful and require to be reassured about the feasibility of aquaculture activity.

Tunisian authorities are using their own best capabilities to re-start again the new marine aquaculture projects and to strengthen finfish aquaculture, mainly in dams and lakes. The aquaculture production is expected to reach 3 000 metric tons by the end of the century. In order to achieve these objectives, joint ventures with foreign partners must be encouraged. Some remaining difficulties and problems must be solved, particularly in financing, institutional and administrative fields. Concerning research and development programmes, more coordination is required given that good technical potentialities exist, especially in marine aquaculture (grow-up and hatchery) activities." [Abstract]

90. FAO. 1996e. Fisheries and aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa: Situation and Outlook in 1996. Fisheries Circular No. 919. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization in the United Nations. 37 p.

"None of the region’s countries depend on fish and fish products as a mainstay of the economy, and fish consumption is generally low compared to that of meat. Morocco has the most abundant resources available both for human consumption and as raw materials for the fish processing industry. It seems unlikely that there are any underfished stocks left in the Mediterranean. In the Gulf region, mesopelagic stocks could probably stand increased exploitation. Aquaculture production represents less than 1% of total world production. Assuming that fish consumption in the region remains relatively low by world standards, it would seem reasonable to expect that, at least until 2010, the increased demand could be met by higher landings of fish in the region as long as it is not diverted for export. Improved management should allow increased catches of certain stocks which are being intensively exploited at present, and stocks of small pelagic in particular should provide a basis for increased landings throughout the region." [Abstract]

91. FAO 1996f. Fisheries and aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: situation and outlook in 1996. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 922. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 44 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"Globally, the contribution of the fisheries sector to the economy of the region is largely positive. Over the last decade, significant progress has occurred in terms of artisanal fisheries development, the consolidation of a small industrial base, growing export receipts leading to a positive trade balance, and more recently indications of a promising ‘take-off’ of aquaculture. Catches by distant-water fishing nations are steadily decreasing. In marine capture fisheries, most demersal stocks are thought to be fully exploited. The main potential for immediate increases of production and supply for local markets lies with low-value small pelagics species. Inland fisheries figure importantly in food security, providing over 40% of domestic catches. Freshwater production is, however, close to its estimated potential. Since 1990, per caput fish supply follows an alarming negative trend. The major challenge for the fisheries sector will be to maintain current levels of consumption. This will require significant efforts to improve the management of capture fisheries, support the development of aquaculture and promote intra-regional trade". [Abstract]

92. FAO. 1987. Thematic evaluation of aquaculture. Joint study by the United Nations Development Programme, the Norwegian Ministry of Development Cooperation, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of an evaluation of UNDP/FAO technical assistance to aquaculture during the period 1974-1984. Specifically, the purpose of the evaluation was to identify recurring issues and to extract lessons of use for accelerating the introduction and/or improvement of aquaculture in developing countries, particularly by improving the selection, formulation and execution of aquaculture projects supported by UNDP and FAO." [from Summary]

93. Feidi, H.I. 1996. Fisheries in the Arab world: present status and development prospects. Cairo, Egypt, FAO Regional Office for the Near East. 43 p.

"In recent years, demand for fish has increased steadily in Arab countries, and annual per capita fish consumption rose from 5.2kg in 1985 to about 6.4kg in 1993; this nevertheless remains well below the international annual average of about 13 kg. There is still a shortage of production compared with consumption. With the population growing rapidly, the gap is expected to grow even wider and give rise to food security risks. The shortages are covered via fish imports mostly from outside the region, creating a drain on hard currencies.

Development projects in fisheries and aquaculture activities may substantially contribute to an improved situation vis-à-vis food security. They will enhance employment opportunities, increase income, develop rural areas and generally improve standards of living for a large part of the rural population. Several proposals are suggested for overcoming the present state of affairs through the increase and development of research, statistical compilation and analysis, and a better utilization of Arab fishery resources. These suggestions include: closer surveillance, monitoring and control of marine and inland fisheries resources; joint venture companies between partners from capital-rich countries and their counterparts from fish-rich countries; greater participation of the private sector in fisheries projects supported by an adequate financial and legal framework encouraging investment; transfer of suitable technologies for upgrading the management and administration of the fisheries sector; technical production training; processing of value-added products; intensive marine and freshwater aquaculture programmes including projects on indigenous fish species; more efficient marketing and distribution channels; and a comprehensive fish consumption awareness campaign, as well as concentrated efforts to increase inter- and intra-regional trade in fish and fishery products." [Abstract]

94. Fottland, H. and Sorensen, C. 1996. Issues related to the establishment of prawn farms in Tanzania with an example from the Rufiji Delta. 36 p. [Institute of Resource Assessment, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania]

"The last few years have seen a number of private-sector proposals to develop prawn farms within Tanzania’s mangrove forests. A recent proposal concerns a giant farm of more than 19 000 ha located in the Rufiji Delta. The enormous scale of the proposal and the inadequacy of the Environmental Impact Statement presented by the developer have prompted this review to contribute towards evaluating the existing economic situation of the Rufiji delta and the probable impact of this project on the environment and the people." [from Executive Summary]

The authors begin the review with the description of the natural and social setting of the Rufiji Delta followed by a brief description of economic activities. The proposed prawn farm, as it is reported in documentation, is discussed in the light of the current knowledge of environmental and social conditions. The external costs of this proposal are then briefly summarized. Finally, the authors suggest conditions that need to be satisfied in order for Tanzania to embark on prawn farming as a long-term and profitable venture. A scenario for the future development of the sector is advanced. [from Introduction]

95. Fulconis, R. 1987. Credit for fish farming in Zambia. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

96. GAFRD. 1997. Report of fish resources in Egypt. Cairo, Egypt. 36 p.

"This report is invaluable for those working on Egyptian aquaculture, for it gives figures for product tonnage by species for the next ten years and for the surface area used in aquaculture, according to production environment and production system (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). The contents and precision of this report attest to the work accomplished by the Egyptian section of the Information System for Production of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (SIPAM)."

97. Govereh, J., Chigume, S.M. and Sen, S. 1992. Socio-economic and marketing constraints to the development of aquaculture and utilization of small water bodies in Zimbabwe. Agritex Fisheries Unit, FAO/UNDP Support for Rural Aquaculture Extension, ZIM/88/021.

98. Grover, J.H., Street, D.R. and Starr, P.D. 1980. Review of aquaculture development activities in Central and West Africa. Research and Development Series No. 28. Auburn, Alabama, USA, International Centre for Aquaculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University.

"This study was commissioned by the US Agency for International Development (AID) to determine why fish-farming development efforts in the Central and West African region have not had more impact and to suggest what form, if any, new development assistance projects for fish farming might take. The analysis was to include technical, economic, and social evaluations of past and current projects, so that the experience gained could be used in assessing new proposals." [from Introduction and Recommendations]

99. Harrison, E. 1994. Aquaculture in Africa: socio-economic dimensions. In: V. Muir, J.F. and Roberts, R.J. (eds.). Recent advances in aquaculture. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science Ltd.

"This review discusses a range of literature relating to socio-economic and socio-cultural aspects of the adoption of aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. This work was completed in 1992 as part of a wider ODA-funded study. It does not attempt to be a synthesis of all that is known about aquaculture development in Africa. Rather it is the response to a specific hypothesis: that aquaculture development in Africa has not been as successful as had been hoped, and that this has in part been due to inadequate consideration of social and cultural factors and their interaction with the technical element of production." [from Introduction]

100. Harrison, E. 1991. Aquaculture in Africa: socio-economic dimensions. A review of the literature. 69 p. [School of African And Asian Studies, Arts C, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, UK]

"This literature review forms Part I of a research report submitted to the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling. It is the final component of the project ODA-A02, Social and Cultural Barriers to the Development of Aquaculture in Africa, Phase I.

In Section 1, a variety of issues are explored and clarified. The differences between aquaculture and capture fisheries are elaborated, the point being that aquaculture in Africa is in many ways more similar to farming than fishing. Following discussion of the range of rationales for aquaculture development from both adopters and promoters, the conceptual difficulties surrounding the ideas of success and failure in aquaculture development are considered.

Section 2 addresses the supposed failure of aquaculture development in Africa. After an overview of literature tracing the history of aquaculture development, attempts to quantify the problem are assessed.

Section 3 discusses alternative explanations for these problems. Much of the literature tends to focus on ‘barriers’ located within rural communities, such as cultural attitudes and physical constraints such as land and labour. It is argued that it is important to see these in terms of their interaction with the promoters of aquaculture and the nature of the extension message." [from Preface and Summary]

101. Harrison, E. with Stewart, J.A., Stirrat, R.L. and Muir, J. 1994. Fish farming in Africa: what’s the catch? ODA. England, University of Sussex, School of African And Asian Studies, and Scotland, University of Stirling, Institute of Aquaculture. 51 p. [School of African and Asian Studies, Arts C, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, UK]

"This report is arranged in three sections. The first section elaborates the context in which the study has taken place. It outlines past and current thinking concerning the problems and prospects for African aquaculture development. The analysis is derived from both the initial literature review and recent documentation and discussion. The second section presents the field work findings. The Luapula study generated a wealth of detailed information concerning both aquaculture practices and the links between rural communities and the agents of development, which is available in full in the main report.

The second section also incorporates findings from the comparative field studies. The third section presents suggestions for planning and development policy based around the outputs of the earlier sections. These are principally aimed at bilateral and multilateral donors." [from Preface]

102. Hecht, Th. and Britz, P.J. 1990. Aquaculture in South Africa: history, status and prospects. South Africa, The Aquaculture Association of South Africa. 58 p. [P.O. Box 72467, Lynnwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040, South Africa]

"Aquaculture in South Africa during the 1980s has become firmly established as a small but dynamic industry and one that is here to stay. This follows a difficult teething period during the previous two decades, when the potential of aquaculture was realized. Unfortunately, due to inexperience and the complete lack of a supporting infrastructure, a number of bad decisions and expensive mistakes were made during the 1960s and 1970s. However, during the last five years the true character and potential of aquaculture in South Africa has begun to emerge. This has largely been a consequence of the tenacity of several committed aquaculturists, the successful initiation of the commercial production of a number of new species, a dedicated research effort and the development of dynamic marketing strategies.

The aim of this study was to gather accurate information from producers, researchers, allied industries and administrators on various aspects of the industry and then to define the status and future prospects of the industry." [from Introduction]

103. Hecht, Th., Britz, P.J. and Uys, W. 1992. Aquaculture in South Africa. World Aquaculture 23(1):6-19. [Thomas Hecht: Department of Ichtiology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa]

"The upsurge in South African aquaculture in the 1980s was unprecedented. Total production rose tenfold, from 345 t in 1980 to over 3000 t in 1988, with an estimated retail value of R 45 million. Moreover, 70% of all current aquaculture operations were established within the last five years. Mussels, which have only been cultured for the last five years, now account for slightly more than half of the total production. Trout take second place, followed by water hawthorn, oysters and catfish. In terms of value the order of priority is roughly the same, except that ornamental fish are third in generated revenue. Since the mid-1980s, aquaculture has been showing its true character and potential in South Africa, largely because of the tenacity of several committed aquaculturalists, the successful commercial production of a number of new species, a dedicated research effort and the development of dynamic marketing strategies." [Foreword]

104. Hem, S. 1997. Projet tests de faisabilité d’une pisciculture extensive en Guinée forestière (Diecke). Rapport de mission en Republique de Guinée (2 au 29 novembre 1996). 12p.+10 figures. [ORSTOM-GAMET, BP 5095, 34033 Montpellier Cedex 1, France]

The purpose of this EC-backed mission was to assess the possibilities of developing extensive pisciculture in Guinea. After identifying the huge potential in the region, the report briefly describes the reasons for the failure of previous pisciculture development attempts (1993), and then proceeds to try and devise a new approach, better adapted to the producers’ constraints. It proposes an original model combining an experiment from Asia (first-growing of fingerlings in hapa in the Philippines), with another conducted by ORSTOM in the Côte d’Ivoire on rearing fish with an acadja-bamboo system.

105. Hem, S. and Avit, J.L.B. 1994. First results on "acadja-enclos" as an extensive Aquaculture System (West Africa). Bulletin of Marine Science 55(2-3):1038-1049. [ORSTOM, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 5045, 34032, Montpellier Cedex, France]

"Acadja is a fishing method widely practised in the coastal lagoons of Benin. The principle of this traditional fishery is to set a dense mass of branches in shallow water which attract the fishes from the wild. The West African acadja is a kind of fish aggregator. The harvest was found variable from 7 to 20 t/h/yr of fishes. The acadja may also act as a culture system, and this study attempts to show evidence of the role of acadja as a potential culture system. Two types of experimental design have been compared: enclosure with acadja (named ‘acadja-enclos’), and enclosure without acadja used as a control. After 12 months, a biomass equivalent of 8 t/ha was harvested from the acadja-enclos, equivalent to eight times that of the control system. Among the 18 species of fish harvested, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) represented 79% of the biomass. Analysis of the fish population showed Thai young fry had entered through the net at the beginning of the experiment and grown in the acadja-enclos. There were no differences in the condition factor between the S. melanotheron from the acadja-enclos and from the wild. The acadja-enclos system appears to be a promising way to exploit the lagoon areas. This principle could be applied in extensive aquaculture or in some aquatic management programmes. Further research to understand the trophic structure of the system and the basis of the exchange mechanism of the food chain in the system is necessary. It could lead to further improvements and this is proposed in the discussion presented here." [Abstract]

106. Hem, S., Avit, J.B.L.F. and Cisse, A. 1995. L’acadja comme système d’amélioration de la productivité aquatique. In: Symoens, J.J. and Micha, J.C. (eds.). The management of integrated freshwater agro-piscicultural ecosystems in tropical areas. Proceedings of a seminar held in Brussels, May 16-19, 1994. Brussels Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences. pp. 457-469. [S. Hem : ORSTOM-GAMET, BP 5095, 34033 Montpellier Cedex 1, France]

Acadja (a type of artificial reef, made with bundled branches set in shallow water) is a traditional fishing technique practiced in Benin and able to produce from 4 to 20 t/ha/yr. The acadja is classed among the most productive fisheries. But it has had a negative environmental impact as the trees in the surrounding forests have been overstripped to satisfy its considerable need for branches. Therefore, the development of this form of acadja can hardly be proposed for regions lacking woodlands or already affected by deforestation. As the principal of acadja is undeniably interesting, researchers are striving to find new appropriate substrates; bamboo is one of them. In acadja pens, the bundles of branches are replaced by bamboo rods planted vertically in the sediment. This article presents the first comparative results of outputs obtained with branch reefs and bamboo reefs.

107. Hepher, B. and Pruginin, Y. 1981. Commercial fish farming with special reference to fish culture in Israel. New York, USA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

"Aquaculture in Israel, which has been developed over the last four decades, has had considerable success. This success has caused much interest and has led to many requests to share the knowledge gained in Israel. Unfortunately, the methods practised have not been well-documented, and most of the information is scattered in numerous papers in various publications and journals, both in Hebrew and in English.

Because of our recent involvement in teaching trainees from foreign countries who are faced with the same lack of documented information, we decided to solve this by writing a book that brings together most of the principles and practices, published and unpublished, on this subject. We soon realized that the general principles and techniques are applicable to many other regions besides Israel. Therefore, while the emphasis of this book remains on the Israeli experience, its scope has been broadened to include more general aspects." [from Preface]

108. ICLARM and GTZ. 1991. The context of small-scale integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in Africa: a case study of Malawi. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 18. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). [ICLARM, Manila, Philippines]

"This study, supplemented by field surveys, summarizes available literature on aquaculture and the context of aquaculture in Malawi. It is intended to provide a national case study of one African context in which small-scale aquaculture has developed and in which integrated systems of agriculture-aquaculture might be promoted. The study is divided into two parts. The first part, chapters 1 and 2, deals with Africa as a whole, and the second part deals specifically with Malawi.

Chapter 1 summarizes the whole book. Based on a resource systems concept, it gives an overview of the factors involved in African aquaculture for non-specialist policy-makers and development planners, and helps in the organization of feasibility studies and research prerequisites to the planning for aquaculture development. Chapter 2 points out, through studies on the main traditional systems in some areas of North and West Africa, that aquaculture is actually an ancient tradition in Africa. Modern aquaculture systems introduced to the continent in the past 50 years and which have now been locally adopted are examined. A survey of the status of aquaculture in Africa emphasizes the Southern African Development Coordinating Conference (SADCC) subregion. Chapter 3 gives the environmental, demographic, socio-cultural and economic status of Malawi, and enumerates the national policies and strategies for agriculture and fisheries. It also gives the government’s agricultural and nutritional situations relative to aquaculture. Since 20% of Malawi is covered with freshwater, and up to 70% of the country’s total animal protein consumption comes from capture fisheries, Chapters 4 and 5 examine this sub-sector. These chapters detail the fisheries resources, areas, technologies and the socio-economic aspects, treating aquaculture as a complementary activity to capture fisheries. Chapter 6 includes the history and current status of fish farming in Malawi and the national aquaculture development policy. Chapter 7 is an examination of the research, training, extension and development projects in Malawi. Chapter 8 focuses on small-scale aquaculture, particularly in the southern region. The constraints to aquaculture development in Malawi, based on socio-economic and micro-economic factors, are described in chapters 9 and 10." [Abstract]

109. IOFC. 1996a. Major trends in global aquaculture production and summary overview of the Gulf Area (1984-1994). Committee for the Development and Management of the Fishery Resources of the Gulfs, Cairo, Egypt, October 1-3, 1996. 13p.

This report presents the new trends in global aquaculture production, first at the worldwide level, then at the level of the Gulf area, with emphasis on the various production environments and markets. By means of an analysis of the present state of aquaculture, the authors are able to highlight the key technical issues and research objectives: the sustainable intensification of production from existing freshwater ponds; the intensification of production from inland waters (cage farming, stock enhancement); the development of sustainable models for integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems; the development of strategies for more efficient use of water in pond fish farming; the development of aquafeeds from locally available ingredients; improved feeding strategies, and seed production; the improvement of genetic quality of broodstock; the optimization of production, particularly for marine finfish; and market development.

110. IOFC. 1996b. Draft report of the First Meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Aquaculture. Committee for the Development and Management of the Fishery Resources of the Gulfs, Cairo, Egypt, October 1-3, 1996. 15 p.

Following a summary overview of aquaculture in the Gulf Area and of the status of each member country, a report on sea ranching and stock enhancement was provided.

The Information System for Promotion of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (SIPAM) was presented; the participants laid stress on the conceptual side and implementation process, the prioritization of national needs and involvement of the national agencies, the organization of data flow at the regional level, and a modular approach in the development of the system.

The following list of priorities for aquaculture development in the Gulf area were identified: establishment of an aquaculture information system; marketing and economic analysis of production systems; training, feasibility studies on species of regional interest aimed at attracting investors into the sector; seed production; coastal area management including examination of the effects of aquaculture on the coastal environment; feed production stressing local production from local products; and integrated farming systems stressing the efficient use of water.

111. Ishak, M.M. 1982. Aquaculture Egypt: development of fish farming in Egypt. Pen (enclosure) and cage culture (phase I). Cairo, Egypt, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. [National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt]

112. Jhocson, N.I. and Smith, I.R. 1985. Bibliography on socio-cultural, economic and institutional aspects of tropical aquaculture and small-scale fisheries. FAO/SIDA BOBP/MIS/2. pp. 105-125. [ICLARM, Manila, Philippines]

The bibliography is divided into the following five sections: (i) socio-economic aspects of aquaculture; (ii) technology transfer in aquaculture; (iii) general issues in aquaculture; (iv) social, economic and institutional aspects of capture fisheries; and (v) socio-economic aspects of aquaculture and small-scale fisheries.

113. Johnson, M.C. 1983. Commercial Fish Farming Project in Nigeria. Research and Development Series No. 30. Auburn, Alabama, USA, International Centre for Aquaculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University.

This paper discusses the fish farming project that was developed and managed by the International Centre for Aquaculture at Auburn University. Marketing is discussed, as well as such factors as site selection and development, construction and production.

114. Kamara, A.B. 1982. Preliminary studies to culture mangrove oysters, Crassostrea tulipa in Sierra Leone. Aquaculture 27:285-294. [Ministry of Natural Resources, Freetown, Sierra Leone]

"Large quantities of wild mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa) exist in the intertidal zone of the rivers and estuaries of Sierra Leone. Typically, the wild mangrove oysters are small due to crowding and stress induced by the high ambient temperatures and lack of food at low tide when the oysters are out of water. The wild oysters measure on average 2.5 cm and weigh 1.5 g for a two-year growing period.

Preliminary studies have been made since 1974 to identify viable culture techniques that will increase the yield (growth rate and size) of mangrove oysters. Suspended culture (rack and raft) was found to be the most promising with rafts producing an average 7-cm and 7-g oyster in seven months. Biological work summarized includes plankton, fouling and bacteriological studies. Some cost-benefit studies are also included." [Abstract]

115. Kandoole, B.F. and Ambali, A.J.D. 1992. Socio-economic study of fish farming in the CNRFF Project. Consultancy Report submitted to E.C. Delegation, Malawi.

116. Kapetsky, J.M. 1994. A strategic assessment of warm-water fish farming potential in Africa. CIFA Technical Paper 27. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resources and Environment Division, FAO, Rome, Italy]

"Aquaculture in Africa is in its beginning stages in terms of output. Estimates of fish farming potential have not yet been made in a comparable or comprehensive way for the Continent or its regions, even though this information is needed for development planning. This study is a strategic assessment of the areal expanses and locations encompassing suitable to optimum potential for subsistence and commercial warmwater fish farming in ponds." [from Abstract]

117. Kara, H. 1995. L’aquaculture en Algérie. Histoire, situation et possibilités. Département de Biologie Marine. La pêche maritime, sept-octobre 1995:202-204. [BP 230, Oued Kouba, Annaba 23000, Algeria]

The author begins with a chronology of the main aquaculture activities in Algeria since the first aquaculture farm was created in 1926. This historical approach enables the author to better interpret characteristics of the present aquaculture situation. In the last part, the recommendations made by the National Agency for the Development of Fishing in its Development Plan are examined: to concentrate on extension; to set up breeding centres; to remove administrative constraints; and to adapt training and research programmes.

118. Kasprzyk, Z.W. and Andrianaivojaona, CH. 1996. Situation et perspectives de développement de la peche et de l’aquaculture a Madagascar. Volume I: Bilan de la pêche et de l’aquaculture pour la periode 1990-1996. Ministère de la Pêche et des Resources Halieutiques. Organisation des Nation Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture, Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement. [Antananarivo, Madagascar]

An overview of the existing aquaculture systems in Madagascar is presented. The main trends, problems, constraints and development opportunities for mariculture and fresh water farming are analyzed. The various experiments conducted in the Malagasy mariculture sector have shown shrimp farming to be most promising. Indeed, industrial shrimp production is growing rapidly. The most important problem to resolve is the local production of food for shrimps.

In a freshwater environment, fish farming in ponds and rice-fish farming are practised exclusively by smallholder farmers. Both types of farming have undergone very rapid growth since 1990. The most remarkable phenomenon has been the successful development of fingerling production by private sector producers. The extension approach must be improved.

119. Kasprzyk, Z.W., Andrianaivojaona, C.H. and Dasylva, G. 1993. Pêche et Aquaculture a Madagascar. Plan Directeur. Ministère d’Etat a l’Agriculture et au Développement Rural, Direction des Ressources Halieutiques. Organisation des Nation Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture, Programme des Nations Unies pour le Developpement. 100 p. [Antananarivo, Madagascar]

Programme 3 of the Master Plan focuses on the development of aquaculture in Madagascar. The main courses of action suggested to achieve this goal are: (i) support to the activities of fingerling producers; (ii) encouragement for the autonomous development of rice-fish farming; (iii) experimental farming of Macrobrachium, trout and crayfish; and (iv) re-stocking of overfarmed small water bodies.

120. Kaunda, E. and Costa-Pierce, B.A. 1993. Catchability and selectivity of a low cost, traditional fishing gear in aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24:783-789. [Mauna Loa Research Institute, Inc., Volcano, Hawaii, USA]

Work is being undertaken in Malawi towards adapting traditional fishing gears for use in the aquaculture industry. This article compares the catchabilites, selectivities, and capital costs of reed fences (the adapted technology) to the standard seine nets used in fish farming.

121. Kiewied, T. 1994. Socio-economic study of fishing communities along Lake Mweru, Luapula Province, Zambia. Aquaculture for Local Development Programme, Field Document No. 21. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

122. King, H.R. 1993. Aquaculture development and environmental issues in Africa. In: Pullin, R.S.V.; Rosethal, H. and Maclean, J.L. (eds.). Environment and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31. Manila, Philippines, ICLARM. pp. 116-124. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"Aquaculture development in Africa and related environmental issues are reviewed in the context of different types of culture systems: extensive, semi-intensive and, to a lesser extent, intensive aquaculture. Environmental impact is discussed in terms of the intensity of production of each system and interactions with surrounding ecosystems.

The general paucity of empirical data, partly due to low levels of investment in aquaculture and the weaknesses of the scientific research in the region, necessitates approaching discussions in terms of perceived current and future development trends. The most important issues of environmental impact are identified and discussed: health hazards to humans; water quality; ecosystem degradation; fish disease and effects on genetic resources. Measures to control adverse environmental impacts are discussed". [Abstract]

123. King, H. and Ibrahim, K. 1985. Village level aquaculture development in Africa. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Consultative Workshop on Village Level Aquaculture Development in Africa, Freetown, Sierra Leone, February 14-20, 1985. London, UK, Commonwealth Secretariat.

124. Koffi, C. 1992. Aspects économiques de la production piscicole en etang: l’experience de la pisciculture rurale au centre ouest et au centre de la Côte d’Ivoire. In: Bernacsek, G.M. and Powles, H. (eds.). Aquaculture systems research in Africa. Proceedings of a workshop held in Bouake, Cote d’Ivoire, November 14-17, 1988. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [Projet pisciculture en milieu rural, Division piscicole, Abengourou, Côte d’Ivoire]

"Faced with a growing demand for fish, and with a national fishery production which has not increased since 1980, Côte d’Ivoire is presently investing considerable effort in the development of fish culture. The objective of the present study was to examine the profitability of the different fish culture systems used in the inland waters of Côte d’Ivoire. Seven types or models of fish culture systems were defined, characterized by the type of feed used (3A feed or rice bran); fertilization (compost, pig manure, or none); monosex tilapia in association with a predator or mixed-sex tilapia without predator; and extension support (intensive or light). Financial and economic indices were calculated for each of the seven models. Profitability was maximal for more intensive culture systems, based on monosex tilapia with predator and regular feeding. More extensive culture (mixed-sex tilapia, irregular feeding) frequently operated at a loss. Use of pig manure as fertilizer increased yields and profits." [Abstract]

125. Lacroix, D and Paquotte, P. 1997. Rapport de mission sur la réunion SIPAM/ICRAM. Bari, Italie, 5-9 mars, 1997. IFREMER. 20 p. [IFREMER, RIDV, Nantes, France]

This report reviews the SIPAM and ICRAM networks, presents the aquaculture situation in several Mediterranean basin countries, and, specifically, gives several aquaculture economic indicators. Market constraints affecting each country’s aquaculture are stressed.

126. Lacroix, D. 1995. La production aquacole dans les pays méditerrannéens: synthèse 1992-94. In: Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes. Volume 14. MEDRAPII-CIHEAM-IFREMER. pp. 29-49. [IFREMER, RIDV, Nantes, France]

"Aquaculture in Mediterranean countries represents 4.9% of the world total (682 000 t in 1993). It is more developed in marine species (76%) and molluscs (68%) than in the rest of the world, in which freshwater species (65%) and fish (49%) are dominant. Main production are of mussels (38%) especially from Spain, oyster (20%) especially from France, trout (16,7%), carp and the dynamic pair of seabass-seabream for which production doubled from 1992 to 1994 (33 000 t).

The main producing countries (Europe and Egypt) are also the main consumers, but trade is attracted by the most interesting Italian market. The rapid development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean since the 1980s begins to slow down because of several recent problems: the drop of the Spanish mussel production; the economic crisis for seabass and seabream; the high competition for the access to the seashore; and increasing risks in pathology.

However, the awareness of the fragility of the Mediterranean, and especially of aquaculture, led the politicians and the scientists in charge of this sector to a new will: it is now time to share skills and responsibilities in the reasonable development of this promising activity which remains vulnerable for its dependence on the global quality of environment and whose market remains relatively limited at this time." [from Abstract]

127. Lacroix, D. 1994. Rapport de mission en Egypte. MEDRAPII-SIPAM. 21 p. [IFREMER, RIDV, Nantes, France]

"The development of aquaculture in the 1980s allowed production to double, reaching about 60 000 t in 1993. Thus, this aquatic dynamic trend is hampered by various factors: the competition for the use of lagoons and shallow water lakes for agriculture (polderization); the lack of good quality water; excessive drawing of fingerlings from the wild; and auto-pollution in the low delta rivers and lakes.

As it is aware of those problems, GAFRD, government institution in charge of aquaculture, is resolute to use the SIPAM network as a means of a new incentive for the existing data collecting system, whose low efficiency does not allow for precise and reliable data on aquaculture development in Egypt. Computers and software are already available. A special effort for data collection, especially in the private sector, is all the more necessary as the Egyptian Government needs the information to establish aquaculture in a rural world with increasing pressure to support it for other uses: agriculture, urban expansion and industry.

The answer to those numerous constraints is related to the economic and ecological relevancy of the new aquaculture projects rather than on the quantitative point of view, which only takes into account cheap protein production." [ from Abstract]

128. Lacroix, D. 1993. Bilan critique de l’aquaculture en Afrique du Nord et priorités de la recherche pour le développement. Rapports internes de la direction des Ressources Vivantes de l’IFREMER. IFREMER. RIDRV-93.023-RA/Nantes, France. 139 p. [IFREMER, RIDV, Nantes, France]

"On behalf of several international development agencies, FAO and the Economic Commission for Africa asked for a critical analysis on aquaculture in North Africa. This study shows great differences in the development of this sector in four countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt. This is linked to differences in socio-economic environments and potentials in aquaculture in those four countries. The analysis of priorities for research using the Electra method (multi-criteria analysis) shows an agreement on four priorities: environment; economics; training/information, and the institutional and sociological frame, in order to ensure a sustainable development limiting the waste of funds and potential conflicts." [from Abstract]

129. Lamendour, P. 1983. Handling, processing and marketing of fish in the Syrian Arab Republic. TCP/SYR/0103, Field Document 3. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

130. Larsson, R. 1993. A study of fish farmers in North-Western Province, Zambia, June 1989. ALCOM Field Document No. 15. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme (ALCOM) undertook a socio-economic study of the relationship between aquaculture and agriculture farming systems in the Mwinilunga District of the North-Western Province of Zambia during June 1989.

The Farming Systems Research (FSR) undertaken by the provincial branch of the Adaptive Research Planning Team (ARPT), which is the Zambian institution carrying out farming systems research, defined the framework of the study. The farming systems as classified and described by ARPT constituted the reference against which fish farming activities were investigated.

Background information was also provided by the ALCOM socio-economic survey of fish farmers in Zambia (referred to as ‘the Fish Farmer Survey’). The survey gave information on production levels and socio-economic characteristics of fish farmers.

The objective of the study was to describe the relationship between fish culture and farming systems by comparing fish culture management for two types of farmers: subsistence oriented and semi-commercial. The study looked particularly at production achievements, management practices, labour and resource allocations, harvesting strategies and the disposal of harvested fish." [from Introduction and Objectives]

131. Lazard, J. 1995. La pisciculture en zone tropicale humide. In: Pichot, J., Sibelet, N. and Lacoevilhe J.J. (eds.). Fertilité du milieu et stratégies paysannes sous les tropiques humides. Actes du seminaire, November 13-17, 1995), Montpellier, France. pp. 509-518. [CIRAD-SAR, BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, Cedex 1, France]

Fish farming has not yet developed a significant social and economic dimension in the humid areas of tropical Africa. However, it could play a key role in the dynamics of lowland agricultural systems. After having been perfected on station for twenty years, then tested on pilot farms, the techniques are now available to producers who wish to take up fish farming. This paper examines various aspects of integrating fish farming into agricultural systems: land use, water enhancement, and the enhancement of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. Drawing on field data, it presents the profitability and labour productivity of fishfarming operations.

132. Lazard, J. 1992. La pisciculture en Afrique. Fiches Techniques d’Elevage Tropical. Fiche no 5 - 1992. Ministere de la Cooperation et du Developpement. [20, rue Monsieur, 75700 Paris, France]

This paper provides a general overview of aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. The various kinds of aquaculture operations are discussed. There is particular emphasis on different possible levels of integration of aquaculture with the agriculture production systems. The investment costs, profitability, and labour productivity of some aquaculture operations are presented and results compared with those obtained in crop cultivation or vegetable growing.

133. Lazard, J. 1986. La pisciculture: une composante des systèmes de production agricole. Communication présentée au seminaire, ‘Relations Agriculture Elevage’. DSA-CIRAD, Monpellier, 10-13 septembre 1985. Les Cahiers de la Recherche Développement (9-10):27-34. [CIRAD-EMVT/GAMET, BP 5095, 34033 Montpellier Cedex 1, France]

"Fish culture, which is not a traditional activity on the African continent, decreased in the 1960s after a boom in the years of independence. The perfecting of easy, reliable and performing rearing techniques, as well as a better integration of fish culture to the agricultural environment, make fish culture nowadays a profitable activity, able to contribute to the supply of proteins in deficiency areas. This article describes the different levels at which fish culture integrates agricultural production schemes: filling space; water utilization; agricultural by-products use; and wastes recycling. Moreover, it describes the importance of fish culture within the timetable and the income of the African peasant." [Summary]

134. Lazard, J. and Koffi, C. 1996. Bilan, diagnostic et perspectives de l’aquaculture et des pêches artisanales en Côte d’Ivoire. Republique de Côte d’Ivoire, Ministère de l’Agriculture et des Ressources Animales, Direction de l’Aquaculture et des Pêches. Washington, D.C., Banque Mondiale. 40p.+1 figure+8 p. [CIRAD-EMVT/GAMET, BP 5095, 34033 Montpellier Cedex 1, France]

This report consists of two parts: (i) aquaculture; and (ii) small-scale fisheries. Part one (concerning aquaculture) begins by describing the state of aquaculture research and staff training, then reviews the main development projects implemented over the last two decades, in both the public and the private sector. This is followed by a critical analysis of the factors that have affected the development of aquaculture in the Côte d’Ivoire. It ends with some suggestions as to general directions for developing successful aquaculture, and characterizes the existing aquaculture systems by type.

135. Lazard, J. and Legendre, M. 1994. La pisciculture africaine: enjeux et problèmes de recherche. Cahiers Agricultures 3: 83-92. [J. Lazard: CIRAD-EMVT, BP 5035, Montpellier, Cedex 1, France]

"The present paper discusses fish farming under tropical African conditions. The main obstacles to its development south of the Sahara are analyzed from the biotechnical and socio-economic points of view. Research pathways providing solutions to the various problems are indicated.

The most commonly cultivated fishes in Africa are the mouth-brooders (Tilapia spp.) and Siluriforms. Since a large number of the species involved are farmed on other continents, the research is of international interest. Despite the predominance of these two groups, substantial research into the biological diversity of African fish in general is also being conducted to establish which species and strains are best adapted to aquaculture. The work is carried out along the same lines as that in the Amazonian basin in South America and the Mekong River in Southeast Asia.

Major research programmes on tilapia reproductive biology are under way to learn how: (i) to prevent growing-out cycles due to over-population; and (ii) to synchronize spawning for improved hatcheries management. Research on monosex population production is being carried out on three different sex determination mechanisms: physiological (use of hormones); genetic (hybridization); and environmental (mainly temperature). Research is also being conducted into salinity tolerance to brackish or seawater conditions, energetic metabolism and nutritional requirements.

Concerning the African Siluriformes, the present research priority is to acquire a full understanding of the biological cycle, with particular attention to reproductive biology and rearing of the fry, both of which are stumbling blocks to large-scale aquaculture in these species. For better management of semi-intensive fish-farming systems, a major field of research would seem to be the mechanisms regulating aquaculture ecosystems, such as food webs. Work currently being carried out on feeds and feeding under intensive farming conditions is important for reducing the respective weighting of inputs in the operating costs.

A major challenge for the future of developing countries is to explain how and why tropical fish-farmers find certain culture systems suitable and others not. This will require greater use of socio-economic and other sciences." (Summary)

136. Lazard, J., Ali, I. and Mikolasek, O. 1993. La crue de l’aquaculture face à la decrue de la pêche dans les pays du Sahel : quelle strategié face à la sécheresse? Exemple du Niger. Sécheresse 4(3):177-186.

"Facing a drastic decrease in its fisheries production, Niger, an inland country of West Africa, has started an aquaculture development policy. Its main component consists of a project based on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in floating cages in the Niger River. After a first step of experimentations and pilot rearings aiming at setting up the culture biotechnical parameters, the production system has been extended to private operators, coming mainly from the fishermen population. The present challenge is to make this aquaculture venture a perennial one, even when the institutional project is over. The Fishfarmers’ Association of Niger will be the backbone of this strategy and its 60 members the main operators." [Summary]

137. Lazard, J., Morissens, P. and Parrel, P. 1991. La pisciculture artisanale du tilapia en Afrique: analyse de differents systèmes d’élevage et leur niveau de développement. Bois Fôrets Tropical 215:77-92. [Div. Pêche et Pisciculture, CTFT/CIRAD, France]

This article describes three artisanal tilapia rearing techniques related to three different socio-economic environmental conditions in Benin (brackish lagoon pen culture), Côte d’Ivoire (hydro-agricultural scheme), and Niger (Sahelian River). In addition, the main results of production economics are discussed.

138. Lazard, J., Lecomte, Y., Stomal, B. and Weigel, J-Y. 1991. Aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. French Ministry of Cooperation. [Distributed by AGRIDOC International, BDPA SCETAGRI, Paris, France]

"Fish farming is a long-standing and traditional activity in Asia, but it is relatively new to Africa, arriving only in the last half century or so. Its potential has yet to be developed: the annual tonnage of fish (approximately 10 000 t) accounts for only 0.18 of world production. But the increasing demand for fish, especially in urban areas, means that there is likely to be a boom in aquaculture.

This book analyzes the current state-of-the-art and suggests some future directions. Particularly useful are the many case studies used to support the theories put forward by the authors, and the analysis of socio-economic factors, especially the market study comparing farmed and wild fish.

Also described in this book is 30 years’ experience of experimental research done in the field. It addresses the problems of the training needed to improve the technical and professional skills of African aquaculturalists." [Abstract]

139. Lemercier, P. 1995. L’Afrique pourra-t-elle jouer un role dans l’essor de l’aquaculture mondiale? La Pêche Maritime, avril 1995:88-91. [Philippe Lemercier: Commission Economique des Nations-Unies pour l’Afrique, P.O. Box 3001, Addis-Abeba, Ethiopie]

Parts of this article are also included in: CEA/FAO. 1994. L’Afrique pourra-t-elle jouer un role dans l’aquaculture mondiale? In: Seminaire du CIFA sur l’Environnement, les Pêches continentales et l’Aquaculture en Afrique (Harare, Zimbabwe, 5-7 decembre 1994). Papier présenté par la section "Peches et Ressources Vivantes de la Mer" de la Division Conjointe CEA/FAO de l’Agriculture (JEFAD). CIFA/94/Sem.B-11. 22 p.

140. Lemercier, P. and Bonzon, A. 1995. Impacts de l’Acte final de l’Uruguay Round sur les pêches de l’Afrique subsaharienne. FAO Circulaire sur les pêches No. 897. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 69 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

The fisheries sector, within the difficult global context for the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa, appears to be something of an exception. It makes a significant contribution to the food security of African populations and generates sizeable currency returns; the positive balance of foreign trade amounted to $US 322 m in 1993.

However, the sector is weak in terms of competitiveness. Some 75 to 85% of African seafood exports are shipped to the European Community. This is largely thanks to the favourable provisions contained in the Lomé Convention. Yet despite these provisions, many countries have not established a competitive enough fisheries’ industry, especially vis-à-vis the production chain for crustaceans and tuna. These countries could have some difficulties during the gradual phasing-in of the provisions contained in the final Act of the Uruguay Round.

141. L’Heureux, R. 1991. Cost-benefit analysis of individual fish farms and fry production centres. Project, Development of Small-Scale Fish Farming in the Lake Bassin Area - Phase II. KEN/86/027.

"The report presents the findings of a cost-benefit analysis of fish farming activities within the area covered by the project." [Subjects] [In: van der Hoeven, G., Leendertse, K. and Townsley, P. (comps.). Socio-economic surveys in fisheries in Africa, an annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 837 Revision 1]

142. Lightfoot, C., Bimbao, M.A.P., Dalsgaard, J.P.T. and Pullin, R.S.V. 1993. Aquaculture and sustainability through integrated resources management. Outlook on Agriculture 22(3):143-150. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"Aquaculture in developing countries can improve the sustainability of small-scale farms, provided that it is fully integrated with other enterprises and household activities so as to allow farm families and communities to manage their natural resources effectively. This requires the consideration of pond management and fish husbandry as means to a variety of ends (e.g., water storage, soil conservation and fertility, integrated pest management), and not just the production of fish. This paper discusses the evolution of this broad Integrated Resources Management (IRM) approach, principally with reference to the Inland Aquatic Resources Systems Programme of ICLARM, and gives some examples of relevant activities in tropical developing countries, research methods and future challenges." [Abstract]

143. Lightfoot, C., Prein, M. and Ofori, J.K. 1996. Analytical framework for rethinking aquaculture development for smallholder farmers. In: Research for the future development of aquaculture in Ghana. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42. Metro Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 4-10. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"A framework for a new type of analytical approach to aquaculture development is presented. It focuses on smallholder farmers in the context of their environment and managed natural resources, and considers experiences gained in past initiatives; makes extensive use of existing information from previous studies; employs a participatory approach; and bases work on partnerships among farmers, researchers and extensionists (both government and/or non-governmental organizations) in field trials. Data analysis results in conclusions and suggestions for implementation and the necessary policy and investment requirements." [Abstract]

144. Low, J.W. 1985. The economics of tilapia culture in Kasai occidental, Zaire. Cornell Int. Aqric. Mimeogr., 109. [In: Coche, A.G. (comp.). Aquaculture in Freshwaters: a list of selected reference books and monographs, 1951-1991. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 724, Revision 4.]

145. Mahamane, A. 1996. Synthèse sur l’aquaculture en zone sahelienne. Rapport provisoire. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 27 p. [Comité des Pêches Continentales pour l’Afrique. INRAN. Kollo, Niger]

Based on a synthesis of bibliographic data, this paper provides a general overview of aquaculture development in Sahel countries. An analysis of the global situation enabled the orientations to be plotted and strategies to be implemented in the field of research, in order to contribute to the development of aquaculture in the Sahel.

146. Marquet, J.-P. 1996. République de Guinée. Shéma Directeur Pêche et Pisciculture. Analyse et propositions pour le sous-secteur Pisciculture. Programme de Coopération Technique. TCP/ GUI/4556(A). Rapport technique no. 1. 80 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

This technical report was prepared within the framework of the FAO-supported PCT/GUI/4556 project, whose aim has been to define national policy and draw up a plan of action for the fisheries and aquaculture sector in Guinea. It comes as part of a series of theme-specific technical analyses and proposals made for the purposes of drafting the final report of the Master Plan. It concentrates exclusively on the sub-sector of inland fish farming. Within the physical, economic and institutional contexts, the report reviews the potential and constraints for the development of fish farming, assesses the performances of existing operations, and draws up a medium-term research and development strategy for fish farming, as well as two projects.

147. Martinez-Espinoza, M. (comp.). 1996. Report of the Expert Consultation on Small-scale Rural Aquaculture. Rome, Italy, May 28-31, 1996. FAO Fisheries Report No. 548. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 182 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"The objective of the Consultation was to provide FAO and its members with information and advice on the role of small-scale aquaculture in rural development. To this end, participants were asked to analyze and reflect on four keynote papers prepared by selected participants. The keynote papers covered four themes, identified in an overview paper, Options for small-scale aquaculture development. The four themes were: ‘Defining objectives and indicators and identifying target groups’; ‘The implications of integrating small-scale aquaculture within agriculture and rural development’; ‘The institutional context: the roles of the public/ private sector’; and ‘Options in research method/approaches and mechanisms for extension based on research results’.

In addition, four information papers were presented and discussed. This document presents a summary of discussions and principal conclusions reached, followed by abstracts and full versions of the overview and thematic papers plus the abstracts of the information papers." [Abstract]

148. Ministère de l’Agriculture-PNUD-FAO. 1995. Plan Directeur de l’Aquaculture en Tunisie. 167 p.

At the request of the Ministry of Agriculture, and with financing from UNDP and FAO, a Master Plan has defined the goals and the strategies for aquaculture development in Tunisia: marine and freshwater farming, clam farming and shrimp farming. First, the potentialities are assessed for each type of environment. Second, the strategies are identified. The authors highlight the improvement of the institutional framework. Finally, recommendations are made for the fields of research, training, state assistance, and company financing.

149. Molnar, J.J., Hanson, T.R. and Lovshin, L.L. 1996. Social, economic and institutional impacts of aquacultural research on tilapia: the PD/A CRSP in Rwanda, Honduras, the Philippines, and Thailand. Research and Development Series No. 40. 72 p. [International Centre for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama, USA]

"The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Programme (PD/A CRSP) is a global research network organized to generate basic science that may be used to advance aquacultural development. One of a family of research programs funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), this CRSP focuses on improving the efficiency of aquaculture systems.

The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP began work in 1982 in Thailand, and subsequently in the Philippines, Honduras, Rwanda, Indonesia, and Panama. Research continues today in Thailand, the Philippines, the USA and, until recently, Rwanda. At all the sites, the goal is the same: to identify constraints to aquaculture productions, and to design responses that are environmentally and culturally appropriate. The report provides a comparative perspective on the social and economic dimensions that interact with biological variables in the conduct of fish culture in the various locales. The report also summarizes major dimensions of variability in the financial incentives presented to producers across the sites.

The objectives of the study are: (i) to profile the farming system, fish production practices, and household circumstances of tilapia farmers in four PD/A CRSP countries; (ii) to examine the economic incentives and constraints confronting tilapia producers in terms of market signals, input costs, and the relative profitability of various experiment-based tilapia production strategies; and (iii) to provide an overview of the institutional context of the PD/A CRSP in each country’s programme of tilapia technology development and transfer." [from Chapter One: Overview]

150. Muir, J.F. (edited by Nugent, C.G.). 1995. Aquaculture development trends: perspectives for food security. In: International Conference on Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security, Kyoto, Japan, December 4-9, 1995. Organized by the Government of Japan in collaboration with FAO. KC/FI/95/TECH/4. 133 p. + graphs and tables. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

This report attempts to define the basic characteristics of aquaculture and its relationships with its functional environment, to describe the recent development of the sector and its key elements, and to consider the factors underlying its scope for expansion, in particular to meet potentially increasing needs for food supply. [from Conclusions]

151. Mustaller, M. 1982. Maricultural development and management of shallow water marine resources in the Sudanese Red Sea. Coastal Resource Systems Workshop, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, December 13, 1981. J. Fac. Mar. Sci. Jeddah 2:37-43. [Marine Laboratory, Suakin, Sudan]

Strategic aspects are presented for small-scale mariculture and fisheries projects in the Central Sudanese Red Sea. An evaluation is made of the socio-economic situation of the area by examining the integration of new fishery approaches into the structure of the coastal population and defining the development needs.

152. Noël, F. 1996. Manica Province, Mozambique. A bottom-up fish farming scene. ALCOM News Issue No. 22:2-4. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"Both areas of Manica Province where ALCOM is active represent bottom-up fish farming, in which the activity has been undertaken because the population has decided fish ponds should be part of their farming system. Sustainable private fingerling production is a goal for these two areas. Fisheries staff are identifying potential candidates and ponds for private ‘hatcheries’. Rotanda and Chazuka have unique qualities which can contribute to a regional database on multiple water use and aquaculture." [from Summary]

153. Nilsson, H. and Wetengere, K. 1994. Adoption and viability criteria for semi-intensive fish farming: a report on socio-economic study in Ruvuma and Mbeya regions, Tanzania. ALCOM Field Document No. 28. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 45 p. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"A socio-economic study was carried out in the Ruvuma and Mbeya regions of Tanzania, with two to three weeks spent in one village in each of the two regions. The purpose was to identify adoption and viability criteria for semi-intensive fish farming. Information was obtained about the status of the fish farming, and the institutions and persons who would enable fish farming, social and cultural values germane to fish farming etc. The following criteria were identified for the adoption and viability of semi-intensive fish farming: regular access to extension services, feeds and fertilizer; demand for fresh fish; and the priority given to fish farming by the farmer. If semi-intensive fish farming expands, its viability will further depend on whether fish farmers have access to fingerlings of sufficient quality." [Abstract]

154. Nji, A. 1989. Causes d’abandon de la pisciculture après son adoption et ses consequences dans les departements de la Menoua, (Province de l’Ouest) Mezam at Momo (Province du Nord-Ouest) au Cameroun. Rapport de Recherche No. DUC/RSE/89/1. [Dept. d’Education Rurale, Centre Universitaire de Dschang, Dschang, Cameroun]

This report considers various aquaculture projects; providing reasons why some of these projects have failed and the consequences for the people and the regions where such projects were implemented. Some of these reasons include social, economic and cultural factors.

155. Nji, A. 1986. Social, cultural and economic determinants of the adoption of fish pond culture in Menoua, Mezam and Momo Divisions of Cameroon (mimeo.). DUC Research Report No. DUC/RSE/86/1. [Dept. of Rural Sociol. & Ext., Dschang Univ. Center, Dschang, Cameroon]

This paper describes the factors that determine the adoption of fish pond culture in three divisions in Cameroon. Most of these factors relate to the perception of fish as an important element in their diets. It also reviews a number of aquaculture projects in Cameroon and discusses the social, cultural and economic factors influencing the adoption of fish pond culture techniques.

156. Nyambi, T.A. 1980. The importance and economics of aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the First Cross River State Fisheries Conference, Calabar, May 28-30, 1980. Fisheries Publications No. 2. [Ministry of Agriculture, Cross State, Nigeria]

"This paper compares the ability of fish farms to meet protein needs with that of legumious crops in Nigeria. It states that in a well managed fish farm, up to 3 000 kg of fish can be harvested annually on a sustainable yield basis per hectare, noting that this is six times more than cowpea and three times more than peanut for the same unit area.

While arguing that this does not suggest that fish farms should replace crops, it does at least show that aquaculture is not less paying than crops." [Abstract]

157. Nyman, L. 1988. Eco-environmental aspects of integrating small-scale aquaculture with rural development programmes in southern Africa. National Swedish Board of Fisheries (NSBF) No. 24. Göteburg Sweden, NSBF. [Fisheries Development Service, NSBF, Göteburg, Sweden]

This paper looks at the constraints to the development of small-scale aquaculture in southern Africa, the environmental factors influencing aquaculture development, and the socio-economic impacts at the community level.

158. Ofori, J.K. and Prein, M. 1996. Rapid appraisal of low-input aquaculture systems. In: Research for the future development of aquaculture in Ghana. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 31-36. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"An overview of the existing aquaculture systems in Ghana is presented, focusing on low-input systems. Information was collected using rapid appraisals through site visits. With the help of farm transects, bio-resource flow diagrams (where applicable) were made in the course of interviews. Existing problems and immediate options and potentials are pointed out." [Abstract]

159. ORSTOM (ed.). 1979. Maîtrise de l’espace agraire et développment en Afrique tropicale. Logique paysanne et rationalité technique. Actes du Colloque de Ouagadougou, 4 - 8 decembre, 1978. Memoires ORSTOM No. 89. [ORSTOM, Paris, France]

160. Oswald, M. 1996a. Les aménagements piscicoles du centre-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. In: Lavigne Delville, Ph. and Boucher, L. (eds.). Les bas-fonds en Afrique tropicale humide. Guide de diagnostic et d’intervention. Coopération Française, CT, GRET. pp. 383-400. [Projet Piscicole du Centre-Ouest, BP 1104 Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire]

This article discusses fish farming as a form of lowland enhancement. A variety of extensive and intensive models has been tested from the simple damming of valleys with annual re-stocking, to Madagascan rice-fishfarming or the associated rice field/fish ponds in the swamplands of Rwanda. The paper presents a case study of water and pond planning in the mid-west of Côte d’Ivoire as an illustration of other possible forms of lowland enhancement.

161. Oswald, M. 1996b. Projet: ‘Appui à la profession piscicole du centre-ouest’, Synthèse de la phase I, novembre 1992-novembre 1995. Republique de Côte d’Ivoire, Ministère de l’Agriculture et des Ressources Animales, Projet Piscicole du Centre-Ouest. [M. Oswald: 3, square Guimard, 78960 Voisins le Bretonneux, France]

The project, ‘Support for the fishfarming profession in the mid-west Côte d’Ivoire’, was launched in December 1992. It followed the AFVP/SATMACI/PAPU-CD project, which had provided evidence as to the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale fish farming in mid-west Côte d’Ivoire.

Indeed, this new project - for the development of private fish farms in peri-urban areas as well as improved use of lowland water resources - has had in its favour the proximity of the market with the strong demand for fish, the availability of agro-industrial waste products, and investments required in human capital alone.

This report offers a synthesis of Phase I (1992-1995) of the project. According to its author, the project has proved its ability to promote a stimulating framework from which new piscicultural activity is spontaneously emerging, not only in peri-urban areas but also, and especially, in the surrounding rural areas. Utilizing the agricultural system approach, the report then discusses various low-input aquaculture techniques adapted to the rural population.

162. Oswald, M. 1996c. Politique de développement de la pisciculture continentale. Quelques propositions. Republique de Guinée, Ministère de la Pêche et de l’Aquaculture. AFVP. [M. Oswald: 3, square Guimard, 78960 Voisins le Bretonneux, France]

This report sets out to suggest policy for the development of inland fish farming in Guinea. It begins with an overview of past experiences and existing fish farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two fishfarming production systems (one industrial and one small-scale) are characterized. The small-scale system seems to be suitable for development within the physical, social and economic context of Guinea. Various fishfarming techniques are examined, along with a variety of ways in which they could be introduced and extended amongst Guinean smallholders.

163. Oswald, M. 1996d. Projet pilote de développement de la pisciculture continentale. Departement de N’zerekore et Gueckedou, propositions. Republique de Guinée, Ministère de la Pêche et de l’Aquaculture. AFVP. [M. Oswald: 3, square Guimard, 78960 Voisins le Bretonneux, France]

This report presents operational proposals for the transfer to Guinea of the approaches and methods for fishfarming development, and the fishfarming techniques tested and implemented in the mid-west Côte d’Ivoire. Conditions are examined for the transfer of fishfarming techniques to similar natural environments with different agricultural systems.

164. Oswald, M. 1995. Pisciculture en milieu paysan. In: Homme et animaux. Elevage en Afrique subsaharienne. Inter-reseaux 1995. pp. 32-34. [s/c CFSI, 32, rue le Peletier, 75009 Paris, France]

For the past ten years, the integration of small-scale commercial fish farming into local farming systems in mid-west Côte d’Ivoire has been developed through small projects in the peri-urban area of towns with available waste products that can be utilized for input. The paper describes the experiences of these peri-urban fish farmers.

165. Oswald, M. and Copin, Y. 1988. Le volet piscicole de la SATMACI-PAPU CD. In: Bernacsek, G.M. and Powels, H. (eds.). Aquaculture systems research in Africa. Proceedings of a workshop held in Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire, November 14-17, 1988. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. pp. 382-397. [Centre de recherches pour le développement international, IDCR-MR 308 e,f, Ottawa, Canada]

"The objective of this project is to describe an activity that can become the essential activity of certain small groups prepared to invest in it. The technical model is simple: monosex rearing of Tilapia nilotica fed on rice bran, requiring a minimum of five ponds. The use of credit permits this activity to become one of their major concerns. The operations of the first two fish farmers are presented and the analysis of successes and failures is encouraging. The project has always played an important part in support of these fish breeders, and at present it is inconceivable that new culturists would enter the field without extension support. These motivated fish farmers form a nucleus which could support agricultural development and assist research to improve a farmer-managed system." [from Abstract]

166. Palm, R. 1989. Management of community small water bodies for fish production in Africa. In: Glasson, M. and Gaudet, J.L. (eds.). Summary of proceedings and selected papers. Symposium on the Development and Management of Fisheries in Small Water Bodies. Accra, Ghana, December 7-8, 1987. FAO Fisheries Report No. 425. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [South Carolina Aquaculture and Marine Programmes International, Bell W. Baruch Institute for Marine Biology and Coastal Research, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA]

"This review paper consolidates and analyses information on the history, construction and management of community small water bodies in Africa for which fish production is a major objective. The impact on yield of various environmental parameters and management options is examined. Among the various types of community groups involved in fish production, community institutions such as schools and missions were found to be the most successful. Overall, community fisheries and aquaculture activities in ponds and reservoirs in Africa have been a failure. Although biological, engineering and economic factors have often contributed to this failure, the primary reasons are social and cultural. Four case studies are presented, regional trends are discussed, and future research needs are targeted." [Abstract]

167. Parrel, P. 1993. Mission d’évaluation du volet piscicole du projet d’aménagement hydro-agricole du Département de Matam (Sénégal) -Phase III. 31 p. [CIRAD-EMVT. 10, rue Pierre Curie, 94704 Maisons Alfort Cedex, France]

This mission report assesses the pisciculture component of the hydro-agricultural management project in the Matam area of Senegal. Of the two production techniques utilized, namely rearing fish in ponds and in floating cages, the latter produces better technical and economic results in conditions specific to the River Senegal valley.

168. Parrel, P., Ali, I. and Lazard, J. 1986. Le développement de l’aquaculture au Niger: un exemple d’élevage de tilapia en zone sahelienne. Bois et Fôrets des Tropique 212:71-94. [CTFT/CIRAD., Nogent-sur-Marne, France]

"Niger is a country in the Sahel where the main source of permanent water comes from the Niger River. With last year’s drought and the embanking of the River to build hydro-agricultural facilities, the production of fisheries dropped from 6 000 to 2 000 t (in 1984) and to 900 t (in 1985).

The river’s hydrology is characterized by wide annual and interannual variations in flow. The rise of the tide throughout the year is 4 m and, apart from some exceptions, the River always flows. Under these conditions, the best adapted rearing structure is the floating cage, with the fish used for culture being Tilapia nilotica. Each cage is made up of a floating structure supporting a submerged bag, with a plastic mesh, which contains the fish. The feed used for the production of commercial fish in cages is a mix of agricultural by-products which are available in Niger (wheat or rice bran and groundnut cake) or in the sub-region (fish meal). Two factors in the environment play an important role on the behaviour and growth of fish: the temperature (which ranges from 16°C to 31°C throughout the year) and the turbidity of the water (especially when the water level rises). Consequently, the feeding rate must be adjusted as a function of these environmental conditions.

The repeatability of the results recorded in the framework of the Aquaculture Development Project in Niger accounts for the reliability of this particular culture technique. As for the economic aspect, the production account of a 20 m3 floating cage shows a CFAF 140.000 profit margin per cycle and the operating costs are shared out into 12% fixed costs and 88% variable costs (out of which 43% for feed).

Intensive training and support of fishermen-farmers who live on the riverside will be required for the extension of this rearing technique." [from Abstract]

169. Patou, O., Lazard, J. and Mikolasek, O. 1997. Le développement à l’épreuve du concret: l’exemple de l’aquaculture en cages flottantes sur le fleuve Niger. Version provisoire. (Unpublished typescript). 10 p.+13 tables. [J. Lazard: CIRAD-EMVT, BP 5035, Montpellier, Cedex 1, France]

Fish farming is not an African tradition; the first attempts to really develop the activity date back to the 1940s. The farming system developed was mainly the pond system, with the produce essentially going into domestic consumption.

At the beginning of the 1980s a project was drawn up to improve pisciculture production in the Niger by using floating cages on the River Niger. It was an original solution compared with other aquaculture development operations in Africa. But this vertically-integrated operation required far more attention, technical ability and credit facilities, in order to be technically and economically viable. Most of all, this operation could not afford to fail in comparison with pond farming.

This article looks into the historical background and recent performance of this project, examines the economic and technical results obtained during the experimental and pilot phases, and compares these with the socio-professional realities of African fish farmers.

170. Pedini, M. 1996. Aquaculture in the GFCM countries. FAN: The FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (14)18-23. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

171. Pettersson-Lofquist, P. 1995. The development of open-water algae farming in Zanzibar: reflections on the socio-economic impact. Ambio 24(7-8):487-491. [Department of Social Science, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden]

"This article outlines the development of commercial open-water algae farming in Zanzibar in a historic context, with special reference to actual events at the corporate level from the initiation of algae-farming to its present state. These events, which contain policies and intentions of implementation at the producer level, have an array of social implications for the algae-farming communities. The three aspects of these implications are delineated; (i) a changing mode of tenure rights of the farmed lagoon areas; (ii) a changing role for algae farmers, i.e., women; and (iii) a qualitative change within the composition of indigenous productive activities, the latter being illustrated by a declining activity in agriculture. The article demonstrates the importance of the encounter between an indigenous livelihood system and infused incentives pertaining to divergent rationales of livelihood in socio-economic development processes." [Abstract]

172. Prein, M. and Ofori J.K. 1996. Mapping of aquatic resource systems with areas of potential for aquaculture in Ghana. In: Research for the future development of aquaculture in Ghana. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 11-19. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The following aquatic resource systems with potential for aquaculture development in Ghana were demarcated: lagoons, bays and estuaries; rivers; lakes and large reservoirs; small water bodies; and floodplains and swamps. Where available, area estimates are given, together with data on existing aquaculture and fisheries activities. Potential technologies for further development are briefly pointed out." [Abstract]

173. Pullin, R.S.V. and Prein, M. 1995. Fishponds facilitate natural resources management on small-scale farms in tropical developing countries. In: Symoens, J.J. and Micha, J.C. (eds.). The management of integrated freshwater agro-piscicultural ecosystems in tropical areas. Proceedings of a seminar held in Brussels, May 16-19, 1994. pp. 169-186. [Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences, Brussels, Belgium]

"A redefinition of the objectives for aquaculture development in tropical developing countries is presented. The common rationale to justify aquaculture development is that of fish production per se as a stand-alone enterprise. Efforts to link fish culture with livestock production by small-scale resource-poor farmers have not worked well because technology packages were proposed which did not consider their perspectives and resources. An alternative view is presented here, in which all the natural resources that can be managed by the farmer are considered. The fishpond, in most cases a newly-introduced enterprise, can be integrated into ongoing farm activities, relying largely on on-farm residues as pond inputs. In such farm systems, the fishpond can have a pivotal role in supporting other activities, e.g., water for dry-season gardening of vegetables, and increased production of existing crops with pond mud used for fertilization of nutrient-depleted fields. Farmers understand the importance and the benefits of improved management of their natural resources. This can be facilitated by small fishponds. They are entry points to better management of natural resources and are also environmental assets." [Summary]

174. Powles, H. (ed.). 1987. Research priorities for African aquaculture. Report of a workshop held in Dakar, Senegal, October 13-16, 1986. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, and Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme of UNDP/FAO. [IDRC, Regional Office for West and Central Africa, Dakar, Senegal]

The articles in this manuscript are organized under the following headings: (i) Introduction; (ii) Production Systems and Constraints; (iii) Research Themes and Priorities; (iv) Mechanisms for Research Support; (v) Research Project Proposals and vi) Conclusions.

175. Prein, M., Ofori, J.K. and Lightfoot, C. (eds.). 1996. Research for the future development of aquaculture in Ghana. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 94 p. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

Since 1986, ICLARM has implemented a series of projects aimed at tackling the very difficult problem of how to develop, through research partnerships with national scientists and farmers, sustainable integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) systems on resource-poor African smallholdings. This publication derives from a workshop convened under one such project, ‘Research for the Future Development of Aquaculture in Ghana’.

The most appropriate areas for aquaculture development in Ghana were determined. Limitations were identified through rapid rural appraisal techniques as to soil quality and farmer access to lowland areas where ponds can be sited next to streams.

Surveys outlined the socio-economic characteristics and related gender issues on resource-poor farm households. Constraints of cash, labour and land availability as well as cultural traditions were outlined. No direct limitations to fish culture were identified. The high preference of Ghanaians for fish as source of animal protein in their diet (approximately 70%) was pointed out with a theoretical per caput fish consumption of 23 kg year as of 1992.

The prevailing human ecological context in Ghana was described, outlining the degraded state of the environment (deforestation, erosion, soil nutrient depletion), the high rate of population increase (2,6% per year) and extent of malnutrition.

The potential impact of integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems on sustainable farming practices in Ghana was outlined, based on preliminary results of the research conducted with a set of farmer-adopters in the Mampong Valley. It was estimated that the adoption of integration by smallholder farmers on a wider basis in Ghana has potential for the improvement of food supply and farm income. It was shown that, given the existing human ecological context factors in Ghana, changes in agricultural practices are of highest importance. Further, if the growing population is to be fed from the continuously degraded land in the future, IAA systems offer a viable means to counteract this threat, but only to a certain extent." [from Workshop Summary]

176. Prein, M. and Ofori, J.K. 1996. Past initiatives for promoting aquaculture in Ghana. In: Research for the future development of aquaculture in Ghana. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Livinf Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 1-3. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"An overview of the past initiatives for development of aquaculture in Ghana is given. Historically, three traditional forms of aquaculture were performed. These were in the Volta River and coastal lagoons. Modern attempts have focused on inland pond aquaculture with very limited success. Support by the Fisheries Department has been limited. Attempts have been made mainly by individuals without technological knowledge and failures have been numerous. Yet, installations set up by government institutions outside of the Fisheries Department have been more successful. A heavy focus on commercial operations has failed and is therefore discouraged under the existing economic situation." [from Abstract ]

177. Price, T.L. 1987. Burkina Faso. Mise en valeur globale de la pêche pisciculture. Rapport préparé pour le Projet Aménagement Piscicole et Renforcement de l’Encardement dans la Zone du Sourou. FAO/TCP/BKF/4511. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

This work presents the findings of a study on the socio-economic aspects of the Sourou population, with respect to the development of fisheries and aquaculture activities. An organizational plan is included with details of exploitation and management systems. Financial management of fish enclosures is considered.

178. Rabelahatra, A. 1988. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique. 22. Madagascar. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.22. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The acadja was tried out with success in the Pangalanes lagoon, and this system. Moreover, this system has similarities with traditional ‘vovomara’ fishing. The farming of ‘Chanos Chanos’ in coastal ponds also produced an encouraging yield.

Though there were 85 000 familial ponds in 1962, most of them were abandoned for lack of financial support and extensionist follow-through. The Department of Fishing and Aquaculture, established in 1985, has seen its aquaculture staff grow, while funding for aquaculture development has increased over the years. New projects have been hatched, namely: shrimp farming and the extension of royal carp farming (with the help of UNDP).

Aquaculture development projects are proposed and submitted for local or foreign financing, including; breeding in cages or enclosures, salmon farming, and oyster farming. The possibility of integrating an aquaculture pond into an animal farm is being studied within the context of the MAG/82/014 Project, ‘Extension of Fish Farming and Development of Inland Fishing’." [from Abstract]

179. Rene, F., Vandeputte, M. and Kinadjian, L. 1994. Aquaculture africaine: mais où est donc passée la rentabilité? Equinoxe (51):4-11. [IFREMER, BP 1049, 44037 Nantes Cedex, France]

In the first part of this paper, the authors analyze the reasons for the general failure of aquaculture development in Africa, while the same aquaculture techniques (implemented by international aid agencies) have been successful on other continents. In the second part, ‘Grounds for Hope’, the keys for success are identified in the light of projects which have been successful, and new directions are put forward for research and development.

180. Rifaat, M.A. 1996. Aquaculture activities in the Arab countries. INFOFISH International:22-26. [INFOSAMAK, Bahrain]

The first part of this article is devoted to the aims of aquaculture, with specific references to each of the Arab countries concerned. The second part provides the history of aquaculture development over the last few years, including the main systems of production. An inventory of the constraints that hinder aquaculture development in Arab countries is outlined in the subsequent section. The final part emphasizes the need for better organized cooperation in the region.

181. Sadek, S. and El Gamal, A.A. 1997. Egyptian aquaculture with special emphasis on mariculture in regard to status, constraints and potential. Arab Aquaculture. 13 p. [Consultants Office (Cairo) and Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research (Sharkla, Egypt)]

"Fish production through aquaculture in Egypt reached 61 700 tonnes in 1995, representing 15% of total fish production where different aquaculture systems are practised. Out of this figure, insignificant quantities come from mariculture. Trials for mariculture has begun in the mid-1980s with shrimp culture. Currently, there are few mariculture projects in operation on the inclusion of spawning and grow-out of marine shrimp or finfish. Water resources are by far the most limiting factor to be considered in aquaculture development in Egypt, especially freshwater aquaculture. Marine waters are the immediate promising sources for the water needed, particularly as Egypt has the vast marine resources of the Mediterranean and Red seas. Although there are no restrictions on the use of sea water for aquaculture, most of the sites suitable for mariculture have been allocated or/and being considered for other activities such as tourism and urban development. Moreover, the development of mariculture is hampered by the shortage of some essentiel elements such as fish seed dominated by mullet. Artificial spawning of marine finfish/shrimp seeds has recently started. Current production (around 10 million of shrimp post-larvae and 3 million of fish fingerlings) cannot support the potential development of mariculture. Current production of marine finfishes are currently slightly higher than 1 500 t/yr. In general, the expansion of mariculture activity is taking place.

Development of seabass (Dicentrachus labrax) and seabream (Sparus auratus) is soon expected, with further contribution expected for other species. The positive trend in shrimp culture is expected to continue. Molluscs culture may be promoted in areas along the Red Sea coast." [from Abstract]

182. Satia, B.P. 1991. Socio-demographic and socio-economic profile of rural fish farmers in the West and North West provinces of the Republic of Cameroon. Journal of West African Fisheries (forthcoming). [Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Production, Yaoundé, Cameroon]

This paper describes various groups involved in fish farming activities in the West and North West provinces of Cameroon. Particular attention is given to the demographic, social, cultural and economic factors which are of importance to the activities of the different groups in these areas.

183. Satia, B.P. 1990. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 29. Nigeria. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 77O.29. FIRI/C770.29. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 193 p. [Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries, Yaoundé, Cameroon]

"Aquaculture development was reactivated in the late 1970s with the construction and operation of the African Regional Aquaculture Centre (ARAC) at Aluu near Port Harcourt; the operation by the Federal Department of Fisheries of four main Fish Seed Multiplication and Training Centres; the restructuring of fisheries and aquaculture research; the introduction of aquaculture courses in the curriculum of some universities and agricultural schools; and the involvement of some state corporations in the operatives.

Since 1984, there has been a surge of interest in large-scale commercial farms owned and/or operated by a ‘new breed’ of influential, wealthy and sometimes knowledgeable or skilled Nigerians, whose interest in the sector has been kindled by awareness created by the various fisheries administrations on the one hand, and by a series of reforms enacted by Government in favour of agricultural development after the oil boom era, on the other hand. In the private sector, there are presently about 2 000 rural fish ponds, 3 000 homestead ponds and over 50 commercial farms. In the public sector, there are more than 30 fish seed production units and hatcheries, a large pool of trained manpower, as well as training and research facilities for aquaculture. However, most public sector units are operating below capacity due to among other factors: inadequate and unreliable releases of funds; shortage of input supplies; problems of management; and insufficient motivation of staff. On the other hand, progress in the private sector is hampered by inadequate supply of quality fish seeds and feeds, low performing extension services, as well as the long and at times painful procedures to have access to land and institutional credit.

Nevertheless, Nigeria has a high potential to develop fish farming to absorb a substantial fraction of its fish product deficit. The country has an adequate national infrastructure; there is a high demand for fish and its sale price is favourable. What is needed is a more dynamic approach to implement the available knowledge while exploring ways to ameliorate the performance of the industry." [from Abstract]

184. Satia, B. 1989. A regional survey of the aquaculture sector in Africa South of the Sahara. ADCP/REP/89/36. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Aquaculture Development Coordination Programme.

"This regional survey of the aquaculture sector in Africa is a contribution to the global survey of the sector currently being undertaken by the Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme (ADCP). It has been prepared on the basis of country reports resulting from missions by two teams to Nigeria, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, and to Kenya, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania in April 1988, and on the basis of information available at FAO Headquarters." [from Introduction]

185. Satia, B. 1988. Large-scale reconnaissance survey of socio-economic conditions of fish farmers and aquaculture practices in the West and North West Province of Cameroon. In: Atélier sur la recherche aquacole en Afrique (14-17/11/88). Bouaké., RCI; IDESSA-PNUD-FAO-CRDI.

186. Satia, B.P., Satia, P.N. and Amin, A. 1992. Large-scale reconnaissance survey of socioeconomic conditions of fish farmers and aquaculture practices in the West and North West Provinces of Cameroon. In: Bernacsek, G.M. and Powles, H. (eds.). Aquaculture systems research in Africa. Proceedings of a workshop held in Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire, November 14-17, 1988. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries, Yaoundé, Cameroon]

"The present study was undertaken to provide socio-economic information in the hope that it would be useful for planning and formulating future programmes. Furthermore, the study was undertaken on the premise that an analysis of existing aquaculture systems and practices might facilitate understanding the technical and socio-economic environments under which producers operate and into which improved technologies could be introduced. In particular, the study was undertaken to provide baseline information for an on-station and on-farm integrated aquaculture research and extension project, financed by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, in two provinces of Cameroon." [from Introduction]

187. Seki, E. and Maly, R. 1993. A pilot socio-economic survey of aquaculture in the Ruvuma region, Tanzania. Aquaculture for Local Community Development (GCP/INT/555/SWE) and Enhancement of the Role of Women in Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture (GCP/RAF/273/JPN). ALCOM Field Document No. 20. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 90 p.

This paper describes the status of fish farming in four districts of the Ruvuma region, Tanzania. It identifies constraints and the potential for increasing rural aquaculture production and provides basic information essential for aquaculture sector planning.(from Immediate Objectives) [In: van der Hoeven, G., Leendertse, K. and Townsley, P. (comps.). Socio-economic surveys in fisheries in Africa: an annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 837 Revision 1.]

188. Sen, S. 1995. The market for fish and fish products in Zimbabwe. ALCOM Field Document No. 34. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 37 p.+5 appendixes. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"ALCOM and the Zambia/Zimbabwe SADC Fisheries Project (ZZSFP) jointly funded a fish marketing study of Zimbabwe during the last quarter of 1994. The main objectives of the study were: to determine the current trends in the supply and demand of the fish in Zimbabwe; assess the impact of imports of fish, especially cheap fish from Namibia and dried kapenta from Mozambique; assess project future trends; and assess the implications of the findings to the aquaculture and fisheries sector in the country". [from Preface and Executive Summary]

189. Sen, S. 1991. Progress report on the socio-economic and marketing study. Project Support for the Rural Aquaculture Extension. ZIM/88/021/Agritex.

"Preparation of socio-economic evaluation of the impact of a rural aquaculture extension project. A study of demand, consumer preferences and marketing of fish." [Subjects] [In: van der Hoeven, G., Leendertse, K. and Townsley, P. (comps.). Socio-economic surveys in fisheries in Africa: an annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 837 Revision 1.]

190. Sen, S. 1991. Seaweed collection and culture in Tanzania. Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme, GCP/INT/436/SWE.14. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations.

This paper examines the marine algae environment in Tanzania, and the historical and present-day situations of the seaweed industry in the country. Constraints to the industry are discussed and marketing and distribution channels are outlined. Finally, the economic and social aspects of both wild and cultivated stocks are discussed.

191. Shang, Y.C. 1981. Aquaculture economics. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press. 153 p.

192. Shehadeh, Z.H. and Feidi, I. 1996. Aquaculture development and resource limitations in Egypt. FAN: The FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (14):3-7. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

The authors first expose current aqua farming policies and strategies. This is followed by an outline of several elements relative to the socio-economic organization and input costs. The authors detail production systems and practices according to each species bred. The second part is devoted to development prospects, highlighting the conflict with agriculture in the distribution of land and water resources. A detailed analysis of this competition is given for each production system. The specific problem of juvenile and fingerling supply is raised, as well as the problem of animal feeding. Finally, the prospects for mariculture development on the Mediterranean, as well as the Red Sea coasts are detailed.

193. Thomas, D.H.L. 1994. Socio-economic and cultural factors in aquaculture development: a case study from Nigeria. Aquaculture 119:329-343. [Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK]

"Intensification of fish production from pools in an African floodplain, through water management, fertilization and stocking with fingerlings, was technically a success. Fish production per hectare was 171% greater in managed ponds compared with unmanaged ponds, and in terms of income derived from labour inputs for pond management (the main cost of production), the returns per man hour compared favourably to alternative activities. However, due to a poor understanding of socio-economic and cultural factors, the technology as originally introduced was not adopted by the community." [Abstract]

194. Toure, H.T. 1995. Impacts du développement de la pisciculture sur la riziculture dans les bas-fonds periurbains de la ville de Daloa (centre-ouest de Côte d’Ivoire). Mémoire de fin d’etudes. [Institut Superieur des Sciences et Techniques Halieutiques (ISSTH), Nouadhibou, Mauritanie]

This report aims to analyze the impact of fish farming on rice farming in the peri-urban lowlands of Daloa, a town mid-west Côte d’Ivoire.

These lowlands have mainly been developed by immigrant ethnic groups from the north, whose chief activities include rice farming, fish farming and growing vegetables. The main constraints in developing lowlands relate to land rights and water management. The determining economic features of the technical systems implemented by these farmers are the diversification of income sources, risk reduction and the management of the labour force.

Fish farming and rice growing have already begun being integrated in lowland areas, and the cohabitation with irrigated rice has produced some positive interaction. Indeed, the fish ponds are built on the slopes of valley hillsides, areas usually unsuitable for cultivating rice. Once they are constructed, some rice farmers create or extend their paddies to within the vicinity of fish-farm canalization. This practice leads to the intensification of land use and improves the enhancement of water resources.

195. Trottier, B. 1989. Women in aquaculture production in West Africa. In: Glasson, M. and Gaudet, J.L. (eds.). Summary of proceedings and selected papers. Symposium on the Development and Management of Fisheries in Small Water Bodies. Accra, Ghana, December 7-8, 1987. FAO Fisheries Report No. 425. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"On the basis of the existing literature and field surveys, this article describes the position and role of women in traditional fishing activities in West Africa. Emphasis is laid on the lacunae in scientific research on this subject and the non-recognition of women’s work in fisheries production. Against this background, and in view of the fact that women are already responsible for most food production in rural regions, their increased participation in aquaculture development projects should be the subject of special attention. Several constraints, however, remain to be overcome. Examples taken from different African countries show that the limited time available, the difficulties of access to ownership, credit and land, are amongst the many social and cultural factors negatively influencing the genuine involvement of women in aquaculture activities. It is, therefore, proposed to make these women a target group, to include them in extension and training activities, and to see that funds are earmarked for this purpose. These strategies would help overcome the social and cultural barriers preventing women from playing their full role in the development process in rural regions." [Abstract]

196. UNDP. 1996. Human Development Report. Ed Economica, juin 96. 251 p.

197. van den Berg, F. 1996. The private sector: a potential key element in the development of small-scale aquaculture in Africa - lessons from Madagascar. FAN: The FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (12):14-16.

This article discusses the experience of Madagascar in aquaculture development and its similarities to the rest of Africa until 1989, when a new approach involving the private sector was introduced.

198. van den Berg, F. 1994. Privatization of fingerling production and extension: a new approach for aquaculture development in Madagascar. In: Brummett, R.E. (ed.). Aquaculture policy options for integrated resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa: extended abstracts and discussions. Proceedings of a workshop held in Zomba, Malawi, February 22-25, 1994, Zomba, Malawi. ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 46. pp. 32-34. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). [F. van den Berg: Aquaculture and Extension Development, P.O. Box 30750, Lilongwe, Malawi]

"In most African countries, aquaculture development is directly related to the degree of government involvement. Fingerlings are produced at government fish stations, and extension activities are organized and executed by the Fisheries Department. Unfortunately, the implementation of governmental development programmes are often hampered by the lack of essential human and financial resources. This was the case in Madagascar until 1989, when a new approach for the development of the aquaculture sector was adopted with promising results. The ‘Hauts-Plateaux’ (the highlands of Madagascar), which are characterized by rice farming, were selected as a pilot area to work out this new approach. Now, five years later, an abundance of fingerlings is available. These are produced by private farmers who are even taking over the extension activities formerly carried out by the Government." [from Introduction]

199. van der Mheen, H. 1996. Aquaculture notes. Eastern Province of Zambia and Morogoro, Tanzania. ALCOM News (22):7-8. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"ALCOM is currently supporting smallholder aquaculture projects in Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia. Fish culture is rapidly becoming an integral part of smallholder farming systems. The following sections highlight activities at two of ALCOM’s projects." [Foreword]

200. van der Mheen, H. 1995. Report on the Seminar on Aquaculture Extension in Zambia. ALCOM Field Document No. 36. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 17p. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"This document reports on the Seminar on Aquaculture Extension in Zambia which was held at the Pan-African Institute for Development in Kabwe, Zambia, October 2-6, 1995. The objective of the seminar was to review experiences with the various extension methods used in Zambia to promote fish farming, to assess the effectiveness of the different approaches, and to prepare recommendations to improve the extension service." [from Introduction]

201. van der Mheen, H. 1992. Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme (Zambia). In: Bernacsek, G.M. and Powles, H. (eds.). Aquaculture systems research in Africa. Proceedings of a workshop held in Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire, November 14-17, 1988. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme, Lusaka, Zambia]

"The Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme (ALCOM) is executed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with funding from Sweden. The programme is interregional, although initially focusing on countries in southern Africa. During the preparatory phase (1986-1989), the following activities were executed by ALCOM: desk studies on the socio-cultural, socio-economic, bio-environmental, and biotechnical aspects of aquaculture in rural development; surveys on fish farmers in Zambia; technical consultation on aquaculture in rural development, with participation from the South African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) countries; regional formulation missions, formulating plans for pilot projects for the second phase of the programme; missions on aquaculture and human nutrition; and a pilot project in the Eastern province of Zambia. The activities of this pilot project are presented in these proceeedings.

After a full year of activities, only preliminary results are available. This paper will therefore focus on the approach of the research rather than on its results." [Abstract]

202. van der Mheen-Sluijer, J. 1995. Aquaculture extension guidelines for small-scale farmers. ALCOM Report No. 16. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 63 p. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"These guidelines describe the approach taken by ALCOM’s first pilot project in Eastern Province, Zambia, from 1987 to 1991.The pilot project aimed at introducing small-scale aquaculture in rural communities through a participatory approach, mobilizing the communities’ own resources." [from Preface]

203. van der Mheen - Sluijer, J. 1991. Adoption of fish farming: promoting and inhibiting factors in Eastern Province, Zambia. Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme, GCP/INT/436/SWE.13. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

This paper describes the factors that promote and inhibit the adoption of aquaculture activities in the eastern parts of Zambia. Most of these factors are related to traditional and cultural practices. In recent times economic factors have also been significant in the adoption process.

"The field document, Field testing of aquaculture in rural development: pilot project in Eastern Province of Zambia’ (FI:GCP/INT/436/SWE.6), proposed a model on the adoption of innovations. The model explains the adoption of fish farming by an individual within a socio-economic setting. However, it does not explain how this setting and the individual’s characteristics can influence the process. There were different reactions to the introduction of fish farming in two areas of the Province, Rukuzye and Magwero. A study was carried out to identify the relative importance of the socio-economic environment and the individual’s characteristics in the adoption process.

The study had two goals: (i) what factors account for the difference in the uptake of fish farming between Rukuzye and Magwero Area; and (ii) what are the main elements differentiating adopters of fish farming from those not interested in this activity. The study results should be viewed in the light of a lack of fishing tradition as well as a limited physical potential for fish farming in the Eastern Province." [Introduction]

204. van der Mheen-Sluijer, J. and Sen, S. 1994. Meeting information needs on gender issues in aquaculture. ALCOM Field Document No. 33. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 36 p. [ALCOM, FAO/UN, PO Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"What kind of information do aquaculture planners need to ensure that gender issues are taken care of in their planning? How can such information be collected? This document contains guidelines concerning both questions. The guidelines cover four areas: (i) information needed for sector planning and project formulation at the macro-level; (ii) information required at the micro-level (which will be helpful for development interventions in local communities); (iii) monitoring and evaluation; and (iv) incorporation of gender issues in socio-economic data collection." [from Abstract]

205. Veverica, K.L., Moehl, J.F.Jr., Hishamunda, N. and Nyirahabimana P. undated. Establishment of a fish culture extension service in Africa’s most densely populated country. Auburn University, Alabama, United States, International Center for Aquaculture. [Rwanda Fish Culture Project, International Centre for Aquaculture, Auburn University, Alabama, USA]

"Rwandan farmers have practiced tilapia culture since the 1950s. Although yields rarely exceeded natural productivity, farmer interest remained high. Increasing population pressure and the accompanying need to maximize land-use efficiency underscored the importance of either increasing pond productivity or using the land for alternate crops. Previous authors have stated that ponds producing 1200 kg/ha/yr would be cost-effective.

Farmers surveyed stated that the lack of the lack of fingerlings and of technical counsel were their greatest constraints. Additional socio-economic and cultural constraints identified included the lack of inputs and long distances from home to pond.

An extension service was designed to provide close farmer extension agent contact, with a minimal amount of infrastructure, in order to improve management of existing ponds. Agents extended integrated tilapia culture and stressed its complementarity with other valley uses. Government hatcheries were renovated, and a transport system established to supply high-quality fingerlings to the rural sector.

An increase in average net productivity from 300 kg/ha/yr was observed as improved management techniques were adopted in varying degrees. Net productivites surpassing 1500 kg/ha/yr were obtained by 29% of farmers harvesting in 1986." [Abstract]

206. Weigel, J.Y. 1994. Analyse macro-économique du Plan Directeur de l’Aquaculture en Tunisie. Direction Générale de la Pêche et de l’Aquaculture-PNUD-FAO. Doc ronéo. 46 p.

"The direct and indirect effects of the investments and running of various aquaculture projects proposed by the Master Plan of Tunisia are assessed. This methodology is applied to each type of aquaculture: marine and inland fish farming, clam farming, mussel farming, and oyster farming. Significant aquaculture existed prior to the implementation of the Master Plan, and a comparison has been made between the situation before and after its implementation.

The direct effects include: on the one hand, the distribution of the intermediate consumption linked to the added value of the distribution itself vis-à-vis imports and customs; on the other hand, the breakdown of this added value between companies, households, public offices and foreign countries. The indirect effects include: on the one hand, the distribution of the intermediate consumption linked to the added value upstream and downstream of the production itself vis-à-vis imports and customs; on the other hand, the distribution of this added value between companies, households, public offices and foreign countries.

Finally, the effects on the balance of payments have been assessed, namely, the costs and earnings in foreign currencies relating to the investment and running of projects linked to the Master Plan." [Abstract]

207. Weigel, J.Y. 1989. La commercialisation du poisson en pays lagunaire ivoirien. Ed ORSTOM. Collection Etudes et Thèses. 138 p.

208. Weigel, J.Y. 1985. Traditional management of some lagoons of the Gulf of Guinea. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 790. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 29 p.

This paper describes and analyzes methods of traditional fisheries and aquaculture management in selected coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Guinea. The author demonstrates that traditional controls have the advantages of being adapted to the specific localities where they are to be applied and of being self-regulated by the fishing communities themselves. Traditional management would seem to be not so much an approach to the rational management of fisheries resources, as a defence of the local (and often conflicting) interest of the shore-dwelling communities. While it is necessary to install modern management schemes based on biological, economic and social considerations, the author recommends that such approaches be guided by traditional management practices.

209. Weigel, J.Y. and Hem, S. 1984. Le secteur des pêches et de l’aquaculture. Situation actuelle et perspective. Lomé, Togo, Mission Française de Coopération. 85 p. [ORSTOM, 32 avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France. Fax: 33 1 43370665]

"This report was drawn up for the Round Table of financial backers devoted to promoting investment in the fishing and fish-farming sector. The constant concern of the authors is to choose the right technology, whether it be for fishing and fish-product processing techniques or for fish farming: they thus advocate extensive capturing systems which are labour-intensive, along with the development of ‘acadjas-enclos’, which allows them to reconcile the introduction of new technologies with the traditional mobilization of the forces of labour and capital." [Abstract]

210. Weigel, J.Y., Lae, R. and Hem, S. 1989. Plan Preliminaire d’Aménagement des Pêches du Système Lagunaire Togolais. Ministère du Développement Rural du Togo - COFAD Gmbh. 106 p+annexes. [ORSTOM, 32 avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France. Fax: 33 1 43370665]

"The first part of this Plan is a diagnosis of the current situation, pointing out the overexploitation of certain lagoonal and marine stocks, as well as the importance of an adequately developed fishing sector. Analysis of the current situation particularly highlights the dynamic role of women in the economic development and marketing of aquatic products. Against the overexploitation and the relentless pressure to fish, which could eventually lead to the pauperisation of fishermen, the second part of this Plan recommends testing out ‘acadjas-enclos’ and developing alternatives to fishing such as family farming." [Abstract]

211. Welcomme, R.L. 1972. An evaluation of the acadja method of fishing as practised in the coastal lagoons of Dahomey (West Africa). J. Fish Biol. 4 (1):39-45.

212. Westlund, L. 1995. Apparent historical consumption and future demand for fish and fishery products - exploratory calculations. In: International Conference on Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security, Kyoto, Japan, December 4-9, 1995. Organized by the Government of Japan in collaboration with FAO. KC/FI/95/TECH/8. 55 p. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

"The first part of the report gives an overview of the historical fish consumption. Global trends of production and utilization of catches, and global and regional consumption patterns are presented. The second part discusses factors influencing the demand for fish and fishery products. The last section reviews the future demand for seafood at constant real prices. An exploratory assessment (by region) of demand levels in the year 2010 is presented. In the concluding remarks, a brief discussion is held on the possible implications of demand according to the projections on future global food fish consumption." [from Introduction]

213. White, P.G. 1988. A regional survey of the aquaculture sector in 11 Middle East countries (including Bahrain, Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Quatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen). ADCP/REP/88/30. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

214. Wijkstrom, U.N. 1992. Notes for the Technical Seminar on Aquaculture and Economic Growth. Held during ALCOM’s Steering Committee Meeting, February 11-14, 1992, Mangochi, Malawi. ALCOM Field Document No. 19. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"The seminar was divided into four parts. The first part examined the economic behaviour of the typical small-scale farmer. The second part discussed the goals of fish farming, from a standpoint of the government as well as the fish farmer. The point was made that the goals of government economic policies coincide with those of farmers who culture fish. The government wants to promote national income by increasing the production of goods and services in the country - including fish. The farmer, according to the surveys conducted in Zambia, engages in fish farming to increase his consumption, either by eating more fish or by selling fish and buying something he needs. The third part discussed the size or magnitude of government effort into fish farming, and the economic validity of such effort. It showed how fisheries administrators can substantiate the case for rural fish farming in spite of the small volumes of fish produced.

The recommendations addressed how a Fish Culture Development Unit (FCDU) should deal with: (i) the farmers/fishermen; (ii) other government units; and (iii) the use of resources within the unit. The recommendations also gave weight to present policies of reducing the size of public administrations and of ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of their activities." [from Summary]

215. Wijkstrom, U.N. 1991. How fish culture can stimulate economic growth: conclusions from fish farmer surveys in Zambia. Aquaculture for Local Development Programme, Report No. 9. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"This paper examines the results from earlier reports and also discusses the meaning and the consequences of these findings for government support to rural fish farming." [Subjects] [In: van der Hoeven, G., Leendertse, K. and Townsley, P. (comps.). Socio-economic surveys in fisheries in africa: an annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 837 Revision 1]

216. Wijkstrom, U.N. 1988. A socio-economic survey on fish farmers in rural communities. Report prepared for the Aquaculture for Local Community Development Programme. FAO:FI/GCP/INT/436/SWE-2. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

An account is given of the activities conducted during socio-economic surveys of fish farmers in rural communities in Zambia. Recommendations to the project for follow-up are included.

217. Wijkstrom, U.N. and Larsson, R. 1992. Fish farmers in rural communities: results of a survey in the Northwestern Province of Zambia. ALCOM Field Document No. 8. Harare, Zimbabwe, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [ALCOM, FAO, P.O. Box 3730, Harare, Zimbabwe]

"The survey of farmers with fish ponds in the Northwestern Province was designed for the following reasons: (i) to describe the current situation of fish farmers and to find out how it could be improved; (ii) to identify the type of farmer who is likely to successfully raise fish in ponds; (iii) to describe how the farmer does that; and (iv) to identify the constraints farmers face when raising fish in ponds.

Thus, the survey had definite and limited objectives. Additional or other objectives could be set for a survey of this kind, particularly to establish the following:

(i) the nutritional status of respondants’ households, and (ii) the economics of the fish culture activity, or of the alternate farming or non-farming activities. The survey did not attempt this.

This report starts with a description of the general status and the context of fish farming in Northwestern Province. It goes on to describe survey execution, analyzes the data obtained, and presents conclusions and recommendations." [from Introduction]

218. Wijkstrom, U.N. and Aase, H. 1989. Fish farmers in rural communities: results of a socio-economic pilot survey in the Northern Province of Zambia. FAO: GCP/INT/436/SWE.5. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Lusaka, Zambia]

This report presents the results of a socio-economic survey on fish farmers in rural communities in the Northern Province of Zambia. The tables contain demographic, social, cultural and economic profiles of the various groups in these communities.

219. Wijkstrom, U.N. and Aase, H. 1988. Fish farmers in rural communities: evaluation of questionnaires and survey routines used during a pilot survey in the Northern Province of Zambia (October 1987). FAO: FI/GCP/INT/436/SWE.4. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

An examination is made of the procedures and questionnaires used during a pilot survey conducted in the Northern Province of Zambia in October 1987, to investigate the current status of fish culture in the region. Modifications for improvement are suggested indicating how they can be incorporated into the full-scale survey. Recommendations are included in order to ensure that a full-scale survey would provide more accurate results for the pilot survey.

220. World Bank. 1991a. Fisheries and aquaculture research capabilities and needs in Africa. Studies of Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Morocco, and Senegal. World Bank Technical Paper No. 149, Fisheries Series. Washington, D.C., The World Bank. 73 p.

"This technical report contains the results of two missions. One mission deals with the state of fisheries and aquaculture research, as well as research needs, in four countries in southeastern Africa: Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Following an analysis of relevant criteria for evaluating fisheries and aquaculture research, an account is given of the factors affecting the effectiveness of research in the four countries covered by the mission, and also more generally, in Sub-Saharan Africa. A discussion of how such constraints could be addressed forms the subject matter of the next section. The report then provides a description of a successful fishery research institution in Mozambique and analyzes the possible reasons for its success. The comprehensive annexes provide the mission’s country-specific findings.

The second mission report deals with fisheries and aquaculture research capabilities and usefulness in three countries in northwest Africa: Mauritania, Morocco and Senegal. The report starts out with a description of the importance of northwest African fisheries for national economies. It then examines research needs and priorities taking into account past experiences and research objectives. Following this, the report deals with the ways and means of developing successful research. General conclusions on the status of fisheries and aquaculture research as well as priority areas for international aid are also presented." [Abstract]

221. World Bank. 1991b. Tropical aquaculture development. Research needs. World Bank Technical Paper No. 151, Fisheries Series. Washington, D.C., The World Bank. 52 p.

"This report embodies the findings of the Working Party on the Research Needs of Tropical Aquaculture Development (Paris, September 5-14, 1989). The Working Party conducted its deliberations in two sessions. Session 1 examined research needs from a development perspective and formulated general principles on research priorities. Session 2 dealt with research opportunities from the scientific viewpoint. It also reviewed potential applications to aquaculture that may arise from scientific developments.

Current weaknesses affecting national research capacities and approaches to enhance international cooperation in aquaculture research were also discussed during the two Working Party sessions." [from Abstract]

222. Zemmouri, A. 1990. A glimpse of aquaculture in Algeria. World Aquaculture 21(1):28-32. [139 ter Bd S.Bouakouir, 16000 Alger, Algeria]

The author, seeking to capture the evolution of production systems, identifies a few of the constraints affecting the mobilization of production factors for each type of aquaculture. Particular attention is paid to clam culture and to Artemia production.

223. Ziehy, A.D. 1990. Etudes nationales pour le développement de l’aquaculture en Afrique.

FAO Fisheries Circular No. 770.21. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Projet de Développement de la Pisciculture en Milieu Rural, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire]

"Seeking to decrease its dependency on imported fish, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire has adopted a policy developing its fishing and aquaculture sectors through the establishment of supervisory structures, which are often set up as projects and so receive state support, as well as technical and financial assistance from different organizations (e.g., UNDP, FAO, UNICEF, IDRC, FAC, CCCE, IFAD) As a result, there has been a boom in aqua farming since the creation of the Rural Fish Farming Development Project (for inland water bodies) in 1978 and the Lagoonal Aquaculture Project in 1971.

The country has geographical, climatic, socio-economic and structural assets, enabling it to have a relatively diversified aquaculture in terms of methodology and techniques, types of operation and the kinds of species farmed.

However, in view of the results so far, aquaculture development in the Côte d’Ivoire will continue to need outside support, both technical and financial, for another ten years to ensure that the models it has elaborated through research and early projects are technically and economically viable." [from Abstract]

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