Previous pageTable of ContentsNext Page

Annotated Bibliography: Asia and the Pacific

Renato F. Agbayani, Evelyn T. Belleza and Emelita C. Agbayani

1. Adams, C., Stevely, J.M. and Sweat, D. 1995. Economic feasibility of small-scale sponge farming in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 26(2):132-142. [Florida Sea Grant Extension Programme, Food Resour. Econ. Dep., P.O. Box 110240, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA]

"Interest exists in the commercial culture of sponges in the Pohnpei region of the Federated States of Micronesia. Sponge culture is appealing in that capital and labour investment is minimal. Investment requirements for a 0.4 ha sponge farm totals $US 650. Average annual production costs total $US 500. The sponge farm yields 2 400 sponges per 0.4 ha annually. Annual net returns are approximately $US 1 744 per 0.134 ha component, beginning in Year 4. Profitability is most sensitive to changes in opportunity wage rate, survival rate, and market price. Commercial sponge farming in Pohnpei shows promise as a source of supplemental income." [Abstract]

2. Adnan, H. and Porse, H. 1987. Culture of Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum in Indonesia. In: Ragan, M.A. and Bird, C.J. (eds.). Twelfth International Seaweed Symposium 151-152:355-358. [Copenhagen Pectin Factory Ltd., DK 4623 Lille Skensved, Denmark]

"Several attempts to introduce Eucheuma farming have been made over the years in countries located in Central America, the Caribbean, South Pacific and Southeast Asia, but so far no commercial breakthrough has been made except in Indonesia. Indonesia has for many years been exporting wild Eucheuma, in particular E. spinosum and a small amount of E. cottonii. Average production has been 3 000-4 000 t dry wt/y. Eight farming projects have been launched during the last 20 years in Indonesia, of which all but one have failed. The reasons behind these failures can probably be attributed to such factors as wrongly applied farming techniques, wrongly chosen farmsites, poor local reef flat management skills and lack of proper funding and coordination." [from Abstract]

3. Agbayani, R., Franco, N., Israel, D., Pena, D. de la and Young, A.T. 1985. The production economics of an integrated prawn hatchery floating nursery project. In: Taki, Y., Primavera, J.H. and Llobrera, J.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/ Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4-7, 1984. Iloilo City, Philippines, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. p. 184. [Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, P.O. Box 256, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines]

"An economic evaluation was made of an integrated prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatchery floating nursery project using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The data used in the analysis were taken from SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (AQ/D) experience at the Batan, Aklan Research Substation hatchery floating nursery project. The study shows that an integrated hatchery floating nursery project is a profitable culture system. The rate of return on investment for this integrated project ranges from 29 to 47% while payback period ranges from 1.8 to 2.6 years. A separate economic analysis of a hatchery project and a floating nursery was also undertaken to determine the profitability of independently operating each subsystem." [Abstract]

4. Agbayani, R.F. and Abella, F.F. 1989. Status of the sanitation and marketing of mollusc in the Philippines. Report of the Workshop and Study Tour on Mollusc Sanitation and Marketing. Regional Seafarming Development and Demonstration Project RAS/86/024. October 15-28, 1989, France. Bangkok, Thailand, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia and the Pacific. pp. 98-110.

The paper discusses the contribution of the molluscs industry, in terms of food production and dollar earning. It also discusses the culture methods practiced in the different provinces (stake, rope web, hanging, raft, tray, and the broadcast method). The marketing systems were explained, describing the preferences of the Filipinos for fresh fish which necessitates the importance of efficient harvesting and post-harvesting methods. The distribution channels follow the flow from the farm >wholesaler > retailer/restaurants > end consumer. Prices are determined by the supply and demand forces at any given trading day.

On the processing techniques, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) made a study on home depuration of green mussel which was placed in clean seawater with 3% iodized salt solution for 18-24 hours. The bacterial load was effectively reduced. The study of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (AQ/D) showed that a moderate flow (7-10 l/min) of water in fibreglass tanks depurated grossly contaminated oysters within 48 hours or less. Another experiment in depuration done in the Visayas used UV sterilized seawater recirculated through the system in 36-48 hours to allow the molluscs to purify naturally. Microbial tests indicated the effectiveness of depuration. A social and economic survey on the impact of depuration to potential users and community was conducted in Cavite, one of the biggest mollusc producing provinces in the country. The survey results revealed that molluscs farmers were not willing to accept the responsibility of depurating their produce for the following reasons: (i) it entailed additional process; (ii) cost of investment was high; and (iii) there is a lower market for more expensive depurated oysters.

5. Agbayani, R., Hatch, U. and Belleza. 1995. Economic analysis of prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines, I. Hatchery operations. Asian Fisheries Science 8:191-200. [Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Iloilo, Philippines]

This paper presents an economic analysis of shrimp hatchery operations in the Philippines using data gathered through interviews and structured questionnaires in 1992. Economic indicators estimated were investment requirements, unit cost, benefit cost ratios, and internal rates of return. Break-even and sensitivity analysis of operating hatcheries were employed to determine the risk and changes in profitability levels associated with different scales of operation (small, medium,and large) given changes in price, costs and production level. Results indicate that net income was positive for all scales of operation in spite of adverse market conditions. Medium-sized operations provide the highest returns.

6. Agbayani, R.F. 1990. Economics of milkfish culture in the Philippines. In: Tanaka, U.,

Juario, L. and Foscarini (eds.). Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Milkfish Development in the South Pacific. Tarawa, Kiribati, 1988. South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, GCP/RAS/116/JPN. pp. 101-108.

Cost and returns analysis of the three phases (nursery, stunting or retarding, and modular culture systems) of milkfish culture in the Philippines was discussed. In the nursery systems, estimated average rates of return were 47.8 and 41.17% for the two- and three-month culture durations, respectively. Milkfish nursery in the Philippines was practiced both as an integral part of the culture system and as a profit centre operation for nursery operators. Stunting or retarding growth of milkfish for fingerling production has been practiced in the Philippines for some time. This assures the milkfish grower of a ready inventory of fingerlings for year-round production. At stocking densities of 20/m2 and 25/m2, highest rates of return of 33.54 and 31.12%, respectively, were attained. At different stunting periods (6, 9, 12 months) positive returns of 33.5% and 18.8% were attained in periods of 6 and 9 months, respectively. Using the modular culture system at 3 000 fingerlings/ha stocking, return on investment was 68.81% and the payback period was 1.25 years.

7. Agbayani, R.F. 1994. Community fishery resource management in Malalison Island, Philippines. In: Bagarinao, T.U. and Flores, E.E.C. (eds.). Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan. Iloilo, Philippines, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Aquaculture Department. pp. 209-219.

"The Community Fishery Resource Management Project, launched in 1991 in Malalison Island, Philippines is a development-oriented research project integrating biology, economics, sociology, engineering, and public administration. The general objective is to support, and learn from, the collaboration of people’s organizations, biologists, and social scientists in applying community-based techniques in fishery management. During Phase I, the Project concentrated on community organizing, institution-building, and the introduction of seaweed farming as alternative livelihood. Studies were made on the marine resources of the island, the traditional boundaries and territorial use rights, the economic utilization of resources in the island, and the cultivation techniques for seaweeds. Phase II started in 1994 with the implementation of the territorial use rights in fisheries and the test deployment of prototype concrete artificial reefs. Phase II includes impact assessment (environmental, social and economic), institutional arrangements in fishery co-management, ethnographic studies, economics of seafarming techniques, and management of fishery cooperatives." [from Abstract]

8. Agbayani, R.F. and Lim, R.M. 1996. Fishery cooperatives in the Philippines. Report of an APO Seminar, March 8-16, 1994. Tokyo, Japan, Asian Productivity Organization. pp. 183-193.

The paper discusses the production and growth of the three fishery sectors (municipal, commercial, and aquaculture) during 1981-1991. It also discusses the historical background of the fishery cooperative movement in the Philippines from the 16thth century to the recent creation of the Cooperative Development Authority in 1991. The paper also explains the management and privileges of cooperatives such as preferential rights to supply government with rice, fish and other marine products produced by the cooperatives. The cooperatives are fast becoming the emerging sector of the economic society. In spite of the past failures, government and NGOs have been actively assisting the development of cooperatives through the community-based approach, stressing the importance of environmental protection and conservation of coastal resources. The paper also discusses other laws such as the Local Government Code that is supportive to the cooperative movement in the Philippines.

9. Agbayani, R.F. and Siar S.V. 1993. Problems encountered in the implementation of a community based fishery resource management project. In: Pomeroy, R.S. (ed.). Community management and common property of coastal fisheries in Asia and the Pacific: concepts, methods and experiences. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 45. pp. 149-160.

The paper discusses problems, responses to the problems and the lessons learned in the implementation of a community-based fishery resource management project in central Philippines. Problems identified were: high expectations of immediate project benefits; lack of integration between research and community organizing activities; unstable leadership of the fisherfolk organization; illegal fishing practices; and the lack of understanding and appreciation of research activities by some community members. Responses to the problems included: regular dialogues and consultations; presentation of research results to the community members; cross visits to other people’s organizations; and the holding of planning workshops in which community members and project implementers participated.

10. Agbayani, R.F., Baliao, D.D., Samonte, G.P.B., Tumaliaun, R.E., and Caturao, R.D. 1990. Economic feasibility analysis of the monoculture of mudcrab (Scylla serrata) Forsskal. Aquaculture 91:223-231. [Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Iloilo, Philippines]

Mudcrabs, Scylla serrata Forsskal, were monocultured at different stocking densities: 5 000, 10 000, 15 000, and 20 000/ha for 90 days. The highest mean weight, survival and relative growth increment were obtained from a stoking density of 5 000/ha. Best feed conversion ratio of 1.72 and corresponding gross production of 1 019 kg/ha per crop were obtained at the same stocking density. The economic indicators, i.e., return on investment and return on equity, were also highest at 5 000/ha and the payback period was shortest. Partial budgeting showed that no incremental benefit accrued from stocking beyond 5 000/ha.

11. Agbayani, R.F., Samonte, G. PB., Parado Estepa, F., Tumaliuan, R.E., Ortega, R.S., and Espada, L.A. 1994. Economic assessment of shrimp (P. monodon) hatchery industry in Panay Island. AFSSRN SEAFDEC/AQD Team. AFSSRN Research Report Series No. 32. Iloilo Philippines, SEAFDEC-AQ/D. 80 p.

The shrimp hatchery industry in Panay Island underwent a high growth during most of the 1980s, stirred primarily by a growing export market, high economic returns, and improved technology. There were 38 hatcheries of different scales in 1985. As of early 1992, there were 224 hatcheries of which 158 were operational. Improved adaptation of hatchery technology resulted to higher survival rates resulting in a substantial increase in fry production in Panay. Towards the end of the decade, external factors such as market prices, environment deterioration, and natural calamities adversely affected the economic returns of the different scales of operation. Medium-scale hatcheries registered the highest economic returns with return on investment of 21% compared to 41% in 1985. Small-scale and large-scale hatcheries were more vulnerable to changes in market prices and other natural factors, i.e., diseases, typhoons, supply of spawners, and price decreases. Diversification to other species (i.e., milkfish, seabass, and grouper) were considered by some operators for their future plans to reduce risks related to the market changes, technological failures and other pure risks such as extreme changes in climatic conditions. It is commented that national policies on credit and financing should be more developmental in approach to enable hatchery operators to avail of low interest financing schemes. Moreover, government-sponsored crop insurance for the shrimp investors should be provided to serve as a buffer to risks related to natural occurrences.

12. Agbayani, R.F., Tarrosa Pestano, M.C., Evangelista, D.L., Sevilleja, R.L., Lopez, N.A. and Pomeroy R.S. 1994. Review of social and economic research in the fishery sector of the Philippines: a country paper. In: Choi L.M et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society. pp. 1048-1053.

The problems confronting the fishery sector have received varying degrees of attention from the government sector over time. In the past two decades, the main thrust was to increase productivity through technology generation. In the late 1980s, however, the worsening problem of inequity in fisheries shifted the concern to the socio-economic issues of sustainability and equity. This re-orientation in emphasis is largely attributable to the contributions of social scientists. The study reviews completed and ongoing socio-economic research in the fishery sector. Research gaps and researchable areas were determined to identify future directions.

13. Agbayani, R.F., Baliao, D.D., Franco, N.M., Ticar, R.B. and Guanzon, N.G.,Jr. 1989. An economic analysis of the modular pond system of milkfish production in the Philippines. Aquaculture 83:249-259. [Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines]

"In 1980, the annual yield of milkfish ponds in the Philippines was 800 kg/ha, while the potential yield is estimated to be 2 000 kg/ha. The modular pond system analyzed in this study can largely close the gap between actual and potential yield through more efficient use of pond capacity to increase the number of croppings up to seven times in one year. Pilot-scale production using the modular pond system was done at the Leganes Research Station (LRS) SEAFDEC, Iloilo, and at three cooperating commercial farms. The scale of operation ranged from 2.7 to 7.9 ha. From two to seven production runs were recorded with per hectare outputs ranging from 278 to 341 kg per run. Input costs were based on actual figures and the ex farm milkfish price as p 21.00 (4 to 6 fish/kg). The average return on investment and payback period for all sites was 68.81% and 1.25 years, respectively." [from Abstract]

14. Agbayani, R.F., Lopez, N.A., Tumaliuan, R.E. and Berjamin, G.D. 1991. Economic analysis of an integrated milkfish broodstock and hatchery operation as a public enterprise. Aquaculture 99:235-248. [Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines]

"The National Bangus (Milkfish) Breeding Programme of the Philippines, which was launched by the Philippine Government in 1981, had succeeded in spawning milkfish in captivity and in rearing the eggs to fry that were stockable in ponds. The physical productivity and economic viability of an integrated milkfish broodstock and hatchery as a public enterprise is analyzed, using SEAFDEC research findings as bases for analysis. Discounted cash flow computations show the repayment schedule for investments in structures and equipment, and operations and maintenance expenses for both broodstock and hatchery operations covering a period of 15 years. Revenues came from the sales of fry. The analysis was based on an annual stocking of 100 milkfish (200-250 g/piece) per cage with a diameter of 10 m. Egg production started during the fifth year. Investment in the hatchery facilities started during the fourth year and expansion occurred in the subsequent years to accommodate the eggs produced for rearing to the fry stage.

Economic indicators, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR), showed negative figures. The trend, however, was upward, starting during the sixth year of operation. Sensitivity analysis was done to determine the effects of changes in operational efficiencies, such as survival rates and stocking densities to the return on investment (ROI) in private hatcheries." [Abstract]

15. Aguero, M. and Cruz, A. 1991. The economic impact of alternative management and marketing decisions under varying conditions: a case of fish culture in the Philippines. In: Chou, L.M., Chua, T.E., Khoo, H.W., Lim, P.E., Paw, J.N., Silvestre, M.J., Valencia, A.T., White, A.T. and Wong, P.K. (eds.). Towards an integrated management of tropical coastal resources. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 22. Singapore, National University of Singapore and National Science and Technology Board, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [ICLARM, Manila, Philippines]

The study determines the investment and marketing strategy that would maximize returns for grouper farm operating in the Philippines using decision theory and financial analysis. It considers four strategies, namely: (i) full initial investment, export market; (ii) full initial investment, domestic market; (iii) staggered investment, export market; and (iv) staggered investment, domestic market. The result of the study indicates that all investment and marketing combinations yielded attractive returns, though the third strategy seems to favour small-scale entrepreneurs.

16. Ahemad, M.D.J. and Naushin, A.S. 1990. Role of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii in aquaculture productivity. Seafood Export Journal 22(9-10):9-14.

"Almost all the river systems of India are endowed with reasonable resources of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. The economic importance of its capture and culture has been increasingly realized as this is the only large variety of freshwater prawn available in the inland and upland areas of the country. The impact of its introduction in the Indian aquaculture system to increase productivity and income is highlighted. Conservation and propagation of its fishery to boost the rural economy, an urgent requirement which needs a multidisciplinary approach, are discussed together with some suggestions." [Abstract]

17. Ahmad, A. 1990. Impact of human activities on marine environment and guidelines for its management: environmentalist viewpoints. In: Agrawal, V.P. and Das, P. (Eds.). Recent Trends in Limnology. Muzaffarnagar, India Society of Biosciences. pp. 49-60. [G.B. Pant Inst. Himalayan Environ. and Dev., Paryavaran Bhavan, Kosi 263 643, Almora, India]

"The present paper deals with the impact analysis of human activities on the marine environment. The main factors responsible for degradation are: development of tourism infrastructure; agriculture and industrial development; aquaculture; metals; gravels; sand chemicals and oil exploitation; and waste discharge. The analysis indicates that the problem of marine environment is now global and has attracted the attention of several governmental and non-governmental organizations. The Baltic Sea catchment area alone contributes 1.3 million t of organic waste annually. The sea toxification, eutrophication, and impact of environmental changes on mangroves and coral reefs have also been analyzed. Detailed guidelines have also been given for the rehabilitation of degraded marine ecosystems." [from Abstract]

18. Ahmed, A.K.M.M. 1986. An economic analysis of coastal shrimp culture in a mixed farming system, Chittagong Cox’s Bazar Region, Bangladesh. In: Maclean, J.L., Dizon, L.B. and Hosillos, L.V. (eds.). The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines, The Asian Fisheries Society. [Department of Economics, Univ. of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh]

"Using linear programming and parametric resource programming as analytical tools, a sample farm survey of two selected villages in the Chittagong Cox’s Bazar coastal region, Bangladesh, showed that with traditional methods of shrimp farming there is little possibility of increasing farm income. However, a shift to the improved technology in the culture of shrimp yields a higher net revenue for the farm even with a smaller farm size. With improved methods of shrimp culture, an increase in the availability of capital (through the supply of institutional credit) could remove restrictions toward the expansion of lands for shrimp culture within the farm. It would also result in an increase in the farm demand for labour. Therefore, the introduction of improved shrimp culture techniques in the coastal area would have two main implications. Firstly, it would facilitate the release of lands for use by other farms without affecting farm income. Secondly, support of institutional credit would enable the existing farms to expand. In both cases, the net effect would be an improvement in the farm income and employment opportunities in coastal villages." [Abstract]

19. Ahmed, M., Bimbao, M.A.P. and Sivilleja, R.C. 1992. The economics of rice-fish in asian mixed farming system - a case study of the Philippines. In: dela Cruz, C.R., Lightfoot, C., Costa Pierce, B.A., Carangal, V.R. and Bimbao, M.P. (eds.). Rice-fish research and development in Asia. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 24. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

"Production of fish on rice lands as a viable option for increasing farm cash and protein levels has begun to attract many Asian governments and policy-makers. The economics of rice-fish culture on a mixed farm in Central Luzon, Philippines is examined through linear programming (LP) models. Results show that a shift from rice monoculture to rice-fish culture requires 17% more labour and 22% more working capital, but the additional fish output generates 67% more farm income. Simulation of optimal farm plans for different rice-fish production scenarios shows that there is still an economic incentive for expansion even at lower fish productivity. Moreover, if the relative price of rice increased by 50%, rice-fish culture would still pay off." [Abstract]

20. Ajisaka, T. and Chiang, Young Meng. 1993. Recent status of Gracilaria cultivation in Taiwan. In: Chapman, A.R.O., Brown, M.T. and Lahaye, M. (eds.). Fourteenth International Seaweed Symposium 260-261:335-338. [Div. Trop. Agric., Fac. Agric., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto 606, Japan]

"The recent decrease in Gracilaria culture production and value in Taiwan were evaluated from statistical data and from interviews with local fishermen. During 1986-87, many Gracilaria culture ponds were transformed to grow grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in monoculture, but disease of the shrimp soon afterwards stopped such production and Gracilaria culture took over. However, due to manpower shortage, Gracilaria farmers prefer to sell their crops to abalone farmers and not to agar factories. Since Gracilaria as abalone feed is cheaper than for agar production, the value of the algal crop decreased." [from Abstract]

21. Ajithkumar, V. and Panikkar, K.K.P. 1993. An analysis of factor product relationship in prawn farming: a production function approach. In: Rengarajan, K., Noble, A., Prathibha, Kripa, V., Sridhar, N. and Zakhriah, M. (eds.). Mariculture research under the postgraduate programme in mariculture. Part 3. Cochin, India, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute vol. 54 pp. 85-93. [CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India]

"The present study which aims at analyzing the economics of semi-intensive prawn farming being practiced in Kerala, could provide feedback information on the profitability of the culture practice in field situations and also on the allocation efficiency of the inputs used in prawn farming. This will help to provide basic information on the economic feasibility of the existing technology and to correct the imbalances in resources utilization." [Abstract]

22. Akhtar, N. 1995. Socio-economic settings and technological aspects of inland fishermen of the Punjab, Pakistan. The carp. In: Billard, R. and Gall, G.A.E. (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Aquaculture Sponsored Symposium. Budapest, Hungary, September 6-9, 1993. vol. 129, no. 1-4 p. 478. Islamabad, Pakistan, Pakistan Agric. Res. Council.

"Based on findings from recent socio-economic research, an analysis is provided of various socio-economic, technological and attitudinal attributes of fishermen representing some 60 000 full- or part-time fishermen operating in the largest segment of the Indus River System of Punjab, Pakistan. Dominated by major and minor carp catches, capture fishery resources are being depleted due to heavy exploitation and diminishing breeding grounds in the river system that has been subjected to tremendous physical modifications by creating a series of barrages, water headworks and dams over a period of time. Despite the seasonal nature of the fishing activity, fishing is a distinct profession. The community is mainly distressed, mostly lacking education with low-income levels. However, intra-communal socio-economic stratification does exist. There is no institutional credit system to support inland fishing and no fishermen’s organization or cooperative. Consequently, the fishermen are mostly subservient to private investors who control the fishing operations and sale of their catches. The fishing technology fits present demands but needs to be developed. Despite a general willingness to consider alternative activities to capture fishing, permanent occupational mobility is low. Various indicators that could be used for developing fishers are discussed." [from Abstract]

23. Ali, A.B. 1990. Rice/fish farming in Malaysia: a resource optimization. Ambio 19(8). [In: Baron, J. and Lewis, H. (comps.) Aquaculture economics and management: an introductory bibliography.]

The study recommended ways to optimize resources in rice-fish integrated farming. Some of the recommendations were building higher dikes to prevent escape of fish during field preparation and perimeter trenches be dug to provide additional refuges for fish and sufficient space for phytoplankton and zooplankton production. Another way is to apply lime and fertilizer to mitigate acidic soil problems and provide better environment for plankton growth. Aquatic weeds should be cleared in the early stages to allow fish larvae to feed on planktons. Herbicides, however, should be used judiciously and prudently. Benefit/cost studies should be undertaken to provide farmers with an economic benchmark on rice-fish farming. Extra income to farmers can be realized by planting fruit trees in dikes. [Part of Recommendation]

24. Ali, S.A., Laxminarayana, A., Balakrishnan, V. and Karunakaran, N.P, et al., 1979. Prawn culture in Cochin. In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Technology Transfer in Coastal Aquaculture. CMFRI Special Publication 6. Cochin, India, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.

A brief report on the status of prawn (Penaeidae) culture in Cochin, India is presented. Information on the socio-economic conditions of the prawn farmers is given, and the progress and constraints of the programme of the Central Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) in this area are evaluated.

25. Ali, M. 1986. Tapping the shrimp wealth. Pak. Agric. 8(11-12):9-20.

"The three types of basic aquaculture systems practised worldwide are described briefly: extensive, intensive pond, and very intensive tank culture. The potential for shrimp culture in Pakistan is discussed in detail, examining basic requirements for the development of a commercial shrimp farming venture and shrimp species available. Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus monoceros are the dominant species. The construction of shrimp ponds is outlined and an analysis of cost economics is provided." [Abstract]

26. Alih, E.M. 1990. Economics of seaweed (Eucheuma) farming in Tawi-Tawi Islands in the Philippines. In: Hirano, R. and Hanyu, I. (eds.). The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society. [Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Mindanao State University, Philippines]

"In the Philippines, seaweed farming offers a promising industry in the development of its island communities. Tawi-Tawi is a major seaweed producing area and this study examines the economics of Eucheuma farming in the Tawi-Tawi islands. Changes in the socio-economic conditions after the advent of farming were noted. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the needed information from 325 farm families, 65 non-farm families and 27 traders.

A Eucheuma farm in Tawi-Tawi is about 0.5 ha/family. which yields an income of p 35 405/year for E. alvarezii and p l4,503 /year for E. denticulatum. The rate of return on investment in farming the former is 150% and the latter 61%.

However, the industry is faced with problems which impede its growth. Therefore, steps need to be taken to assure a stable and rewarding livelihood for the seaweed farmers and traders in Tawi-Tawi." [from Abstract]

27. Ang, K.J. 1990. Evaluation of the production potential of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) in monoculture in Malaysia. In: Hirano, R. and Hanyu, I. (eds.). The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo, Japan, April 17-22, 1989. Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society. pp. 103-106. [Dep. Aquacult., Univ. Pertanian Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia]

"Two experiments were conducted to determine the production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in monoculture in earthen ponds in Malaysia. In Trial 1, juvenile prawns were stocked in four 442 m2 ponds at 10 PL/m2 density for 158 days culture period. The prawns were fed with UPM P. 30 pellet at 20, 10 and 5% body weight daily for the first, second and subsequent months, respectively. In Trial 2, 10 ponds of three different sizes (63, 253 and 442 m2) were used and the stocking rates were 10, 20 and 60 PL/m2, respectively. Water quality parameters were monitored to determine their influence on the survival, growth and production of the prawns. At the end of the trials, the individual weight, total weight and survival rates were determined. A production of 979 kg/ha/158 day cycle, and 32.4% survival were attained in the first trial. In the second trial, a production of 1 110 kg/ha/154-day cycle, 2 287 kg/ha/154-day cycle were obtained at 10 and 20 PL/m2 stocking densities, respectively." [from Abstract]

28. Angell, C. 1990. Freshwater prawn fry marketing in Bangladesh. Bay of Bengal News 38:6-9.

The findings are presented of a study conducted to examine the market chain regarding the freshwater prawn in Bangladesh. The seasonal patterns in trade and the financial mechanisms driving the market are described.

29. Angell, C.L. 1994. Cage nursery rearing of shrimp and prawn fry in Bangladesh. BOBP/REP/92. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme.

"This report, based on field trials from 1990 to 1993, describes the results of cage nursery culture trials with both tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) fry. It was thought that fry catchers would be able to increase their earnings through sales of nursed post-larvae and juveniles. The survival of nursed post-larvae in the distribution system would also be increased. However, it is unlikely that tiger shrimp fry nursing can be made profitable. On the other hand, cage culture of a combination of hatchery reared post-larvae and wild-caught fry of the freshwater prawn would be profitable." [from Abstract]

30. Angell, C. 1994. Charles Angell, Senior Aquaculturist with the Bay of Bengal Programme reports on shrimp farming in Andhra Pradesh, India. Shrimp News Int. 19(5):8-9. [Bay of Bengal Programme, c/o FAO, P.O. Box 5039 New Market, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh]

"If anyone doubts the benefits of the new liberalized investment policy in India, a trip to Polekurru, in Andhra Pradesh, would be illuminating. The shrimp culture boom along the coast of Andhra Pradesh today owes much to easier investment and import procedures." [Abstract]

31. Angell, C. 1988. Oyster marketing in Peninsular Malaysia. Prospects and problems. Bay of Bengal News 32:19-23.

"The findings are presented of a study conducted to investigate the marketing of oyster in Peninsular Malaysia. Details are given of the methods used to collect and distribute the oysters and supply patterns. Prospects for aquaculture as a means for increasing supplies in the Malaysian market are examined briefly." [Abstract]

32. Angell, C. 1993. Can ‘trickle down’ economics work in the shrimp culture industry? Bay of Bengal News 51:21-24. [BOBP, 91 St. Mary’s Rd., Abhiramapuvam, Madras 600018, India]

"The findings are presented of nursery cage culture trials conducted in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh to help improve the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry catches of the coastal fisherfolk. Although economically the trials did not prove to be successful, it is believed that tiger shrimp fry nursing over a much wider area should be tried before further conclusions may be reached." [Abstract]

33. Angell, C.L. 1994. Cage nursery rearing of shrimp and prawn fry in Bangladesh. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme. 16 p.

"The shrimp culture industry of Bangladesh depends on catches of the wild fry of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Employment as fry catchers has been generated for thousands of rural poor. However, the marketing system is not well developed and high fry mortality occurs due to poor handling. The growing freshwater prawn farming sector, however, continues to demand increasing quantities of large juveniles. This report, based on field trials from 1990 to 1993, describes the results of cage nursery culture trials with both tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) fry. It was thought that fry catchers would be able to increase their earnings through sales of nursed post-larvae and juveniles. The survival of nursed post-larvae in the distribution system would also be increased. However, it is unlikely that tiger shrimp fry nursing can be made profitable. On the other hand, cage culture of a combination of hatchery reared post-larvae and wild-caught fry of the freshwater prawn would be profitable." [Abstract]

34. Anon. 1996. Brief description of the fishery industry in China. Globefish Research Programme. FAO, Rome, Italy. vol. 41, 38 p.

"China’s growth to become the world’s largest fishery nation is described, while marine fisheries and aquaculture are reviewed. The processing sector will be substantially developed and the distribution system updated and expanded. Low labour costs make it convenient for foreign companies to have labour-intensive products processed in China for reshipment abroad. Some 98% of the output is absorbed internally with per caput consumption at 17 kg. The import market for seafood will grow for all products, especially for fresh and live fish." [Abstract]

35. Anon. 1993. Farming of tilapia. Fish. Chimes 13(7):19-23.

"The practical aspects of tilapia farming such as pond preparation, harvesting, nursery management, ideal environmental parameters, harvesting, and marketing and the economics of tilapia farming, are reproduced from the document of the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)." [from Abstract]

36. Anon. 1995. Shrimp farming in the Eastern Hemisphere. Ann. Rep. World Shrimp Farm.

"With most producing countries located in Southeast Asia, the eastern hemisphere produced an estimated 78% of the world’s farm raised shrimp in 1995, 558 000 mt (live weight), down almost 5% from 585 000 t in 1994. Thailand finished first, Indonesia second, and China third. India and Viet Nam were fourth and fifth. The Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia and Bangladesh also produced world class crops of farm raised shrimp. Japan, Australia, Myanmar (Burma), and Sri Lanka have smaller shrimp farming industries, and there are shrimp farms in the Middle East and several parts of Africa." [Abstract]

37. Anon. 1994. Shrimp farming in Viet Nam. Ann. Rep. World Shrimp Farm. 1994:19-20.

"Viet Nam family farms are typically between 1 and 3 ha, while some large farms can utilize several thousand hectares of tidal areas. Production per hectare is low by international standards but increased stocking densities, pest eradication, some supplemental feeding and increased water exchange help produce larger yields in a strategy referred to as ‘improved extensive’ farming. A weak infrastructure and absence of trained technicians limit the growth of the industry." [from Abstract]

38. Anon. 1995. [Shrimp] industry adjusts to viral diseases. Ann. Rep. World Shrimp Farm. 1995:29-30.

"Undoubtedly, 1995 will go down as the year the shrimp farming industry adopted management strategies for dealing with viral diseases. After viruses caused major crashes in Taiwan (1987-88), China (1993-94), Indonesia (1994) and India (1994-95), and significant problems everywhere else, including Ecuador (1993-95) and Honduras (1994-95) in the western hemisphere, shrimp farmers realized they needed to change their ways or go out of business." [Abstract]

39. Anon. 1989. Maintaining a natural balance. Far Eastern Agriculture (5):33.

By 1992, Thailand may replace China as the world’s top exporter of black tiger prawns. This article reports on the positive and negative effects of this industry. It is estimated that by 1991, Thai exports could rise to 50 000 t. However, as production increases, prices may fall. Furthermore, 64 000 ha of mangrove forests have already been destroyed for prawn farming and villagers on the southern coasts are fighting the destruction of their livelihood by farmers who have been given concessions to the areas.

40. Anon. 1993. Positive impacts of the tiger prawn culture industry on the ecosystem and fertility of coastal zones and the socio-economic status of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.

41. Anon. 1991. Brackishwater farmers meet at Narsapur in Andra Pradesh. Fish. Chimes 11(2):27-29.

"An account is given of the topics discussed at a meeting for brackishwater prawn farmers held in Narsapur, Andhra Pradesh, India on January 29, 1991. A large number of farmers, representatives of commercial banks, several entrepreneurs and government officials attended the meeting. The following recommendations were adopted: the provision of road/electricity/drinking facilities to coastal areas where prawn farms are located in large numbers; quality feed may be available to farmers at subsidized rates; the provision of subsidy and technical assistance for the setting up of freshwater prawn hatcheries; and, the provision of crop loans by banks to farmers to meet the high operation costs of extensive farming." [Abstract]

42. Anon. 1995. Export performance of marine products. Seafood Export Journal 26(8):27-29. [Marine Products Export Dev. Auth. (MPEDA), Cochin 682 036, India]

"The export performance of marine products to different countries from India is shown. The item-wise as well as part-wise export is also tabulated." [from Abstract]

43. Anon. 1993. Fishery statistical bulletin for the South China Sea area, 1991. Fish. Stat. Bull. South China Sea Area. Bangkok, Thailand, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. 163 p.

"Statistics are presented for fisheries in the South China Sea area for the year 1991. The data are given in tables under the following sector headings: (i) General geographic, demographic and economic statistics; (ii) Annual series of fishery production; (iii) Fishery production by sub-sector; (iv) Marine fishery statistics; (v) Inland fishery statistics; (vi) Aquaculture statistics; (vii) Price of fresh fish; (viii) Disposition of catch; (ix) Fish processing; and (x) Export and import of fishery commodities." [Abstract]

44. Anon. 1994. Fishery statistical bulletin for the South China Sea area, 1992. Fish. Stat. Bull. South China Sea Area No. 28. Bangkok, Thailand, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. 159 p.

"Statistics are presented for fisheries in the South China Sea area for the year 1992. The data are given in tables under the following sector headings: (i) General geographic, demographic and economic statistics; (ii) Annual series of fishery production; (iii) Fishery production by sub-sector; (iv) Marine fishery statistics; (v) Inland fishery statistics; (vi) Aquaculture statistics; (vii) Price of fresh fish; (viii) Disposition of catch; (ix) Fish processing; and (x) Export and import of fishery commodities." [Abstract]

45. Anon. 1996. Freshwater prawn farming in India. Shrimp News Int. 21(3):9-10.

"With tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) showing increased susceptibility to viral diseases, shrimp farmers in India are looking for alternative species. Some of the candidates are mud crabs (Scylla oceanica), seabass, tilapia and freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). MPEDA encourages prawn farming because the technology is available in India and because prawns have great export potential. India already exports about 2 500 mt of prawns a year." [from Abstract]

46. Anon. 1995. Guidelines for the development of export-oriented aquaculture. Aqua Int. 3(3):20-25.

"The current status of aquaculture in India and its more effective orientation for export markets are detailed." [Abstract]

47. Anon. 1986. Integrated farming systems. Notes of lectures delivered at the Training Programme organized for West Bengal fisheries officers, September 9-23, 1986. Bull. Cent. Inland Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore, No. 48. Barrackpore, India, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute. 193 p. [Central Inland Fisheries Research Inst., Barrackpore, India]

"This monograph is comprised of 21 papers covering various aspects of inland aquaculture." [Abstract]

48. Anon. 1989. Malaysian shrimp culture. Mar. Fish. Rev. 51(3):66.

"Malaysian shrimp culture has begun to succeed commercially after suffering years of heavy financial losses. Improved aquaculture methods and the commitment of a few large companies are largely responsible for the turnaround. Malaysian production, mostly of giant tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, was 1 260 metric tons (t) in 1987, almost five times the 1986 harvest of 270 t. Estimated 1988 production was 1 800 t. In 1987, Malaysia produced 300 million shrimp post-larvae for stocking grow-out ponds. Production of post-larvae in 1988 was estimated at 360 million. Malaysia’s post-larvae production exceeds domestic shrimp farmers’ needs, and the surplus is exported at about 78 million in 1987 and an estimated 11 million in 1988. About 80% of the Malaysian shrimp culture production is exported, mostly to Singapore, Japan, USA, and Europe." [Abstract]

49. Anon. 1985. Case study on extension of cage and shellfish culture in Phang Nga, Thailand. Case material. 2. Script of audio visual on Phang Nga Aquaculture Demonstration Project. In: Roy, R.N. (ed.). Consultation On Social Feasibility of Coastal Aquaculture. Madras, India, November 26 - December 1, 1984. FAO-SIDA Proj. Dev. Small-scale Fish., Bay of Bengal, Madras, India. pp. 100-104.

"With the aid of visuals, the script describes the area and project, which aims to help fishery development and improve the living standards of poor fisherfolk." [Abstract]

50. Anon. 1987. Fisheries Yearbook, Taiwan area, 1986. Taipei, Taiwan (P.C.). Taiwan Fisheries Bur. 262 p.

"The statistics cover the following: the fisheries and aquaculture production; the supply of fry and shellfish seed; the quantity and value of fishery products; the number of fishermen employed; the number of households; and the number of casualties occurring to fishermen." [from Abstract]

51. Anon. 1989. Laminaria culture-site selection criteria and guidelines. Bangkok, Thailand, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. 30 p. [National Inland Fisheries Inst., Bangkok, Thailand]

"The main components of a floating raft unit and the type of rafts used for kelp (Laminaria japonica) culture are described in order to provide a background to the understanding of site needs for such systems. The criteria for site selection suitable for Laminaria culture are discussed under three categories: (i) physicochemical conditions relevant to kelp growth in a given environment (e.g., temperature, illumination, salinity, carbon dioxide, currents, pollution, water exchange); (ii) parameters and conditions to be considered in order to adequately site a floating raft structure (e.g., weather, shelter, depth, substrate); and (iii) factors determining the viability of establishing a kelp seedling rearing or a kelp culture farm and profitability (e.g., legal aspects, access, land-based facilities, security, economic and social considerations)." [from Abstract]

52. Anon. 1990. Shrimp seed collectors of Bangladesh. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme. 37 p.

"Thousands of persons in the coastal areas of Bangladesh make a living collecting shrimp fry. Despite their role in sustaining the shrimp industry, these people remain poor and under privileged. The findings are presented of a socio-economic study conducted of the shrimp fry collectors in 1987, in order to obtain information and discover strategies to improve the lot of the shrimp seed collectors. The need is stressed for administrative and organizational help to meet needs such as land, credit, technical knowledge, social and civic services, protective shelters and embankments and income." [Abstract]

53. Anon. 1992. Pacific Islands economic trends. American Samoa, Commonwealth of the northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, French Polynesia, Guam, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Report to the Pacific Business Opportunities Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 16-17, 1992. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Bank of Hawaii Economics Dept.

"Open ocean fisheries are thought to have maximum sustained yields in excess of current catch levels, but most resource exploitation is undertaken by foreign licensed fishing fleets. Development of the deep water fishery and related shipment facilities have a high priority. Japanese fishing vessels landed nearly 19 200 metric tons of fish in the Mariana Islands in 1988 under license. However, the Mariana Islands probably earn only a fraction of its potential fishery income from existing licensing arrangements. Artisanal fisheries and mariculture commodities such as giant clams, seaweed, cultured pearls, and trochus shells are seen as possibilities for generating cash export income from traditional subsistence activities." [from Abstract]

54. Anon. 1995. Development of fish culture extension. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Project findings and recommendations. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 23 p.

"An account is given of extension activities carried in the framework of the fish culture development project in the People’s Republic of Lao. Extension activities in various provinces were monitored by district and province-level extensionists and supervised by the project team, which identified target farmers in the selected villages and imparted on-the-job training to provincial and district level extensionists and the target farmers. The main farming systems adapted to suit the local socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions in the country included pond fish culture, integrated farming with livestock, rice-cum-fish culture and fish seed production. The project team examined the culture practices followed by the identified target farmers and then envisaged possible improvements to current practices. Technology transfer, socio-economic benefits, manpower development, rural credit, extension materials and additional extension activities are discussed. Project recommendations are included under the following headings: Establishment of fisheries division; Strengthening of extension network; Manpower development; and Future development of fisheries sector." [Abstract]

55. Anon. 1995. Strengthening of inland fisheries information systems in the Mekong Basin (basinwide). Project concept paper. Bangkok, Thailand, Mekong River Comm. Secr. 14 p.

"An account is given of the activities planned for a project to be conducted on the strengthening of inland fisheries information systems in the Mekong Basin in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Viet Nam. Major objectives of the project are to develop a common system for the collection, processing and analysis of fisheries data for use in the four countries." [Abstract]

56. Aragon, C.T., Cosico, J. and Salayo, N. 1985. Tilapia marketing in Laguna Province, Philippines. In: Smith, I.R., Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine tilapia economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [College of Development Economics and Management, University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines]

"The important factors that affect the price of tilapia in Laguna are fish size, supply demand conditions and degree of freshness. Due to differences in tastes and preferences of consumers, the majority of the tilapia sellers sell both available species of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and O. mossambicus). Tilapia are acquired by the majority (77%) of fish buyers on consignment basis. There is no difference in the price of tilapia regardless of the method of payment. Most of the sample respondents (54%) who purchase fish directly from tilapia producers reported that they purchase tilapia unsorted because sorting is not practised by the tilapia producers.

The wholesalers have the highest marketing capital investment, averaging p 6 242, followed by the retailers, wholesaler/retailers and the producer/retailers, with an average marketing investment of p 5 270, p 1 429 and p 756, respectively. Vehicles are the major capital investment item of all the middlemen. Tools and equipment used in tilapia marketing are few and consist mainly of weighing scales, containers and ice boxes. None of the middlemen use cold storage facilities. Marketing costs vary among municipalities and among types of tilapia sellers.

The problems in tilapia marketing are lack of market stalls, credit collection, fish deterioration, price variability and the different taste of tilapia in some months of the year." [Abstract]

57. Aragon, C.T., de Lim, M.M. and Tioseco, G.L. 1985. Economics of tilapia cage culture in Laguna Province, Philippines. In: Smith, I.R., Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine tilapia economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [College of Economics Development and Management, University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines]

"This study was conducted to determine the profitability of tilapia cage culture in San Pablo City and Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. Primary data were gathered from 29 producers engaged in tilapia cage culture in Los Banos and 63 producers in San Pablo City.

On the average, the total capital investment of tilapia farmers in Los Banos for their small-scale grow-out operation was p 2 460 per farm. Average capital investment in farms in San Pablo City ranged from p 7 022 to p 66 462 for their grow-out operations. Large farms in the area which were engaged in both grow-out and hatchery operations had a total capital investment amounting to p 70 735. Fish nets represented the largest item of capital investment, comprising more than 30% of the total capital investment in both locations. (p 8.50 = $US 1.00 during the study).

Findings of the study indicate that tilapia cage culture is a profitable business venture in San Pablo City but that there were significant differences in mean total labour use, production, total cost, gross return and net farm income among the three farm-size groups.

Net farm income from tilapia cage culture in San Pablo City was also found to be directly related to farm size. Large farms engaged in both grow-out and hatchery operations in the area received the highest net farm income per season (p 230 000), followed by large farms engaged in grow-out operation only (p 151 000). On the other hand, the tilapia producers in Los Banos had a net average loss of p 2 800. This was due to the high non-cash labour cost. Because of the poaching problem in the area, the tilapia producers spend much time in guarding and inspecting the cages, thereby increasing the non-cash labour cost. However, the tilapia producers still continue to operate since the average net cash farm income from tilapia cage culture is p 1 570." [Abstract]

58. Arshad, N. and Sheffie Abu Bakar, M. 1980. Integrated farming systems: a case study under the Federal Land Development Scheme. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated agriculture aquaculture farming systems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and College, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia]

"The Malaysian Government is committed to develop aquaculture as a means of protein production. This paper describes a case study in the Belara Land Development Scheme, Trengganu State, under the supervision of the Federal Land Development Authority. The scheme involves about 30 fish farmers. Fixed costs (land acquisition and pond construction) and variable costs (seed, fertilizers, pesticides, labour, etc.) are tabulated for 0.25 acre ponds stocked with grass carp, common carp, bighead carp and Puntius gonionotus. The costs and returns are summarized as follows, per 0.25 acre pond: fixed costs, $M 2 200 ($M 800 for land acquisition); total variable costs for a nine-month production period, $M 847; total revenue, $M 1 906; gross profit, $M 1 059. The use of freshwater aquaculture as a supplementary occupation in land development schemes is discussed." [from Abstract]

59. Artachinda, S. 1979. Domestic marketing of Thai shrimp and market potential for export. In: Librero, A.R. and Collier, W.L. (eds.). Economics of aquaculture, sea fishing and coastal resource use in Asia. Proceedings of the Second Biennial Meeting of the Agricultural Economics Society of Southeast Asia, November 3-6, 1977, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Los Banos, Philippines, Agricultural Development Council and Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand]

This paper analyzes the domestic market for Thai shrimp including its market potential for export. Major distribution channel were classified into local growers’ market; assembly wholesale market; and the terminal market. Around 85 to 90% of the total shrimp export was sold to Japan, USA and Hong Kong. It also indicates an increasing trend in the quantity exported to these countries, while the amount available for export to the rest of the world declined. A simple model was also used to analyze the factors affecting the quantity of exports to these countries where the quantity demanded by Japan showed statistically significant coefficients.

60. ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project, Manila, Philippines. 1988. Training manual on marine finfish netcage culture in Singapore. Prepared for the Marine Finfish Netcage Culture Training Course. 291 p.

"The manual is presented under the following chapter headings: (i) Overview of marine aquaculture development in Singapore; (ii) Netcage construction; (iii) The raft structure; (iv) The netcage operation and maintenance; (v) Site selection; (vi) Species selection, culture and economics; (vii) Nutrition and feeds; (viii) Fish health and diseases; and (ix) Live fish transportation." [Abstract]

61. Aypa, S.M. 1995. Aquaculture development in the Philippines: status, constraints and prospects. In: Proceedings of the 7thth Biennial Conference of the International Institute for Fisheries Economics and Trade. Taiwan, China, National Taiwan Ocean University. pp. 14-26

"Aquaculture has been looked upon as an additional source of fish because of the dwindling fish stocks in the marine areas. due to environmental destruction and the abuse of exploitation. This sector has posted a steady growth in production in 1982-1992. The major species are milkfish, tilapia, and shrimps. In terms of export earnings, shrimps and seaweeds are the major species. The Government has also enacted laws that prohibit the conversion of mangrove areas and swamps into fishponds, in order to protect the coastal resources." [Summary]

62. Azam, M.Z. 1982. Asian Development Bank operations in the fisheries sector. INFOFISH Mark. Dig. (1):7-10. [Fish. and Livestock Div., Asian Dev. Bank, Manila, Philippines]

"It is now recognized that fisheries can be an important growth sector for developing countries as new technologies have emerged to allow large increases in productivity in both capture and culture fisheries. Past operations of the Asian Development Bank in the fisheries sector are outlined. Bank lending strategies will now aim at boosting supplies for domestic use and export; marketing, research and training will get new support. There will also be more funds for aquaculture and inland fisheries. On the marine side, the emphasis will be on coastal inshore fisheries." [Abstract]

63. Bakar, M.S. 1985. Freshwater fish culture in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Panayotou, T. (ed.). Small-scale fisheries in Asia: socio-economic analysis and policy. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre.

"The basic objective of this study is to estimate the economic potential of freshwater fish culture in the excavated ponds and unused mining pools through a study of their costs and revenue profiles. Policy implications based on the analysis will also be drawn." [from article]

64. Baliao, D.D., Franco, N.M. and Agbayani, R.F. 1987. The economics of retarding milkfish growth for fingerling production in brackishwater ponds. Aquaculture 62:195-205.

Stunting or retarding the growth of milkfish for fingerling production has been practised in the Philippines for some time. This practice assures the milkfish grower of a ready inventory of fingerlings for year-round production. The practice has been necessitated by the irregularity of fry supply from the wild. Stunting has also been found to be a profitable activity in milkfish culture operation. The cost and returns analysis shows that the six- and nine-month stunting periods posted 33.5% and 18.8% returns. The 12-month culture period showed a negative return.

65. Baluyut, E.A. 1987. Recent developments in inland fisheries and aquaculture in the Philippines. In: FAO Fisheries Report No. 370, suppl. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Inland Resource Development Corporation, Manila, Philippines]

A discussion is presented on the status of inland fisheries and aquaculture in the Philippines, highlighting recent significant developments in the sectors and indicating existing problems regarding future development.

66. Bandyopadhyay, A.K., Biswas, C.R., Chattopadhyay, G.N., Ghosh, A. and Chakraborti, P.K. 1987. Better land use through brackishwater aquaculture in coastal monocropped areas. In: Symposium on the Impact of Current Land Use Pattern and Water Resources Development on Riverine Fisheries, April 25-27, 1987. Abstracts. p. 11. [Cent. Soil Salinity Res. Inst., Regional Res. Stn. Canning, 24 Parganas (South), West Bengal, Pin 743 329, India]

"Studies conducted for five years in coastal monocropped rice areas in India, revealed that an increased harvest index could be achieved through better land and water use. Additional yields of brackishwater fish during summer periods and freshwater fish along with kharif rice, as well as vegetables, from the field bunds are possible instead of only one rice cultivated at present. Yield of kharif rice did not decline due to brackishwater aquaculture. The soil salinity developed due to saline water introduction in the summer could be lowered down through leaching and run-off processes with the help of pre-kharif precipitations. This method of cultivation resulted in much higher economic returns from the low-lying rice fields of coastal saline soil areas." [Abstract]

67. Banerjee, L.K. 1992. Mangal formations of the Mahanadi Delta: exploitation and management. In: Singh, K.P. and Singh, J.S. (eds.). Tropical ecosystems: ecology and management. Delhi, India, Wiley Eastern. p. 289-294. [Ecol. Unit, Bot. Surv. India, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 711 103, India]

"The mangrove ecosystem in the Mahanadi Delta (20 ° 15’ to 20 ° 70’ N, and 87 ° to 87 ° 40’E) spread over the southern part of the two districts, Cuttack and Balasore, constitutes most significantly the second largest mangal formation in India, supporting over 60 mangrove species, a number of economically useful mangroves and a pure formation of elegant palm over a stretch of 20 km on its shore line. This highly productive ecosystem is the ideal base for pisciculture, crocodile farming, a feeding ground for birds and valuable forest-based industries. Besides natural calamities, human exploitation, especially forest operation, land reclamation, resettlements, diversion of fresh water, rapid deforestation and developmental activities are impoverishing this unique ecosystem. Therefore, some effective management plans have been suggested in this paper, such as sustainable use management for forestry, for coastal fisheries, aquaculture problems, the use of slack waters, creation of buffer zone, plantation of choiceable tree species and a people’s awareness programme." [from Abstract]

68. Bashirullah, A.K.M. 1989. Aquaculture and coastal zone management in Bangladesh. Coast. Manage. 17(2):119-127. [Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. Oriente, Cumana 6101, Venezuela]

"This article gives a brief survey of the present status of brackishwater shrimp culture and its increased importance in the economy of Bangladesh. The high and increasing population density is forcing people to engage in agriculture and aquaculture in low-lying coastal areas where they are exposed to cyclones and tidal floods. Colonization of these areas has, however, led to deforestation and other adverse effects on the ecosystem. A policy of intensive farming using the most modern methods is necessary to reduce these effects. It is proposed that the Government augment its present policy of reforestation and take other steps to conserve the environment and to reduce siltation and erosion." [Abstract]

69. Bennett, E.L. and Reynolds, C.J. 1993. The value of a mangrove area in Sarawak. Biodivers. Conserv. 2(4):359-375. [Wildl. Conserv. Int., NY Zool. Soc., 7 Jalan Ridgeway, 93200 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia]

"Many arguments have been presented to justify the conservation of tropical forests. In the case of mangrove forests, their preservation can be argued using economic and employment grounds alone. A case study of the Sarawak Mangroves Forest Reserve, Malaysia is presented. Here, the mangroves support marine fisheries worth $US 21.1 million p.a. and up to 3 000 jobs, timber products worth $US 123 217 p.a., and a tourist industry worth $US 3.7 million p.a. If the mangroves were to be damaged, all of the fisheries and timber and many of the tourism benefits would be lost. In addition, highly expensive civil engineering works would be incurred to prevent coastal erosion, flooding and other damage. The area is also one of the only remaining refuges for mangrove flora and fauna in Sarawak. If the area were to be converted to aquaculture ponds or oil palm plantations, levels of revenue would be greatly reduced, and the multiple other benefits of mangroves would be lost. Coastal land pressure is not a limiting factor in the State. Considering their economic, employment, coastal protection and species conservation values, mangroves should be conserved and their importance taken into account at all levels in development planning." [Abstract]

70. Bhatia, R., Amerasinghe, U. and Imbulana, K.A.U.S. 1995. Productivity and profitability of paddy production in the Muda scheme, Malaysia. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 11(1):39-60. [Int. Irrig. Manage. Inst., P.O. Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka]

"The Malaysian Government’s policies of price support and subsidies for rice production, free fertilizers and the provision of agricultural extension services have enabled the farmers to increase rice output over time, particularly after 1984. The Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) improved the efficiency of water distribution and water use by investments in tertiary canals and farm roads and by improved data feedback systems. The farmers have also responded to labour and water shortages by adopting direct seeding in place of transplanting of rice and by integrated pest management practices. This paper presents a description of levels and changes in productivity and profitability of paddy production in the Muda irrigation scheme in Malaysia. It has been noted that, over the 1980s, there was a substantial reduction in rainfall and overall availability of water resources for irrigation in the region. Despite these adverse factors, farmers were able to increase total crop output by about 16% over the decade (1980-82 to 1990-91). Paddy output per unit of water released from the reservoirs increased by almost 45% in that period. The cost of production of paddy declined marginally over time for land owners as a result of reduced labour costs for transplanting rice. For tenants, the cost of production increased by about 17% owing to a substantial (50%) rise in land rents. Hence, higher yields have not resulted in higher incomes for farmers despite an increase in output price subsidies." [Abstract]

71. Bhaumik, U., Banerjee, B.K. and Das, P. 1989. Raising carp seed along with paddy. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 21(2)49-51. [Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"The findings are presented of nine experiments conducted to determine the feasibility of utilizing paddy plots in Kalyanbati, Hooghly District, India, for Indian major carp (Cyprinidae) seed raising. The system described was found to be economically feasible." [Abstract]

72. Bhaumik, U., Pandit, P.K. and Chatterjee, J.G. 1992. Adoption of paddy-cum-fish culture practice in rainfed coastal paddy fields of Sunderbans, West Bengal. Environ. Ecol. 10(2):366-370. [Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Inst. (ICAR), Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"In a bid to revamp the stagnant economy, attempts were made to integrate aquaculture with paddy cultivation. In order to know the adoption level and to identify constraints, a study was undertaken in 10 villages of the South 24-Parganas district of West Bengal. A total of 160 farmers selected at random were interviewed with a structured schedule developed for this purpose. The age group of the sample raised between 22 and 53 years. Most of the farmers belonged to marginal (63%) and small (34%) categories. The paddy and fish, and prawn produced by the respondents after adoption, were found to be in the range of 2 501-3 500 and 401-500 kg/ha respectively, compared to the paddy production at 1 400-2 000 kg/ha in traditional way. The farmers who adopted the technology utilizing more packages of practices, achieved better productions in both paddy and fish and prawn from their plots. The identified constraints were lack of resources, the irrigation facilities’ extension gap, the support system, and social evils which hindered the adoption process." [Abstract]

73. Bhaumik, U., Pandit, P.K., Chatterjee, J.G. and Halder, D.D. 1988. The problems of exotic carp culture and suggested measures - the fish farmers’ perception. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 20(2)38-42. [CFRI, Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"In composite fish culture, exotic carps (Cyprinidae) play a great role in augmenting production. To identify the problems associated with the culture of exotic carps as perceived by the farmers, a study was conducted with a structured interview schedule in 45 C.D. Blocks covering 10 districts of West Bengal, India, selected at random. The study revealed the chief problems in order of priority as: non-availability of credit (33.2%); lack of knowledge about the technology (16.7%); non-availability of exotic carp seed (16%); lower market price (8.9%); non-availability of aquatic vegetation for grass carp (7%); poaching (6.9%); lesser consumer preference (4.2%); poisoning of ponds (3.6%); and non-availability of water bodies (3.5%). The farmers also suggested measures such as the provision of credit, more exposure to modern technology, supply of exotic carp seed, production of fodder for grass carp, marketing through an organized sector and control of poaching and poisoning of the ponds for more effective diffusion of the technology." [from Abstract]

74. Bhukaswan, T. 1985. The Nam Pong Basin (Thailand). In: Petr, T. (ed.). Inland fisheries in multiple purpose river basin planning and development in tropical Asian countries: three case studies. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 265. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand]

This case study identifies the main features of the Nam Pong River Basin Development as the hydro-electric dam and a downstream situated irrigation system. It states that the construction of the dam which consequently closed the river in 1965, has significant positive effects on fishing which has considerably improved the diet and income of a number of farmers. The paper describes the fisheries management practices including the stocking of 19 species of fish. The socio-economic evaluation of fisheries has shown differences in profit in different areas. A benefit-cost analysis has shown that the river basin development project benefits are negligible.

75. Bimbao, G.B., Dey, M.M. and Eknath, A.E. 1996. Tilapia hatchery operators and farmers: a micro-level analysis. [ICLARM, MC P.O.Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

The major objective of this paper is to provide a micro-level analysis that relates to the socio-economic characteristics, farming environment, hatchery practices and management, marketing practices, and problems and perspectives of hatchery operators in the Philippines. This information is important for us to assess the possible impact of the introduction of improved strains/breeds in the country. The data used were mainly from the BAS-ICLARM survey of hatchery operators (with 17 provinces in Luzon as sampling frame) conducted in 1994.

76. Bimbao, G.B., and Dey, M.M. 1997. Philippine tilapia hatchery and grow-out system: a macro-level analysis. [International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati City, Metro Manila 0718 Philippines]

"The primary objective of this paper is for us to provide a macrolevel perspective of the status of tilapia farming crucial in assessing the possible impact of the introduction of improved tilapia breed/strain in the Philippines. We rely heavily on the results of 1992 aquaculture census of the Bureau of Agriculture Statistics and its other published and unpublished data on aquaculture." [Part of Introduction]

77. Bimbao, M.P. and Smith, I.R. 1988. Philippine tilapia economics: industry growth and potential. In: Pullin, R.S.V., Bhukaswar, T., Tonguthai, K. and MacLean, J. (eds.). The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 15. Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Fisheries and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The tilapia farming industry of the Philippines began slowly with the initial introduction of Oreochromis mossambicus in the 1950s. The more recent introduction of O. niloticus, however, has resulted in extremely rapid development of tilapia farming in lakes and ponds. Currently, tilapia is second only to milkfish in terms of annual production; the industry is estimated to produce over 50 000 t of tilapia annually.

Rapid inflation beginning in 1983 has led to over a 20% decline in the real prices of tilapia. Margins between wholesale and retail prices are narrowing, implying more competition in the industry as volume has increased. Declining purchasing power of consumers has also put additional pressures on producers to become more efficient. Future market potential thus depends not only on future incomes of consumers, but also on the ability of producers to reduce average production costs. This can be done not only through increasing average farm efficiency, but also through stock improvement." [Abstract]

78. Bimbao, M.P., Ahmed, M., Pomeroy, R.S. and Pullin, R.S.V. 1994. The economic potential of tilapia farming in Asia: the Philippine experience. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds). Socio-economics of aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. p. 157-172. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The economic and biological attributes of tilapia, particularly Oreochromis niloticus, give them a comparative advantage over some other species cultured in Asia. From 1984 to 1990, Asia produced an average of 230 757 t of tilapia from aquaculture and the region accounted for 67% of the globally farmed tilapia production. The major tilapia producing countries were the Philippines, Taiwan, China, and Indonesia, whose reproduction represented 27%, 24%, 19%, and 17%, respectively, of the regional total. Recent production trends and research development signal that tilapia farming in Asia will expand. It also indicates that increased production will come from countries considered new to tilapia farming and from improved technologies, particularly the development of improved breeds for culture (as needed by at least 10 countries in the region). The expansion of sustainable tilapia farming, however, depends on being able to address the following constraints: lack of knowledge; risk of failure; inappropriate support research on tilapia; negative attitudes and policies for tilapia introductions and farming; persistent technical problems (such as controlling reproduction); and poor breeds and farming systems. This paper presents the development and status of tilapia farming in the Philippines and discuss trends in production and prices. It also assesses tilapia’s market potential and the effect of a technological breakthrough, such as the development of improved breeds." [Abstract]

79. Bimbao, M.P., Cruz, A.V. and Smith, I.R. 1990. An economic assessment of rice-fish culture in the Philippines. In: Hirano, R. and Hanyu, I. (eds.). The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The economics of rice-fish culture was compared with those of rice monoculture using indices of profitability (net returns, profit margin, operating cost margin, and benefit/cost ratios) and of productivity (total productivity, specific productivity, and net productivity), generated by three earlier costs and returns studies. Calculated economic indicators improved with the shift from rice monoculture to rice-fish culture, which implies that the latter is the more profitable and productive farming system. No conclusions were reached with respect to the merits of rice-fish culture in different seasons (dry and wet). Possible reasons are given as to why rice-fish culture has not yet been widely adopted in the Philippines." [Abstract]

80. Boonchuwong, P. undated. Socio-economics of small-scale fisheries in the artificial reef areas in Ranong Province, Thailand. In: The effect of artificial reef installation on the biosocioeconomics of small-scale fisheries in Ranong Province, Thailand. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development. Small-scale Fisherfolk Communities in the Bay of Bengal. pp. 87-93. [Dep. Fish., Bangkok, Thailand]

"The findings are presented of a socio-economic study undertaken in six fishing villages in the districts of Muang and Kapur, in the Andaman coastal zone of Thailand, which may have had benefits from the installation of artificial reefs. Data were obtained to identify changes in fishing households, to record the attitude and perceptions of fisherfolk regarding artificial reefs, as well as to achieve a better understanding of the socio-economics of small-scale fisheries. Management options likely to benefit the community and optimally utilize the marine resources at the artificial reefs are also examined." [Abstract]

81. Boonyaratpalin, M., McCoy, E.W. and Chittapalapong, T. 1985. Snakehead culture and its socioeconomics in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. [Reg. Lead Cent. Thailand, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand]

Snakehead (Channa striatus) culture systems in Thailand are outlined (e.g., site suitability, stocking and rearing fry, feed and feeding, disease and parasites and harvesting), along with a detailed economic profile.

82. Boromthanarat, S. 1995. Coastal zone management. In: Report on a Regional Study and Workshop on the Environmental Assessment and Management of Aquaculture Development No. 1. Bangkok, Thailand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. pp. 431-434. [Coastal Resour. Inst. Prince Songkhla Univ., Songkhla 90000, Thailand]

"Shrimp culture deals with the integration of land, water and various other natural resources; however, it also has created many external impacts on the environment and on society. A discussion is presented on coastal zone management, based on experience gained from the current condition of shrimp farming development in the Southeast Asian region. Coastal areas which used to be mainly covered with dense mangrove forest and rice fields have been converted by local fishermen and outside investors into ponds for shrimp farming, causing environmental impacts on adjacent areas. A list is given of problems specific to shrimp farming, so as to help develop coastal zone management options. Water-related problems, land-related problems, aquaculture-related problems, coastal zone problems, environmental management problems and the institutional setting are discussed. The critical issues and problems in the coastal area are centred around the conflicts between economic activities and the ecosystem; resulting problems include pollution of surface waters, degradation of the mangrove area and wetlands, and the threat of storms, typhoons and flooding. The issues related to shrimp farming development include the extensive exploitation and destruction of natural resources. In order to achieve sustainable development in the planning and implementation of the development of a shrimp farm culture system for a given coastal region, it is necessary to take an integrated approach to the economic, natural and social environments of the region." [Abstract]

83. Bouret, P. 1996. Développement de l’aquaculture et transformation des unités de production en Thailande. Paper presented at the VIII Conference Internationale sur l’Economie des Pêches (IIFET), Marrakech, Maroc, 1-4 juillet, 1996.

The author presents the case of a village in the southeast of Thailand, where the recent transformation of a rice production area to shrimp culture has brought socio-economic problems. Rice production as practised by villagers and the newer commercial aquaculture production of shrimp are both examined in terms of their units of production, economic strategies, division of labour between male and female, salaries, and dependence on the market. The study shows that rapid and uncontrolled expansion has negative effects not only on the environment, but also on the socio-economic aspects of the village.

84. Brewer, W.A. and Corbin, J.S. 1984. Aquaculture development for the Pacific islands. In: The emerging marine economy of the Pacific. pp. 153-175. [Aquacult. Dev. Prog., Dep. Land and Nat. Res., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA]

This paper examines some environmental, economic and socio-cultural characteristics of Pacific islands that will affect the aquaculture development potential of the region. Identifying common characteristics provides a broad framework from which Pacific island governments and private investors can better identify opportunities for commercial aquaculture, and also focus on potential constraints to achieving significant levels of aquafarming in the near future.

85. Broussard, M.C.,Jr. and Reyes, C.G. 1985. Cost analysis of a large-scale hatchery for the production of Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings in Central Luzon, Philippines. In: Smith, I.R., Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine tilapia economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA]

"Operations of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) hatchery at Murioz, Nueva Ecija are analyzed from the economic point of view. Cost analysis of fingerling production using open pond spawning indicates that fingerlings can be produced at a relatively low cost at a large hatchery complex if production systems are properly managed. Cost estimates from this facility could be relevant for large private hatcheries. Additional costs to private producers would include interest on loans and operating capital, and a higher cost for water. However, capital investment for facilities and pond construction should be substantially lower for a private hatchery." [Abstract]

86. Brown, J.W. and Crisostomo, D.P. 1994. Marketing of aquaculture products in Micronesia: the Asian catfish on Guam. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds.). Socio-economics of aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. pp. 363-370. [Coll. of Agri. and Life Sci., Univ of Guam, Mangilao, Guam 96923, USA]

"Asian catfish production in Guam accounts for less than 3% of aquacultural production. Marketing constraints are the primary cause for such low production. The catfish has a poor image among a sizeable proportion of the population. However, among the remainder of the population, the catfish has a positive image. Within the population that would consume the Asian catfish there is a second marketing problem; the catfish is currently sold live on the market, forcing the potential consumer to kill and clean the fish. The paper discusses the efforts to overcome these constraints." [Abstract]

87. Budihardjo. 1991. Economic analysis of existing income sources of Kampung Laut, Segara Anakan Cilacap, Indonesia. In: Chou, Loke ing, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an integrated management of tropical coastal resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. P. 434. [Socio-economic Res. Div., Agency Agric. Res. and Dev., Jl. Kerapu 12, Jakarta 14430, Indonesia]

"The poor socio-economic situation in Segara Anakan, Cilacap, Indonesia, is the basis of the resource management problems there. This study analyzes the economic activities, level of income and the contribution of fisheries in relation to other livelihoods. It makes recommendations on how to increase income and decrease dependence on fisheries for households. About 70% of all household income still comes from fishing, which has declined significantly in the last ten years. Offshore fishing outside the lagoon is the most profitable; this is done through the use of gill nets by fishermen with outboard motors for their boats. In the lagoon, the most profitable and non-destructive methods of fishing are done through the use of trammel nets (jaring ciker), bamboo traps (wadong) and lift nets (pintur). The latter are used for crab fishing and are recommended to replace the fine meshed nets that are depleting the fish stocks. The use of these methods is to be encouraged in considering maximum sustainable yield. Farming contributes to only 8% of the household income, although an undisclosed amount is derived from mangrove exploitation for wood, charcoal and some wildlife. Aquaculture of tilapia is feasible. Marketing can be improved and postharvest processing is encouraged to increase income from the present fish catch. Households earn more above their average income in doing certain daily labour activities such as frog-keeping, water fetching and construction work." [from Abstract]

88. Campos G, J.P. de. 1989. Shrimp culture and market incorporation: a study of shrimp culture in paddy fields in southwest Bangladesh. Dev. Change 20(4):653-682. [Reg. Dev. Plann. Inst. Social Stud., The Hague, Netherlands]

"In response to sustained international demand and favourable prices, the culture of shrimp for export, carried out in paddy fields with very simple techniques and low capital intensity, has experienced fast growth in southwest Bangladesh over recent years. As a result, areas where subsistence agricultural production had previously predominated are now undergoing a process of international market incorporation. A description and analysis of some of the concrete processes and changes associated with this development are presented. The organization of shrimp culture is outlined, and the roles and profits of traders, agents and packers are detailed. Employment creation and income distribution are also examined." [Abstract]

89. Catalan, Z.B., Bachmann, R.W., Jones, J.R., Peters, R.H., and Soballe, D.M. (eds.). 1995. Impacts of aquacultural technologies on inland fisheries. Lake Reserv. Manage. 11(2):125. [Aquatic Resour. Manage. Div., Inst. Environ. Sci. and Manage., Univ. Philippines at Los Banos, 4031 College, Laguna, Philippines]

"Laguna de Bay is considered a very important natural resource of the Philippines because of its multiple uses. Its management is confronted with problems that are multifarious. Through the decades it has become polluted, eutrophic, shallower and overexploited. Its rehabilitation has become a major focus of the Government, considering that it has been programmed to become the source of domestic water supply in the future for Metro Manilans. A presidential commission has been created to facilitate its rehabilitation. A Master Plan has been prepared by a multisectoral group led by the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), the agency that manages the lake and its watershed. The Department of Science and Technology has embarked on a multidisciplinary research programme to assist in its rehabilitation. One of the major problems that LLDA faces is the decreasing trend in fish production. This trend can be attributed to deteriorating water sediment quality, overexploitation and the introduction of fishpen and cage technologies. This paper focuses on the analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the introduction of these technologies. Milkfish (Chanos chanos) is a planktivore cultured in fishpens, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an omnivore grown in fishcages. The repercussions of the introduction of these species, one after another in the 1970s, on trophic relations and fish production are analyzed. Socio-economic impacts of the technologies are also discussed. Suggestions for the sustainable management of the fishery resources are presented." [Abstract]

90. Chaitanawisuti, N. and Piyatiratitivorakul. S. 1994. Studies on cage culture of red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) with special emphasis on growth and economics.

"Juveniles of red snapper with special emphasis on growth and economics. Juveniles of red snapper were collected for the mangrove areas around the inner part of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. They were stocked a the initial density of 90 fishes/m3 in floating net cages with a diameter of 3 m and a depth of 2 m over a 10-month period and fed with chopped, small carangids to satiation twice daily. Based on growth data the red snapper showed a high growth rate with a low food conversion ratio. The average values of specific growth rate, survival, weight gain per fish, body weight increase, food conversion ratio, normalized biomass index, condition factor and net yield are discussed. The average cost of net yield was B 4 614.20/m3 cage, with an average income of B 960.50/m3 . The estimated income was 26.3% base on the capital and ration costs. The present study shows high economic feasibility of commercial cage culture of red snapper." [from Abstract]

91. Ch’ ng, K.L. and Thomas, C. 1991. Artificial reef programme in Malaysia. In: Chou, Loke ing, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an Integrated Management of Tropical Coastal Resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. P. 305-309. [Dep. Fish., Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50628 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]

"Rapid development and lack of understanding about the cause and effect relationships between development and adverse ecological impacts on the coastal zone have resulted in the degradation of coral reef ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia, specifically on the west coast. Malaysia has, however, responded in two ways: (i) it has declared the islands and the surrounding waters with intact coral reef ecosystems as protected areas as of 1984, with a view to creating marine parks; and (ii) the country has embarked on an intensive artificial reef programme. The artificial reefs are made of tires and concrete and/or confiscated boats. Preliminary research indicates that there is an increase in catch directly over the artificial reefs. However, this raises the question of whether this is an indication of actual increase in fish stock in the coastal areas or aggregation of the dwindling fish stock in the artificial reefs. If the increase in catch is a sign of the latter, the establishment of artificial reefs to enhance fishing would lead to the rapid depletion of the fish stock in the inshore zone. On the other hand, if the increase in catch is a sign of the former, the establishment of artificial reefs for conservation and habitat enhancement could reinforce and improve a dwindling fish stock." [Abstract]

92. Chamberlain, G. 1992. Shrimp culture in Indonesia. 4. Feeds for the shrimp industry. World Aquaculture 23(2):38-40.

"This is the final article in a four-part series on the shrimp culture industry in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of the major users of aquaculture feeds in Asia. The American Soybean Association has estimated that consumption of aquaculture feeds in 1989 was 130 000 t, of which 100 000 t was shrimp feed, 70% of which was imported. Feed demand in Indonesia is expected to grow about 30% annually, and consumption could reach 480 000 t by 1994. Shrimp feed is available in Indonesia from at least 10 domestic feed companies and 19 imported labels (primarily from Taiwan, but also mainland China and Germany). Most of the available feeds are relatively expensive, high-quality diets intended for use in intensive systems. In order to adjust to the changing nutritional requirements of growing shrimp, 2-3 different types of feed are available from most suppliers: starter (45-50% protein), grower (40-45% protein), and finisher (36-40% protein). Unfortunately, feeds formulated for use in intensive systems exceed the needs of extensive and semi-intensive farms." [Abstract]

93. Chamberlain, G.W. 1991. Processing and marketing. World Aquaculture 22(4):24-27. [Aquacult. Res. and Technol. Manage., Ralston Purina Int.]

"In the first two installments of this series, George Chamberlain explored the seedstock production and grow-out techniques used by Indonesian shrimp farmers in an industry that has rapidly become the second most productive in the world. In this article, he discusses the processing and marketing methods used to move product from pond to table. Indonesia has a large artisanal capture fishery which effectively markets the species captured, including small filter feeding fishes and tiny shrimp species. There are virtually no ‘trash species’. Tiny shrimp are sold fresh or dried or used to make shrimp paste or shrimp crackers. In order to protect its large artisanal fishing industry, Indonesia banned industrial trawling in 1980 but relaxed the ban in 1985 to allow trawling in its remote eastern waters, particularly those near Irian Jaya. Shrimp landings in 1987 and 1988 averaged about 140 000 t. Annual domestic shrimp consumption averages about 108 000 t, most of which comes from the capture fishery. On a per capita basis, domestic shrimp consumption comprises

0.6-0.7 kg of the annual 13 kg of per capita seafood consumption. Shrimp is the major contributor to Indonesia’s fishery exports. In 1988, 71% of Indonesia’s shrimp exports were directed to Japan. In fact, Indonesia is Japan’s largest shrimp supplier. Other important markets include Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and European countries." [Abstract]

94. Chan, F.K. and Say Pui Yen, A. 1979. Resource potential and policy in aquaculture and marine fisheries in Singapore. In: Economics of aquaculture, sea fishing and coastal resource use in Asia. [University of Singapore, Singapore]

This paper evaluates the resource potential and the various policies in marine fisheries and aquaculture in Singapore. The level of fish production, considering the increasing population, is inadequate to satisfy the country’s yearly consumption. This is aggravated by the fact that the prospects for improving the level of fish production from inshore waters declined progressively due to: the limited amount of inshore fisheries resource; the low technological level being adopted by local fishermen; and the pricing/uncertain access to national territorial waters which hamper the attempts to engage into off shore and deep-sea fishing. In view of these factors, the Government has embarked on formulation of policies to facilitate the development of fisheries with good potential.

95. Chan, H.S.A. 1991. Socio-economics of two coastal communities engaged in milkfish fry gathering, La Union, Philippines. In: Chou, Loke ing, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an Integrated Management of Tropical Coastal Resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. p. 429. [Coll. Soc. Work and Community Dev., Univ. Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines]

"This study investigated the milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry gathering industry in two adjacent communities in Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. One site has beaches classified as part of the national seashore park and the other falls under municipal management and is concessioned at present to a group of resident small-scale fishermen. Differences in the economic structure of the two communities were identified and evaluated. Market systems employed were defined and analyzed in terms of maximum returns to milkfish fry gatherers. Significant economic and social contributions of milkfish fry gathering were enumerated and their implications probed. The major problems ranged from gear inefficiency and storage to dwindling annual catch. Recommendations included the regulation of net types, which capture spawning milkfish; the development of stocking ponds near fry grounds to minimize mortality rates; and the adoption of more efficient economic arrangements for marketing." [Abstract]

96. Chan, H.T. 1991. The need to develop a management scheme for mangrove forests in South Johore to ensure resource sustenance. In: Chou, Loke ing, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an Integrated Management of Tropical Coastal Resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. pp. 311-315. [Forest Res. Inst. Malaysia, Kepong Selangor, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]

"The mangrove forest reserves in South Johore, Malaysia, managed by the Forest Department for Sustained Timber Production, form part of the permanent forest estate and stateland mangroves under the jurisdiction of the Johore State Government. These mangrove forests are becoming a dwindling resource because of their continued alienation for various land uses that are assumed to be of greater economic value. However, several strategies have been recommended to prevent further depletion of the resource." [Abstract]

97. Chandrasoma, J. 1988. Observations on marketing of fish produced in seasonal tanks. J. Inland Fish. 4:63-67. [Inland Fish. Div., Minist. Fish. and Aquat. Resour., Colombo 10, Sri Lanka]

"Details are given of the current situation regarding the marketing of fish produced from seasonal tanks in Sri Lanka, considering also the various constraints facing the industry. Various recommendations are made in order to help overcome the various constraints discussed." [Abstract]

98. Chaudhuri, H. and Singh, S.B. 1985. Induced breeding of Asiatic carps. Vientiane, the Lao People’s Dem. Rep, FAO/UNDP Proj. 14 p.

"A detailed description is given of the method of induced breeding of carp, which is aimed at Lao technicians and farmers involved in fish seed production. Essential requirements for the fish seed programme are listed." [Abstract]

99. Chaudhuri, K. 1988. Dynamic optimization of combined harvesting of a two species fishery. Ecol. Model. 41(1-2):17-25. [Dep. Math., Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta 700 032, India]

"In the present paper, the author considers the problem of dynamic optimization of the exploitation policy connected with the combined harvesting of two competing fish species, each of which obeys the logistic growth law. The singular extremal trajectory in the phase plane is derived by taking the harvesting effort as a dynamic variable. Biological or bio-economic interpretations of the constraints required for this singular extremal are also given." [Abstract]

100. Chen, C.C. 1994. An economic analysis of major species in brackishwater aquaculture. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds.). Socio-economics of Aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. p. 209-228. [Res. Inst. of Fish. Eco., National Taiwan Ocean Univ., 2 Pei Ning Rd., Keelung, Taiwan 202 (P.C.)]

"Aquaculture industry in Taiwan (P.C.) is well developed. It has contributed to national economic growth and raising farmers’ income. But it has also resulted in great social costs of land and water resources. In order to solve the problem and keep the growth of aquaculture intact, the structure of aquaculture needs to be reassessed, and brackishwater aquaculture is expected to be promoted. The decision to change aquaculture in different waters not only involves technical problems but also affects the economic incentive of farmers. Economic cooperation advantages play an important role in the farmer’s decision. Therefore, in providing some measures to facilitate development of brackishwater aquaculture, this paper aims to deal with a cooperative advantage study between different types of water for aquaculture production, so as to pursue the best aquacultural method for maximizing economic growth and minimizing the social cost of the water resource." [Abstract]

101. Chen, S.N., Chou, Y. and Shin, J.W. 1995. Strategy and environmental evaluation of the foreign investment by the shrimp culturing industry. In: Liao, D.S. (ed.). International Cooperation for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development. Proceedings of the 7thth Biennial Conference, IIFET Taipei ‘94, 18-21 July 1994. Vol. 2, pp. 1-13. [Inst. of Fish. Econ., National Taiwan Ocean Univ., 2 Pei Ning Rd., Keelung, Taiwan, (P.C.)]

"Shrimp culturing in Taiwan (P.C.) was once the best in the world and Taiwan was known as the ‘Kingdom of Shrimp Culturing’. Our domestic shrimp culturers and experts were the most desired personnel by other nations. Because of the desire for quick, short- term profit by the shrimp culturing industry as a whole, and the overemphasis on applied science while ignoring fundamental scientific research, a fatal disease on shrimp occurred in 1987 which caused a death rate of over 80%. The shrimp culturing industry diminished rather rapidly, and when it finally hit rock bottom, the hard earned export market was taken over by other nations.

Looking ahead into the future, we find that Taiwan (P.C.) is most likely to face the following problems: an inferior shrimp culturing environment; a shortage of water sources; recognition of environmental protection; a prevalence of shrimp culturing disease; dumping of cheap foreign seafood; and adjustment of government policy, etc., especially since the current cost of culturing has risen too high. At this time, shrimp prices are very low in the international market, and some shrimp culturers are not very competitive, thus operation is becoming difficult. In addition to improving quality, some nations possess contain open land, abundant water sources, suitable climates, low culturing cost, and local governments supportive to foreign investors. An important alternative for Taiwan’s shrimp culturers is to transfer the industry overseas.

This paper contains the following sections: Chapter I: Preface; Chapter II: Introduction to the Theory of Investment Abroad; Chapter III: Evaluation of the Shrimp Culturing Environment of other Nations; Chapter IV: Studying the Causes of Failures in Shrimp Culturing Abroad; Chapter V: Discussing the Strategies for Foreign Investment by the Shrimp Culturing Industry; and Chapter VI: Conclusion." [Abstract]

102. Chen, D. 1989. Coastal zone development, utilization, legislation, and management in China. Coast. Manage. 17(1):55-62. [China Inst. Mar. Dev. Strategy, Beijing, China]

"China, with 18 000 km of continental shoreline, 14,000 km of island shoreline and with over 5 000 islands, has one of the longest national shorelines in the world. The coastal zone in China spans tropical, subtropical and temperate climate zones. Although it occupies only about 15% of the country’s area, it holds about 44% of the population. The coastal economy is relatively more developed than in other areas. China has given priority to the development and management of the coastal zone with a three-stage project: first, to formulate a long-term programme for development and utilization in the coastal area; second, to improve reclaimed salty soil, strengthen marine fishing measures, develop seawater culture, establish a forest protection system, prevent coastal erosion, regulate the transport routes, and establish natural resources and environmental protection areas; and, third, to draft legislation and management measures for the coastal zone." [Abstract]

103. Chen, H., Hu, B. and Charles, A.T. 1995. Chinese integrated fish farming: a comparative bio-economic analysis. Aquacult. Res. 26(2):81-94. [Dep. Finance and Manage. Sci., Saint Mary’s Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada]

"This paper provides an overview of the structure and performance of Chinese integrated pond fishfarming systems, based on analysis of survey data for 1 013 ponds on 101 farms in eight Chinese provinces. A province-by-province examination of gross and net fish yields supports the traditional Chinese classification of provinces into high, medium and low productivity classes according to fish farm output; average net fish yields for surveyed ponds in each class were 7 958, 4 981 and 3 321 kg/ha/year, respectively. The paper includes summaries and analyses of data on fish stocking and harvesting, use of feeds and fertilizers, fish animal integration, capital inputs, and the overall cost and revenue structure in each productivity class. In addition to variations in aggregate input and output levels, a key difference between productivity classes is seen to lie in the stocking model utilized; filter feeding fish dominate in poorer areas, while ‘feeding fish’ (grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson), and omnivorous carps) dominate in high productivity provinces. These results are examined in light of regional differences in culturing tradition, socio-economics, infrastructure, climate and geographical factors." [from Abstract]

104. Chen, Hon Cheng. 1993. Effect of water pollution on aquaculture. In: Liao, I Chiu, Cheng, Jin Hua, Wu, Mei Cheng and Guo, Jiin Ju (eds.). Proceedings of the Symposium on Aquaculture held in Beijing, December 21-33, 1992. Keelung, Taiwan, Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute. no. 3, pp. 127-141. [Inst. Zool., Natl. Taiwan Univ., Taiwan (P.C.)]

"Due to social and industrial developments, much wastewater with little or no treatment is increasingly being discharged into public waters. The deleterious effect of this practice in recent years on aquaculture in Taiwan (P.C.) is graphic evidence of this serious problem. The notorious examples include green oysters with high copper content, purple clam contaminated with saxitoxin, mercury contamination in cultured marine fish, mass mortality of oyster by suspended clay, and deformed fish and loss of elver harvest in pulp mill plant discharged areas. These not only reduce the benefit of aquaculture, but also affect the health of consumers. The present paper studied the toxicity of some important pollutants, the causes of serious pollution, and the impact and damage of water pollution to aquaculture. Some control and prevention methods are offered as a reference for improving water quality and protecting aquatic environments." [Abstract]

105. Cheng, J. 1982. Economics of marine fish farming in Hong Kong. Report of the Training Course on Small-scale Pen and Cage Culture for Finfish.

The paper analyzes the economics of cage and impoundment culture in Hong Kong. Cage culture is the most common method used by small-scale fishermen. One of the advantages of this method is that it requires less capital input. Marine fish farming is, however, a high risk venture due to natural disasters such as typhoons, red tide, pollution and diseases. The uncertainty of supply of fish seed is considered a major problem.

106. Cheng, K.W.J. 1977. Marketing and utilization of inland culture fish in Hong Kong. In: Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, Proceedings of the 17thth Session, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 27 - November 5, 1976. Section III. Bangkok, Thailand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

These Proceedings review the specialized marketing of inland cultured fish, mainly carp. Imports from China are as high as 90% of consumption. Also included are demand and utilization, costs, demand and supply projections. [In: Garruccio, M.R. (comp.). Marketing in fisheries, a selective annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 817, Revision 1]

107. Chennubhotla, V.S.K. 1988. Status of seaweed culture in India. Report on the Training Course on Seaweed Farming, Manila, Philippines, May 2-21, 1988. pp. 91-98. [Cent. Mar. Fish. Res. Inst., Cochin 31, India]

Following a brief account of techniques used in India regarding the culture of Gracilaria acerosa, G. edulis and other red algae, details are given as to the seaweed culture experiments conducted at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute at Mandapam. The culture of spores, the effects of environmental factors on seaweed culture and surveys of seaweed resources are covered. An examination is also made of the economics of seaweed culture. [Abstract]

108. Chennubhotla, V.S.K., Kaliaperumal, N. and Rajagopalan, M.S. 1988. Seaweed culture in India - an appraisal. CMFRI Spec. Publ. no. 40. pp. 57-58. [CMFRI, Cochin 31, India]

"Attempts have been made in India to develop suitable seaweed farming techniques by some institutes, notably the CMFRI at its Mandapam Regional Centre and CSMCRI at its field centre, Mandapam. Experimental culture of economically important seaweeds such as Gracilaria edulis, Gelidiella acerosa, and other species has been undertaken since 1972 at Mandapam. In these experiments, production rates ranging from three to eight times the initial wet weight were obtained. The techniques of seaweed culture, the favourable seasons, the optimum duration of culture period and the influence of environmental parameters are discussed in this account, with accompanying notes on the economics of seaweed culture. General information on the seaweed coastal resources, their potential for exploitation and culture are also highlighted." [from Abstract]

109. Chennubhotla, V.S.K., Ramalingam, J.R. and Najmuddin, M. 1986. Socio-economic standards of fishermen of Marakayarpatnam and Vedalai villages in Tamil Nadu and the role of coastal aquaculture in raising their standards. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal Aquaculture, held at Cochin, from January 12-18, 1980. Part 4: Culture of other organisms, environmental studies, training, extension and legal aspects. No. 6, p. 1476. [CMFRI, Cochin 682 031, India]

"The main livelihood of the fishermen in the villages of Marakayarpatnam and Vedalai is fishing (chank fishery, gillnet, shore seine and cast net operations) and the collection of economically important seaweeds from the neighbouring islands. There are potentialities for carrying out mariculture of prawns, turtles, lobsters, milkfish, mullets and seaweeds in land-based ponds and in the shallow coastal waters by suitable methods. While suitable technologies for the culture of these organisms are being developed, the non-availability of finance to the fishermen in view of their poor economic status has been found to be one of the major constraints in the development of mariculture in this region." [Abstract]

110. Cheong, L. and Loy, W.S. 1982. An analysis of the economics of farming green mussels in Singapore using rafts. In: Aquaculture Economics Research in Asia: Proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, June 2-5, 1981. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [Aquaculture Unit, Primary Production Department, Changi Point, Singapore]

"Raft culture of green mussels in Singapore is described and the economics of various operations are discussed. Operations using polycoco ropes on a single 150m2 raft and in farms of 0.5 and 0.75 ha are shown to be economically feasible in Singapore. Labour constitutes the largest variable cost and sensitivity tests show that increases in labour cost have a greater impact on production cost than decreases in raft cost." [Abstract]

111. Cherdel, P. and Raimbault, J.M. 1995. Aquaculture engineers (or a French look at social originalities of aquaculture in South Korea). Angers, France, Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture.

"After an historical review, the authors analyze the sociological and economical aspects of the Korean enterprise, then focus on aquaculture." [from Abstract]

112. Chia, L.S. 1991. A proposed management plan for the coastal area surrounding the Southern Islands of Singapore. In: Chou, Loke ing, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an Integrated Management of Tropical Coastal Resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. p. 444. [Dep. Geogr., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511]

"The Southern Islands of Singapore comprise over 40 islands off the southwestern coast of the main island of Singapore. The coastal area (including the water front land on the main island’s coast) has been developed over a period of one and a half centuries, but more so after World War II and especially since the 1960s. The main developments are in the shipping and port manufacturing industries, including petroleum refining, petrochemicals, storage of liquid products, shipbuilding and repairing, and other heavy industries. Concurrently, major efforts have gone into developing recreational and tourist facilities on Sentosa and many nearby islands. Much of the coastal area surrounding the Southern Islands and the activities there have undergone tremendous changes over a very short period of time. This coastal area clearly requires a management plan to ensure, on the one hand, that vital development needs are not hampered and, on the other, that the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation are controlled so as not to affect adversely other resource uses (both present and potential), such as fishing, aquaculture, tourism and recreation, and education and research. There are also cultural and aesthetic aspects of the area that should be preserved and enhanced. Ways should also be found to preserve the small community in Pulau Sakeng and to draw together the diverse elements of coastal area management. At this stage, the proposed management plan is intended to stimulate discussion rather than produce a final solution." [Abstract]

113. Chiang, P., Wang, T., Kuo, Ching Ming and Liao, I Chiu. 1986. The prospects of the grass shrimp culture industry in Taiwan. In: Maclean, J.L., Dizon, L.B. and Hosillos, L.V. (eds.). The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of The First Asian Fisheries Forum, Manila, Philippines, May 26-31, 1986. pp. 25-29. [Hanaqua Feed Corp., No. 40, Chung Lin Rd., Hsiao Kang Dist., Kaohsiung 81208, Taiwan (P.C.)]

"Grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture is a rapidly growing profitable industry in Taiwan (P.C.). The total annual production of grass shrimp increased from less than 1 000 t in 1976 to more than 30 000 t in 1985. The economic importance of shrimp culture in Southeast Asian countries has also been widely recognized. Continued development and expansion of the industry might eventually lead to competition for markets. The culture methods for extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems in Taiwan are described and their economics analyzed. Speculations are made on strategies to ensure the continued success of the industry in Taiwan." [Abstract]

114. Chiau, Wen Yan. 1994. Coastal policy and administration in Taiwan: a review. In: Wells, P.G. and Ricketts, P.J. (eds.). Coastal Zone Canada ‘94, Cooperation in the Coastal Zone: Conference Proceedings. Volume 1. Zone Cotière Canada ‘94, Coopération dans la Zone Cotière: Actes de la Conference. Volume 1. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, Coastal Zone Canada Association. pp. 72-84. [Dep. Mar. Environ., Natl. Sun Yat sen Univ., Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (P.C.)]

"The coastal zone in Taiwan (P.C.) is under increasing pressure from rapid urbanization, pollution, tideland reclamation, tourism development, and aquacultural development. Concerning the degradation of coastal environment, the authorities are actively undertaking several programmes for better management of the marine environment. Due to the degradation of this environment, coastal zone management is now emerging on the environmental agenda in Taiwan. However, the authority to protect the marine environment is still diffused among a number of central and local agencies. This paper is to review Taiwan’s coastal policy and administration, identify its issues, and develop several strategies to promote the performance of coastal zone management." [Abstract]

115. Chien, Yew Hu and Liao, I. Chiu. 1992. Evolution of the eel culture industry in Taiwan. In: Liao, I Chiu, Shyu, Chung Zen and Chao, Nai Hsien (eds.). Aquaculture in Asia. Proceedings of the 1990 APO Symposium on Aquaculture. Keelung, Taiwan (P.C.) September 5-13, 1990. Keelung, Taiwan (P.C.), Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute. No. 1, pp. 247-257. [Dep. Aquacult., Natl. Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung 202, Taiwan (P.C.)]

"Eel farming is the most important aquaculture industry in Taiwan (P.C.). In 1989, eel culture production in both quantity and value ranked first. Indeed, among all agricultural products exported to Japan, eel exports ranked first. From a production and productivity point of view, the eel culture industry in Taiwan has gone through four stages since its introduction in 1923, namely; the experimental stage, dormant stage, growing stage, and prosperous and adjustment stage. Factors which affect its development are analyzed from the technical, social, and economic aspects. Future developmental directions of this industry are laid out with particular consideration to the competition from the new major supplier of cultured eel, mainland China." [from Abstract]

116. Chilvers, R.M. 1988. Hong Kong (fisheries production). In: Fishing industry in Asia and the Pacific. Tokyo, Japan, Asian Productivity Organ. pp. 293-306. [Agric. Fish. Dep., Hong Kong Gov., Kowloon, Hong Kong, China]

"Details are given regarding fisheries production in Hong Kong (China), considering both marine fishery and aquaculture sectors. The means of production, supply and demand, marketing and prices are examined and a brief economic analysis is made of the industry." [from Abstract]

117. Chin, K. 1989. The feedmilling industry, the assessment of product quality and the economics of shrimp feeds. In: Report of the Workshop on Shrimp and Finfish Feed Development. Johore Bahru, Malaysia, October 25-29, 1988. pp. 31-33. [P.O. Box 311, Johore Bahru, Johore, Malaysia]

"A discussion is presented on shrimp culture and shrimp feeds in Malaysia. Good quality feed and proper feeding techniques are very important to the success and development of shrimp culture. Details are given of criteria for the evaluation of feed quality and an examination made of the economics of commercial shrimp feeds. Reference is also made to activities by Gold Coin regarding shrimp feed production in Malaysia." [Abstract]

118. Chinnappan, N., Kathiresan, K. and Dharmalingam, K. 1991. Profitable production of carp fingerlings in cages. Fish. Chimes. 11(4)44-48. [Fish Farm. Dev. Agency, 9 Second St., Khaja Nagar, Tiruchchirapalli 620 020, India]

"The findings are presented of case studies regarding the raising of carp fry in cages in India by three farmers as well as the Trichy District Fish Farmers’ Development Agency. Details are given of the facilities used; economic analyses show that cage rearing of carp fry is economically viable." [Abstract]

119. Chiu, Y.N., Posadas, B.C. and Estilo, V.J. 1986. Strategy for a cost/benefit analysis in the conversion of mangrove areas to aquaculture. Paper presented at the International Workshop on the Conversion of Mangrove to Aqua, 1986. [College of Fisheries, UP Visayas, Iloilo, Philippines]

This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of various aquaculture projects in mangrove areas using three parameters, namely: (i) Internal Rate of Return; (ii) Net Present Value; and (iii) Benefit Cost Ratio. Milkfish and prawn farming were the two projects covered by the research. All the related projects except the semi-intensive and intensive culture of milkfish and shrimp were found to be economically viable. Increased stocking density and provision of supplementary feeds improve the profitability of milkfish culture. Feasible projects, and those which have potential to become feasible, require intensification and improved management. The paper concluded that mangrove areas should not be further converted to fishponds.

120. Choe, J.Y. and Yagi, T. 1993. A comparative study of Japanese flounder culture business between Korea and Japan. Bull. Fac. Fish. Nagasaki Univ. Chodai Suikenpo (73):27-37. [Natl. Fish. Univ. Pusan, Pusan, Rep. Korea]

"This paper is a comparative study focusing on Japanese flounder culture business between Korea and Japan. The major aspects covered in this paper are as follows: (i) the Japanese flounder culture business, status quo, its business conditions in two countries; (ii) the major factors that result in significant difference in the management conditions and profitability of Japanese flounder culture business between the countries. The result of this study shows that the Japanese flounder production forms a significant portion of total aquaculture in Korea, while its proportion in Japan is relatively low. The major factors that affect the profitability of Japanese flounder culture business in Korea are discussed." [Abstract]

121. Chong, K.C. 1993. Economics of on-farm aquafeed preparation and use. In: New, M.B., Tacon, A.G.J. and Csavas, I. (eds). Proceedings of the Regional Expert Consultation on Farm-made Aquafeeds, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 148-160.

An economic analysis is made of the production and use of on-farm aquafeed as an alternative to commercial feed. Ingredients and formulation, non-fish meal feed ingredients, kitchen ponds and live feed, and plant origin feed ingredients are considered.

122. Chong, K.C. and Lizarondo, M.S. 1982. Input output relationships of Philippine milkfish aquaculture. In: Aquaculture Economics Research in Asia: Proceedings of a Workshop, Singapore, June 2-5, 1981. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The existing gap between experimental yield and potential yield under field conditions and actual yield is highlighted. The determinants of actual yield are investigated by estimating a Cobb-Douglas production function relating yield to 11 explanatory variables. The inputs found to have a significant impact on output were stocking of fry and fingerlings, age of pond, farm size, fertilizers, and miscellaneous operating costs. Estimates of the marginal physical productivity of the inputs are used to study the optimization of input allocation, e.g., the optimum stocking rate at the given input prices. It is concluded that, at current prices, a profit maximizing milkfish farmer in the Philippines should raise the stocking rate in deeper ponds and increase the use of supplementary inputs." [Abstract]

123. Chong, K.C., Lizarondo, M.S., dela Cruz, Z.S., Guerrero, C.V. and Smith, I.R. 1984. Milkfish production dualism in the Philippines: a multidisciplinary perspective on continuous low yields and constraints to aquaculture development. ICLARM Technical Reports 15. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Quezon City, Philippines, Bureau of Agricultural Economics; Quezon City, Philippines, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

"The purpose of this study was to determine and measure the constraints to the adoption of more intensive fertilizer application rates among milkfish farmers in the Philippines. The analytical model specified for this study was placed in the context of various theories of agricultural stagnation and growth. Fifty-six explanatory variables, categorized into socio-economic, institutional, physical and biotechnical parameters, were hypothesized to explain variations in fertilizer use. The study focused on farmers’ perceptions of constraints. Data were collected from 447 milkfish farmers in seven provinces. Additional data from a previous survey involving 324 farmers from seven provinces were also included in this study.

Using multiple regression techniques, eight of these 56 explanatory variables explained 73% of the variation in fertilizer expenditure. Each had the expected sign. The high R2 and F value imply that the model as specified was appropriate.

The four explanatory variables which were statistically significant at the 1% level were: the ratio of milkfish price to organic fertilizer price, the ratio of milkfish price to inorganic fertilizer price, the interest in working on other milkfish farms and belief in the effect of fertilizers on the taste of milkfish. The other four variables, significant at the 5% level were: the salinity of pond soil sample, interest in seeking consultation, family size, and farmers’ estimates of a ‘fair’ collateral requirement for loans.

Based on these results it was concluded that milkfish farmers are responsive to relative prices of inputs and output and will adjust their fertilizer expenditure accordingly. However, high costs of credit and of organic fertilizers in some locations coupled with declining real prices of milkfish inhibit many farmers from increasing fertilizer use." [from Abstract]

124. Chong, K.C., Lizarondo, M.S., Holazo, V.F. and Smith, I.R. 1982. Inputs as related to output in milkfish production in the Philippines. ICLARM Technical Reports 3. Quezon City, Philippines, Bureau of Agricultural Economics; Quezon City, Philippines, Fishery Industry Development Council; and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

"The possibilities of improved economic efficiency and profitability of milkfish farming in the Philippines through the determination of optimum input combinations and optimum production or output level are reported in this study. Recall and record keeping surveys were applied to 324 farms, using supplemental inputs in seven Philippine provinces. The milkfish production model selected for general application was the Cobb-Douglas form. The study quantified the relative contributions of eleven inputs to milkfish output. [from Abstract]

125. Chong, K.C., Smith, I.R. and Lizarondo, M.S. 1982. Economics of the Philippine milkfish resource system. Resource Systems Theory and Methodology Series, No. 4. Tokyo, Japan, United Nations University.

"The authors have assembled a unified body of information on milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture in the Philippines to pinpoint where further efficiencies of resource use in the milkfish system can be obtained. Each of the sub-systems procurement, transformation, and delivery is examined in turn. The major inefficiencies in the Philippine milkfish resource system occur in the transformation sub-system rather than in the fry procurement or delivery sub-systems. Reduction in mortality rates during rearing and increased application of supplementary inputs, such as fertilizers, are the two major means by which the existing system can substantially increase the supply of milkfish available to consumers in the Philippines." [Abstract]

126. Chong, K.C. 1992. Improving profitability of shrimp aquaculture. In: de Saram, H. and Singh, T. (eds.). Shrimp ‘92, Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 3rdrd Global Conference on the Shrimp Industry. Hong Kong, September 14-16, 1992. INFOFISH, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 81-98. [Agric. Res. Manage. Proj. (ARMP), INDECO d.v./Winrock Int., Jolan Salak 22, Bogar 16151, Indonesia]

"The cost of production of shrimp by intensive aquaculture means is still too high, both in terms of private and social costs. Ways and means must quickly be found to ‘optimize’ shrimp aquaculture in terms of private and social costs before there is little or nothing left to sustain. Shrimp aquaculture has come a long way since it first started on a commercial scale in the 1970s. Today, shrimp output from culture accounts for nearly a third of the total world shrimp supply of 2.4 million mt. This share has grown from 2% in the early 1980s to its present level, a 15-fold increase in about a decade. Breakthroughs in hatchery, feed and culture technology have been made. Important techno-economic findings have also been uncovered, especially with respect to locale-specific cost structure of production and, to an extent, marketing, including processing and distribution. However, much remains to be determined and analyzed, especially in terms of input-output relationships with respect to cost and profitability, given fluctuating shrimp prices in the international market. There exist certain fundamental input-output or production relationships which may have universal application, irrespective of the locale of production and the local price and wage structure where the shrimp is cultured. The concept of profit centres in a multi-product enterprise can be applied equally well in a single product enterprise such as shrimp aquaculture." [Abstract]

127. Chong, K.C. 1988. Economic and social considerations for aquaculture site selection: an Asian perspective. Bangkok, Thailand, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia and the Pacific. 17 p. [Seafarming Dev. and Demonstration Project RAS/ 86/ 024, NACA, Bangkok, Thailand]

"This short paper discusses the major economic and social considerations for aquaculture site selection. By pointing out, as well as bringing together all possible considerations from the economic and social perspectives, the author not only hopes to broaden the technical evaluation of aquaculture sites but to enrich and show the equal importance of these factors in site selection." [Abstract]

128. Choo, P.S. 1992. Estimated production cost of tiger prawn fry in a small-scale hatchery. Risalah Perikanan Bilangan no. 48. 12 p.

"This paper attempts to give an indication on the estimated production cost of tiger prawn fry produced in a small-scale hatchery (able to produce 20 million post-larvae PL20/year) basing on the experience obtained at the Fisheries Research Institute, Pinang. The production cost per 1 000 postlarvae (PL20) of Penaeus monodon is estimated to be $M 14.28." [Abstract]

129. Chou, S.C., Liu, W.Y. and Liu, F.G. 1986. Economic analysis of grass shrimp cultivation. Bulletin of Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute: No. 41. [Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, Taiwan (P.C.)]

"Data was collected from grass shrimp (penaeus monodon) farms. The results showed: (i) a higher density of grass shrimp (30-20 thousand/ha) in the Pin tung and Kao hsiumg areas; (ii) average sizes of growth were smaller in these two areas than in any other region; (iii) there was only slow progress in shrimp cultivation; (iv) the profit obtained from polyculture exceeded that from intensive culture; and (v) fluctuations in market prices had a considerable impact on profit gains." [from Abstract]

130. Chou, Loke Ming. 1991. Artificial reefs in Singapore: development potential and constraints. In: Chia, Lin Sien and Chou, Loke Ming (eds.). Urban Coastal Area Management: the Experience of Singapore. Proceedings of the Singapore National Workshop on Urban Coastal Area Management, Republic of Singapore, November 9-10, 1989. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 25, pp. 47-52. [Natl. Univ. Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, 0511 Singapore]

"The first artificial reef in Singapore, consisting of tire pyramid modules and hollow concrete cubes, was established within the vicinity of the Southern Islands in mid-1989. Early observations indicate their positive role in attracting fish like snappers and batfish (Platax spp.). Juvenile stages of fish preferred the tire reefs, while the larger-sized ones stayed with the concrete modules. Since the potential for fish population enhancement appears good, many seafloor areas of Singapore can benefit from artificial reefs. However, the present approval mechanism for the use of such sites represents a strong constraint." [Abstract]

131. Chou, Loke Ming, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). 1991. Towards an integrated management of tropical coastal resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ICLARM Conf. Proc. No. 22. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 455 p.

"Abstracts of the relevant papers presented at the Workshop are cited individually. The following areas were covered: coastal resources assessment; environmental degradation; socio-economics of coastal resources and communities; legal and institutional arrangements in coastal area management; environment/habitat enhancement and production; and, resource planning and management." [Abstract]

132. Choudhury, M. 1989. An econometric study on the socio-economic status of the fishermen community in lower Assam. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 21(1):7-13. [Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Cent., India, Assam, India]

An econometric study on the socio-economic status of the fishermen’s households of four selected villages under Kamrum and Dhubri districts in lower Assam, India was undertaken. The results of the inter-variable correlation reveal that income and family size are directly correlated. Family size, expenditure on food, clothing and fuel have direct bearing on the total monthly expenditure of fishermen’s households.

133. Choudhury, S. and Rao, P.S. 1991. Economics of carp spawn through echo hatchery in Tripura. Indian Society for Fisheries Economics and Development, Newsletter 1(2):3-5. [In: Baron, J. and Lewis, H. (comps.) Aquaculture economics and management: an introductory bibliography]

134. Christensen, M.S. 1991. Biological and socio-economical investigations on development of fisheries in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, as well as feasibility of Siam barbel, Puntius schwanenfeldii (Blkr. 1853), Cyprinidae, for floating cage culture. 341 p.

"The purpose of this investigation is to study the biological and socio-economical aspects in the development of the Mahakam River fisheries in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo, Indonesia. The suitability as well as feasibility of the cyprinid (Puntius schwanenfeldii) for use in cage culture is discussed with reference to optimal efficiency through different types of nutritional combinations." [from Abstract]

135. Christensen, M.S. 1993. An economic analysis of floating cage culture of tinfoil barb, Puntius schwanenfeldii, in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, using chicken manure and other fresh feeds. Asian Fish. Sci. 6(3):271-281. [C.P. 52731, CEP 60151 000 Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil]

"Tinfoil barb (Puntius schwanenfeldii) in floating cages can be fed a variety of fresh feeds, but some cannot be consumed whole. It was found that 96% and 65% of tubers and leaves of cassava, Manihot esculenta, and 70% of banana bunches could be ingested by tinfoil barb. Preparation and distribution times were determined for these feeds, as well as for dried fish, two home-made pellet feeds and two commercial pellets. Only 1-3 min were required to prepare and feed one kilo of cassava leaves or dried fish to tinfoil barb. Feeding commercial pellets by hand took 14 min/kg -1, whereas with demand feeders it only took 2 min/kg -1. Cost benefit analyses of 14 small-scale cage culture systems were conducted using these data. Gross income, excluding labor and interest payments, varied from a loss of Rp 34 225 to a profit of Rp 38 925/m-3/year -1. Protein production costs ranged from Rp 9 200 to Rp 24 000 times kg-1. The best incomes and returns were generated from fish-cum-chicken systems. Little labor and low cash inputs were required when feeding cassava leaves only. The implications for village based tropical culture systems in Southeast Asia are discussed, bearing in mind the fact that free time has a high social value and cash for investment is often lacking." [Abstract]

136. Chua, T.E. and White, A.T. (eds.). 1989. Policy recommendations for coastal area management in the ASEAN Region as discussed by policy-makers, administrators and scientists. Policy Workshop on Coastal Area Management, October 25-27, 1988, Johore Bahru, Malaysia. ICLARM Conf. Proc. No. 20. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 10 p.

"Recommendations for coastal area management in the ASEAN region are given, based on discussions held at the Workshop which reviewed the current exploitation of coastal resources and examined the severity of degradation of the coastal environment in the region. The most serious management issues were: fishery resource overexploitation; degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems and habitats; declining water quality and pollution; endangered marine species and coastal wildlife; and the low level of institutional capability for integrated coastal area management. Proposed guidelines are included for industrial development and environmental quality; mangrove conversion; shrimp farming and other coastal aquaculture; exploitation of fisheries resources; coral reef protection; reversing the decline of water quality; preventing coastal erosion and sedimentation; tourism development; improving institutional arrangements and capabilities; public awareness; and upgrading legislation." [from Abstract]

137. Chung, D.K. 1997. Economic impact assessment of genetically improved tilapia technology in Viet Nam. Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1 (RIA1) and Hanoi Agricultural University, Hanoi.

"This paper discusses impacts of technical changes in tilapia farming in production and consumption sides in Viet Nam. Based on the primary information obtained from 137 producer consumers and 84 non-producer consumers in the north and the south of Viet Nam through buildings of fish supply model and LA/AIDS, the paper aims at: (i) identifying changes in producers’ decision making behaviours, the supply relationship between tilapia and other fish, between output and inputs used and supply responsiveness respect to changes in fish prices; and (ii) measuring impacts of improved tilapia technology on fish demand, including changes in consumer behaviour in fish consumption, demand relationships between tilapia and non-tilapia fish, and demand responsiveness to changes in fish prices and income." [from Abstract]

138. Chung, D.K. and Dac, N.T. 1997. Tilapia culture in Viet Nam: a socio-economic assessment. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia, Manila, Philippines, February 18-19, 1997. [Dept. of Rural Dev., HAU, Hanoi, Viet Nam]

"This paper discusses the socio-economic aspect of tilapia farming - one of the most popular aquaculture activities in Viet Nam. Based on secondary sources and primary information obtained from 137 fish farmers from six agro-economical zones in the north and the south of Viet Nam, this paper aims at: (i) reviewing the past performance of tilapia industry; and (ii) identifying the current socio-economic status of aquaculture sectors in general and tilapia farming, in particular in the study areas, and recommending policy options for sustainable development of tilapia farming as well as the whole aquaculture sector in Viet Nam." [from Abstract]

139. Chung, S.Y. 1987. Industry outlook report: fishing industry, Republic of Korea, 1985 (SPR 0404). American Embassy, Seoul, Korea. 9 pp.

"The Republic of Korea harvested 3.1 million metric tons (mt) of fish in 1985, a 6.6% increase over its 1984 catch of 2.9 million mt. In real terms, fishery products accounted for similar to 1.3% of the country’s gross national product in 1985, up from 1.2% in 1984. However, the value added growth rate of the fisheries sector increased by 6.7%, in real terms, from $US 627 million in 1984 to $US 670 million in 1985, due to increases in deepsea fisheries and aquaculture production. Of the Republic of Korea’s four fishery sectors (coastal, deepsea, aquaculture, and inland waters), coastal fishermen caught 1.5 million t of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic products, nearly one half of the 1985 catch." [from Abstract]

140. Chutiyaputta, K. 1979. Aquaculture and marine resources potential and policy in Thailand. In: Librero, A.R. and Collier, W.L. (eds). Economics of aquaculture, sea fishing and coastal resource use in Asia. Proceedings of the Second Biennial Meeting of the Agricultural Economics Society of Southeast Asia, November 3-6, 1977, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Los Banos, Philippines, Agricultural Development Council and Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research. [Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok, Thailand]

This paper examines the potential of aquaculture and marine resources and the corresponding policies in Thailand. Of the total fishery production in Thailand, almost 90% comes from the marine fishery while some 10 000 ha of coastal tidal and estuarine areas were developed into ponds to culture highly-valued shrimp species as well as some finfish. The study indicates that there were some attempts in 1975 to identify environmental criteria and policies for coastal zone management and to develop detailed guidelines for regulating new development in the coastal zone of Thailand. A proposal is being drafted on the establishment of a Central Pollution Control Centre to coordinate and direct the governmental agencies, governmental enterprises and private sectors concerned with handling pollution cases.

141. Clarke, R.P. 1995. Technological innovations and multidisciplinary approaches for sustainable mariculture development for Pacific insular settings. In: Dalzell, P. and Adams, T.J.H. (comps). South Pacific Commission and Forum Fisheries Agency Workshop on the Management of South Pacific Inshore Fisheries. Manuscript Collection of Country Statements and Background Papers. Volume 1. Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pascific Commission. No. 11, pp. 459-485. [Pacific Area Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA]

"In an attempt to delineate the sociocultural consequences of marine resource development in remote insular Pacific settings, the potential for mariculture is explored using a multidisciplinary approach within a technological innovation model framework. Sponge (Spongia officinalis) mariculture acts as a proxy for the ‘technological innovation’ introduced to the environment and culture of the outer atolls of Yap State in the Federated States of Micronesia. A number of data sources review the biological, technical and economic viability of sponge farming in the remote outer atoll setting of Yap. The social and cultural situation on Yap’s proper and the outer atolls, with special focus on Ulithi atoll, are presented using contemporary information and ethnography from the 1950s through the 1980s. These information sources (social/cultural and economic/technical) are combined in an innovation model used by social scientists to focus discussions of variables related to intermediate technology programmes. The model qualitatively reviews five attributes of change: complexity, compatibility, advantage, trialability and observability. Three methods of introduction of the innovation are also explored, employing a model on marine tenure systems to provide precision in the discussion of this fundamental subattribute. Results suggest actual farm establishment appears to fall within current cultural norms; however, gender roles may be modified, with actual farm maintenance more culturally suited for females than males. Moreover, how traditional leaders view sponges as an exploitable resource may bear heavily on the potential for outside investment and access to requisite technology. Despite apparent abundance of seed stock and a marine tenure system conducive to exclusive use, several social factors may preclude private or indigenous investment. Mariculture extension and support resources are needed during initial grow-out to ensure success, but complete government subsidization appears to be a suboptimal option. The social model employed here, while in need of refinement, can be of use for a variety of economic development scenarios." [Abstract]

142. Clonts, H.A., Jolly, C.M. and Alsagoff, S.A.L. 1989. An ecological foodniche concept as a proxy for fish pond stocking rates in integrated aquacultural farming for Malaysia. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 20(4):268-276. [Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn., Auburn Univ., AL 36849 5406, USA]

"The merits of integrated aquaculture farming (IAF) as a strategy for bolstering income for the rural poor have been recognized, but the economic efficiency and sustainability are yet to be determined. The effects of one species on another and the economic benefits, net of government support, have not been critically evaluated. The concept of a foodniche for alternative species in an aquatic environment has not been properly tested in an economic setting. Thus, this report reflects the results of applying the technique of mixed integer linear programming to determine the optimum combination of species within the context of a foodniche. The objective also included maximizing revenues, with minimal external input requirements, for a representative small Malaysian wet rice farm. It was found that the foodniche concept permitted flexibility in stocking rates, and that farmers could actually stock species at the exact rate that was optimal for profit, instead of standard fixed rates. Also, government subsidies for pond construction were essential for IAF success. The net revenues from IAF were low without interest free loans for pond construction." [Abstract]

143. Cong, Peixue, Cha, Jintang and Cong, Youzi. 1992. Technical result of the three-dimensional development and utilization of forestry on the tidal flat along Wendeng coastal area. Coast. Eng. Haian Gongcheng 11(3):78-81. [Wendeng For. Bur., Wendeng 264400, China]

"This paper describes the technical result of the three dimensional development and utilization of forestry on the tideflat along Wendeng coastal area." [Abstract]

144. Cook, J.R. 1988. Review of Solomon Islands Fisheries Statistics Programme. Fish. Tech. Bull. No. 1. Honiara, Solomon Islands, Fisheries Div. 66 p. [SCP Fish. Consultants Australia Pty. Ltd., Sydney, New South Wales, Australia]

"The study reviews the present statistical activities of the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and makes recommendations for improvements in the data collection, processing and publication systems. Methods of data collection on the artisanal and subsistence fisheries are discussed and a programme recommended. Systems are also described for data collection in the marketing, economics and aquaculture sectors." [Abstract]

145. Coppen, J.J.W. and Nambiar, P. 1991. Agar and alginate production from seaweed in India. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme. 27 p.

"Indian production of agar and alginates - natural gums derived from certain species of seaweed - contributes to the national economy by supplying materials to the market that would otherwise need to be imported. It is also important in providing income opportunities to many fishing communities, particularly the women, who harvest the seaweed from coastal waters. This paper surveys the Indian seaweed industry and its principal products, agar and sodium alginate. Technical and economic aspects of seaweed collection and processing, and the markets for the products, are examined. Trials undertaken by the Bay of Bengal Programme to cultivate Gracilaria seaweed, and to employ it as a source of raw material for village-scale agar production are briefly described." [Abstract]

146. Cortes, A.B. and Recio, C.V. undated. Socio-economic strategy for fisheries development in the Philippines. In: Report of the Seminar on Fishery Technology Education, July 11-August 1, 1979. Kagoshima Univ. Japan; Japan Int. Coop. Agency, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 98-103. [Fish. Sch., Cagayan State Univ., Cagayan, Philippines]

"This country report presents the socio-economic strategy for fisheries development in the Philippines." [Abstract]

147. Costa Pierce, B.A. 1992. Aquaculture development and large-scale resettlement in Indonesia. World Aquaculture 23(1):31-39.

"Reservoir aquaculture and culture based fisheries development may be one of the only means left for creating new sources of fish in many densely populated nations. The construction of the Saguling and Cirata dams in the heavily populated highlands of West Java, Indonesia, displaced over 40 000 persons from their homes, jobs, and traditional lands. In 1986, a project was initiated by the Institute of Ecology, Padjadjaran University (IOE-UNPAD) and the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) to investigate the feasibility of resettling 3 000 families in reservoir cage aquaculture or related industries. There has been a remarkable success. By 1989, floating net cage and other inland aquaculture systems in and around the Saguling Reservoir (flooded in 1985) employed an estimated 1 083 persons; the cages produced 2 554 t of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and provided an estimated 20% of the fish for the Bandung district, an area occupied by about three million people. Revenue from the fish was estimated at Rp 5 billion/year at the end of 1989, over twice (Rp 1.9 billion) the equivalent revenue obtained from the 2 250 ha of rice flooded by the dam. The success of the project appears to be related to a combination of unique economic and cultural factors, plus the close involvement of the potential users the displaced farmers in the research, extension and training." [Abstract]

148. Costa Pierce, B.A. and Soemarwoto, O. 1990. Biotechnical feasibility studies on the importation of Clupeichthys aesarnensis (Wongratana, 1983) from northeastern Thailand to the Saguling Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia. In: Costa Pierce, B.A. and Soemarwoto, O. (eds.). Reservoir fisheries and aquaculture development for resettlement in Indonesia. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 23, pp. 329-363. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 1501, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"This report summarizes an importation proposal on the social and biotechnical feasibility of importing the Thai river sprat (Clupeichthys aesarnensis) from the Ubolratana Reservoir in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand to the Saguling Reservoir. Potential environmental, social and health impacts and fish transportation and importation procedures are reviewed. Results from a biotechnical study mission to Ubolratana that examined the history, limnology and water quality of the reservoir are summarized. Plankton populations from the Saguling and Ubolratana reservoirs were studied over a 15-month period and compared." [Abstract]

149. Cremer, M.C. undated. Development of the penaeid shrimp culture industry in Indonesia.. In: Vernberg, F.J., Taniguchi, A.K., Russell, F.A., Chappell, J.A. and Miller, A.B. (eds.). Shrimp Aquaculture in the Caribbean Basin: prospects and constraints. pp. 87-100. [Community Res. Serv., Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, Kentucky 40601, USA]

"Shrimp is a major export earner for Indonesia. Recent bans on trawling operations in Indonesian waters have placed increased emphasis on pond production to maintain shrimp exports. In 1982, the Government of Indonesia implemented a broad programme to alleviate key constraints to the culture industry and to significantly increase cultured shrimp production. Historical developments, the current situation, constraints to development, and support programmes for the shrimp culture industry are outlined." [Abstract]

150. Cruz, E.M. and de la Cruz, C.R. 1991. Production of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with supplemental feeding in ricefields in north Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian Fish. Sci. 4(1):31-39. [3400 East 8thth St., Suite 102, National City, California 92050, USA]

"A production trial in nine farmer cooperators’ ricefields in north Sumatra, Indonesia, was conducted to evaluate the growth rate, yield and economics of culturing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at different stocking densities with supplemental feeding. A compounded diet (16% crude protein) was given daily at a rate of 5% of the fish biomass. The trial was conducted for 75 days during the long fallow period in between two rice cropping seasons. Mean individual fish weight decreased, but yield increased with an increase in fish stocking density. The yield at a stocking density of 1 500 fish multiplied by ha-1 was significantly lower than those at densities of 3 000 and 4 500 fish multiplied by ha-1. The rate of return on operating capital was highest at a stocking density of 1 500 fish multiplied by ha-1, with a profit in 2.5 months approximating that of one rice crop with a four-month culture duration." [Abstract]

151. Csavas, I. 1995. Recent developments and issues in aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific. A seminar report. Tokyo, Japan, Asian Productivity Organization. pp. 57-129.

"The more salient trends and issues in aquaculture cited in this report are: (i) the importance of fish in the total animal protein supply is declining indicating that people are looking for alternative sources of animal protein; (ii) Asia/Pacific continue to dominate the world aquaculture production; (iii) mainly aquatic organisms low on the food chain are cultured in developing countries of the region; (iv) inland aquaculture is dominated by finfish production which provide primary cheap food fishes for local consumption using culture techniques with low-input, photosynthesis dependent culture techniques, producing at extensive or semi-intensive level; (v) dominant coastal aquaculture species aimed at income generation are seaweeds and molluscs; (vi) culture systems for shrimp and finfish are more socially controversial and environmentally incompatible compared to simple cage culture systems; (vii) despite the Taiwanese experience on shrimp culture, the same mistakes are being relicated in other countries in the region; and, (viii) growth potential of shrimp culture in the region seem to be reassuring from the marketing viewpoint although most likely the industry will have to face alternating periods of under- and oversupply." [Summary]

152. Dalal, S.K. and Das, S.K. 1992. Economic analysis of fish production under extensive aquaculture practice in Ganjam District of Orissa. Seafood Export Journal 24(8):21-23. [Coll. Fish. (O.U.A.T.), Berhampur 760 007, India]

"A study was carried out on the economics of extensive fish culture in selected blocks in Ganjam District of Orissa, India. Twenty fish farmers were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. Information was collected on different aspects of fish culture such as stocking of fish seeds, manuring and fertilization, supplementary feeding, rearing period, labour, and total operational costs. The data were analyzed statistically to find out the influence of different factors on fish production. Suggestions were made on improvement of farm practice." [Abstract]

153. Dan, N.C., Trung, D.V. and Thein, T.M. 1997. Comparative growth performance of three nile tilapia strains in the North, Viet Nam. The Final Workshop of the Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia Species in Asia (DEGITA) Project, February 18-19, 1997. RIA No.I, Dinh Bang, Tiien Son, Bac Ninh.

"Objectives of this study are: (i) to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia strains imported from the Philippines, Thailand and local strains in both in-station trials (RIA No.I) and on-farm trials in the North, Viet Nam; and (ii) to disseminate and offer the best growth performance tilapia strain to the fish farmers." [Part of Objectives]

154. Das, S.K. 1991. Role of aquaculture in current economic crisis of India. Seafood Export Journal 23(10):23-25. [Coll. Fish. (O.U.A.T.), Berhampur 760 007, Orissa, India]

"This article discusses the expansion of brackishwater prawn culture along with improvements in processing and marketing, as well as the development of the aquarium fish trade in the international market as a measure that aquaculture industry in India can offer to increase trade." [Abstract]

155. Datta, A. 1995. Expanding farms, shrinking lives. Samudra Rep. (13):24-28.

"In recent decades, shrimp has become one of the most important export products in Bangladesh, and the Government has declared shrimp cultivation a priority industry and designed specific support programmes to boost production. However, although there has been a significant increase in the number of shrimp farms and in production (if ecological and social impacts are taken into consideration), then it may be seen that most households have encountered a significant loss of opportunities. These include ooportunities for rearing poultry and livestock, growing fruit trees, kitchen gardening, fish culture in homestead ponds, availability of cow dung and firewood for fuel, and access to fresh drinking water." [Abstract]

156. Datta, S., Sarkar, A. and Haque, A. 1990. Influence of socio-personal environment on communication behavior of fish farmers. Environ. Ecol. 8(1B):293-295. [Dep. Agric. Ext., Bidhan Chandra Krishi, Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741252, India]

"The study was conducted in Memari I Block of West Bengal with the objective to examine the relationship between some important socio-personal characteristics of the selected fish farmers with those of their communication behaviour which was conceived as the dependent variable. The factors such as education, family type, economic status, size of pond and orientation towards mixed farming, barring the age of the respondents, were significantly related to the communication behaviour." [Abstract]

157. de Campos Guimaraes, J.P. 1989. Shrimp culture and market incorporation: a study of shrimp culture in paddy fields in Southwest Bangladesh. Development and Change 20:653-682.

"In response to sustained international demand and favourable prices, the culture of shrimp for export, carried out in paddy fields with very simple techniques and low capital intensity, has experienced fast growth in southwest Bangladesh over recent years. As a result, areas where subsistence agricultural production had previously predominated are now undergoing a process of international market incorporation. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze some of the concrete processes and changes associated with this development." [from article]

158. de Silva, S.S. 1997. Popularization of genetically improved Oreochromis niloticus (‘GIFT Fish’) in Asia: environmental considerations. [School of Aquatic Science and Natural Resources Management, Deakin University, PO Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280, Australia]

"In order to meet future aquaculture production targets, fish farming/culture systems will have to become progressively more intensive; the yields of cultured organisms have to be increased, feed conversion ratios reduced, and stress and disease tolerance increased etc. Selective breeding can contribute to achieving some or all of these effects. However, in order to work towards the above goals breeders require a library of germplasm at their disposal from which to select; hence the need to conserve genetic biodiversity." [from Introduction]

159. de Campos Guimaraes, J.P. 1989. Shrimp culture and market incorporation: a study of shrimp culture in paddy fields in Southwest Bangladesh. Development and Change 20:653-682.

"In response to sustained international demand and favourable prices, the culture of shrimp for export, carried out in paddy fields with very simple techniques and low capital intensity, has experienced fast growth in southwest Bangladesh over recent years. As a result, areas where subsistence agricultural production had previously predominated are now undergoing a process of international market incorporation. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze some of the concrete processes and changes associated with this development." [from article]

160. De, G.K. 1991. Observations on integrated culture of fish and arum. In: National Symposium on New Horizons in Freshwater Aquaculture, January 23-25, 1991. Proceedings. pp. 29-30. [Dep. Fish., Tripura, Agartala, India]

"An experiment was conducted using spaces between arum plants for cultivation of suitable species of fishes for additional production of fish from the same land area, and results obtained along with the economic viability of the technology were studied. Mud fields were made ready to fill with rain water. Spawners of Puntius ticto, P. stigma, Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, Anabas testudineus and Colisa fasciatus were introduced into each plot of autostocking. Monsoon-set Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings (7-8 cm) were introduced. Supplemental manuring was resorted monthly in liquid form by broadcasting all over the interspaces. Total vegetable production to the extent of 8 000 kg and fish production of 400 kg from 0.16 h of land area could be obtained resulting in an annual gross income of Rs 22 300 and net income of Rs 19 100. This experiment justifies the economic viability of the technoloa gy experimented in field conditions in Tripura." [from Abstract]

161. de Saram, H. and Singh, T. (eds.). 1992. Shrimp ‘92, Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 3rdrd Global Conference on the Shrimp Industry. Hong Kong, September 14-16, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Intergovernmental Organization for Marketing Information and Technical Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Asia and Pacific region. 223 p.

"Abstracts of the papers presented at the Conference, which covered aspects such as world shrimp supply and market situation and prospects, marketing, aquaculture, environmental issues and technological advances in the industry, are cited individually in the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA)." [Abstract]

162. De Silva, J.A. and Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K. 1993. The technology and economics of small-scale commercial shrimp farms in the west coast of Sri Lanka. J. Aquacult. Trop. 8(2):141-149. [Natl. Aquat. Resour. Agency, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka]

"The shrimp culture industry on the west coast of Sri Lanka has attracted a large number of small-scale investors because of the present government policy to promote small-scale business. Total investment amounts to SL Rs 237 000, while working capital required per cycle is around SL Rs 135 600 for a typical small-scale shrimp farm of 0.6 ha. The payback period is four years. Return on investment is 21% to 24.5% over the first three years. Lack of proper knowledge in site selection and farm management appears to be the major constraint. More careful considerations in site selection, improvements in pond preparatory and pond management procedures, and supplement of imported feeds with low-cost feeds are important for better economic returns and the future viability of small-scale shrimp culture industry of Sri Lanka." [Abstract]

163. Dehadrai, P.V. 1992. Opportunities for women in rice-fish culture. In: Dela Cruz, C.R., Lightfoot, C., Costa Pierce, B.A., Carangal, V.R. and Bimbao, M.A.P. (eds.). Rice-fish research and development in Asia. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 24, pp. 367-372. [Indian Counc. Agric. Res., New Delhi, India]

"Women comprise 26% of the labour force in agriculture and contribute 69% of the total household income in rural India. Women play a pivotal role in five of the eight types of rice-fish farming systems. It is argued that promotion and training of women in fish culture in ricefields are more culturally acceptable and economically beneficial than any introduction of labour-saving technologies in the rice agroecosystem." [Abstract]

164. dela Cruz, C.R. 1980. Integrated agriculture aquaculture farming systems in the Philippines, with two case studies on simultaneous and rotational rice-fish culture. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Farming Systems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [Freshwater Aquaculture Centre, Central Luzon State University, Philippines]

"A brief review is given of experimental and commercial integrated farming systems in the Philippines: rice-fish, vegetables and animal-fish combinations. The major part of the paper is devoted to the development of rice-fish culture technology using tilapias and common carp. The yields of fish vary with the stocking density and inputs used, ie., with or without fertilization and supplemental feeding. With supplemental feeding, fish yields of about 400 to 700 kg/ha are estimated at total stocking densities of 10 000 to 15 000. Two case studies with economic analyses are included, comparing simultaneous and rotational rice-fish culture." [Abstract]

165. dela Cruz, C.R. 1988. Rice-fish farming: a potential contribution to rural socio-economic upliftment in the Philippines. Paper presented during the National Workshop on Rice-fish in China, Wuxi, China, October 10-13, 1988.

166. Delathiere, S. 1988. Study of mangrove crab Scylla serrata in New Caledonia: Report (July 1988 January 1989). Rapp. Act. Sci. Mer Cent. Noumea Orstom. Noumea, New Caledonia, Orstom. 68p. [Inst. Francais Rech. Sci. Dev. Coop., ORSTOM, B.P. A5, Noumea, New Caledonia]

"This report on the mangrove crab Scylla serrata in New Caledonia deals with reproductive organs, reproduction, growth, and length-weight relationships. It also includes socio-economic aspects and the analysis of fishing data for the Mandrou and Paita region." [from Abstract]

167. Delathiere, S. 1990. Biology and exploitation of the mud crab Scylla serrata in New Caledonia. Noumea, New Caledonia, ORSTOM. 291 p. [Inst. Fr. Rech. Sci. Dev. Coop., ORSTOM, B.P. A5, Noumea, New Caledonia]

This thesis includes a presentation of the mud crab biotope and studies about animal physiology, biometrics, growth animal nutrition, reproduction and developmental stages. It also deals with some aspects of crab fisheries. [Abstract]

168. Delmendo, M.N. 1982. Fish pen aquaculture development on Laguna de Bay, Philippines. In: Coche, A.G. (ed.). Coastal aquaculture: development perspectives in Africa and case studies from other regions. CIFA Technical Paper No. 9. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, Bangkok, Thailand]

This paper provides a description of the fish pen development pilot project on Laguna de Bay, Philippines. The design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the pens are outlined. This is followed by discussion of the economic investment potential and the social and economic impact of fish pen development of the lake region. In conclusion, development problems are discussed and recommendations are given.

169. Delmendo, M.N. and Delmendo, B.H. 1987. Income generation from smallholder fish farms. INFOFISH Marketing Digest 4:32-34.

"Observations made of small-scale aquaculture operations in the Philippines and Indonesia indicate that incomes obtained are comparable to, if not better than, prevailing average national per capita incomes." [from article]

170. Delmendo, M.N. 1980. A Review of integrated livestock fowl fish farming systems. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Farming Systems. Proceedings of the ICLARM SEARCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, Philippines, August 6-9, 1979. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, Bangkok, Thailand]

"Traditional and current practices in integrated farming are reviewed and show that it is concentrated in Asia. The chemical composition of animal wastes and organic compost produced by Chinese methods are summarized and published information on rates of application to fish ponds is discussed. The design of integrated animal-fish units and the formulation of animal feeds are identified as key factors in farm productivity and profitability. Economic analyses are included from selected examples of pig-fish, chicken-fish and duck-fish farms." [Abstract]

171. Devaraj, K.V. and Keshavappa, G.Y. 1985. Preliminary studies on poultry-cum-fish culture. Mysore J. Agric. Sci. 19(3):189-193. [Fish. Res. Stn., Hesaraghatta, Banglore 562 113, India]

"Results of the experiment on poultry-cum-fish culture in cement cisterns by using common carp fingerlings are presented. The fishes were allowed to feed directly on poultry droppings. The growth of carps fed on poultry droppings against those fed on conventional feed has been studied. The economics of fish production during the period of 154 days is reported." [Abstract]

172. Dewan, S. 1992. Rice-fish farming systems in Bangladesh: past, present and future. In: Dela Cruz, C.R., Lightfoot, C., Costa Pierce, B.A., Carangal, V.R. and Bimbao, M.A.P. (eds.). Rice-fish research and development in Asia. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 24, pp. 11-16. [Dep. Aquacult. Manage., Bangladesh Agric. Univ., Mymensingh, Bangladesh]

"Bangladesh has approximately 2.83 million ha of ricefields where 0.2 million t of wild fish are caught annually. Fish production can be increased considerably in these ricefields if fish culture is practised. Capture and culture rice-fish systems exist in a very limited scale. In capture systems, wild fish stock enters the flooded ricefields and gets trapped after rice harvest. In culture systems, concurrent and rotational rice-fish systems are practised by stocking fish and shrimps in inland freshwater or coastal ricefields. Little research has been done on rice-fish farming systems in Bangladesh. On-station and on-farm experiments focused on evaluating different stocking densities and the combination of species such as Indian major carps and Chinese carps, common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Gross yields from different combinations of these species very widely with stocking densities and survival. Incomes ranged from $US 30 to 134/ha in concurrent and $US 688/ha in rotational systems. Rice-fish culture also provides the opportunity for reducing unemployment. Some constraints must be resolved and more research must be done if rice-fish farming has to succeed in Bangladesh. Strong political will is needed to resolve social issues on land ownership and rights on water use. Technical, production inputs and credit support are also necessary." [from Abstract]

173. Dey, M.M. 1997. Demand for fish in Bangladesh: an economic analysis. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 13 p.

"Knowledge about fish consumption patterns and how they are likely to change as income and relative price changes is important to assessing the impact of technological changes in fisheries and aquaculture sectors. Our estimates of fish demand responses are essential for such impact assessment. In general, we find that demand for fish is price and income elastic. Our analysis also indicates that there is a variation in the type of fish consumed by different classes of the society; poor people consumes mainly small fishes. The technological breakthrough in small fish culture is expected to increase the welfare of poor people at a higher rate compared to the rest of the population." [from Conclusion]

174. Dey, M.M. 1997. A comparative evaluation of the performance and potential of GIFT with existing strains in Asia. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 19 p.

A descriptive comparison has been made to assess the comparative performance of the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain, relative to the other strains in different countries. GIFT was shown to be superior to other existing strains in Asia and it has higher yield potential. GIFT is also more efficient in feed and fertilizer utilization compared to existing strains in Bangladesh and the Philippines.

175. Dey, M.M. and Eknath, A.E. 1996. Current trends in the Asian tilapia industry and the significance of genetically improved tilapia breeds. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

"Tilapia production is increasing rapidly in Asia, and is one of the most popular aquaculture activities in the People’s Republic of China, Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand. The most popular farmed tilapia species is still the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in over 40 countries. It is expected that with the adoption of the improved tilapia breeds, production of Nile tilapia in Asia will be increased substantially in the future." [from Abstract]

176. Dey, M.M., Bimbao, G.B., Kohinoor, A.H.M. and Hussain, M.G. 1997. Socio-economic status of small aquaculture farmers, consumption patterns and fish marketing in Bangladesh. Paper presented in the Final Workshop of the DEGITA Project, Manila, Philippines, February 18-19, 1997.

"The major objectives of this paper are to provide insights on the small-scale aquaculture systems, consumption patterns and fish marketing in Bangladesh. This information allows us to determine the possible impact of the introduction of improved tilapia strain/breed in Bangladesh." [from Introduction]

177. Dey, M.M., Bimbao, G.B. and Pongthana, N. 1997. Paper presented in the Final Workshop of the DEGITA Project, Manila, Philippines, February 18-19, 1997.

"The primary objective of this paper is to provide insights on the freshwater aquaculture systems, consumption patterns and fish marketing in Thailand for us to assess the possible socio-economic impacts of the introduction of improved tilapia breeds/strains in Thailand. The next section of the paper reports the recent trends in the freshwater aquaculture industry based on available secondary information. The subsequent sections are based on surveys conducted in four provinces representing different freshwater fish growing regions of Thailand." [from Introduction]

178. Ding, Yansheng, Zhang, Fang and Wuen, Yiwei. 1989. Approach to a wind driven aerator. Fish. Mach. Instrum. Yuye Jixie Yiqi. 79(2):4-6. [Suzhou Fish. Res. Inst., Suzhou, China]

"An experiment on a wind driven aerator is described, including its feasibility and practical application in fish farming. The experiment was conducted in Wuxian County of Suzhou Municipality, China, resulting in notable economic and social benefits." [Abstract]

179. Diwivedi, S.N. 1988. Management of waterlogged areas, island and coastal saline soils using fish-based mixed farming system. J. Indian Fish. Assoc. 18:563-572. [Dep. Ocean Dev. Mahasager Bhavan, New Delhi 110 003, India]

"Problems in India regarding the management of various coastal saline soil and waterlogged environments are discussed in detail, considering in particular the potential application of mixed fish farming systems. Various operational and cost requirements of such systems are examined." [Abstract]

180. Djajadiredja, R., Jangkara, Z. and Junus, M. 1980. Freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia with special reference to small-scale agriculture aquaculture integrated farming systems in West Java. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management and College, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Bogor, Indonesia]

"This paper presents a brief review of the status of freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia, with special reference to integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. The results and discussions of case studies undertaken in West Java are reported separately, including technical and socio-economic analyses. In this area, integrated systems are found to combine fish, rice, aquatic vegetables, chicken, duck and sheep raising, etc. Rice-fish culture is found in almost all provinces throughout the country. Cattle fish farming comes next in importance, followed by other integrated farming systems. These farming systems have obviously given a number of advantages to rural farmers with small landholdings." [from Abstract]

181. Dong, Yonghong. 1992. The multi-variable multinomial regression model and its use in freshwater fishery (aquaculture). J. Zhejiang Coll. Fish. Zhejiang Shuichan Xueyuan Xuebao 11(2):123-133. [Dep. Econ. Manage., Zhejiang Fish. Coll., Zhoushan 316101, China]

"The article gives a description of the multi-variable multinomial regression model and discusses its use in fishery technical and economic analyses. Effects of the pond size, labour force and capital investment on total production in freshwater fish farming are analyzed in detail, and suggestions are made as to the optimum scope and overall management of a fish farm." [Abstract]

182. Dong, Yongting and Wang, Yonghong. 1987. Xuanmen Bay land reclamation projects and some environmental aspects. Coast. Eng. Haian Gongcheng 6(1):65-70. [Second Inst. Oceanogr., SOA, Hangzhou,China]

"After the Xuanmen dam connecting Yuhuan Island and Chumen Peninsula (Zhejiang Province, China) was finished in 1977, the second part of the Xuanmen Bay reclamation project was proposed in 1979, but because of a dispute among local communities, the project has not been carried out. Recently, with the increase in water resources requirements due to local economic development, the project has again been taken into consideration. The proposed project will change 3/5 of the 37.52km2 reclamation area from intertidal mudflat to agricultural land and convert the remaining water area into a freshwater reservoir. The possible adverse effects on neighbouring seedling beds of the commercial bivalve Sinonovacula constricta, and the water quality management of the planned reservoir, need to be studied. The introduction of environmental guidance into coastal engineering projects is urgently required." [from Abstract]

183. Dorairaj, K., Mohanraj, G., Gandhi, V., Raju, A., Rengaswamy, V.S. and Rodrigo, J.X. 1984. On a potentially rich milkfish seed collection ground near Mandapam along with the methods of collection and transportation. Indian J. Fish. 31(2):257-271. [CMFRI Reg. Cent., Mandapam Camp., India]

"Potential ground for milkfish (Chanos chanos) seed collection has been located at Manoli Island in the Gulf of Mannar, where fry and fingerlings of the species congregate in large numbers in the tidal pools under the dense shades of the mangrove bushes in April/May. The ecology of the ground, the methods and results of fry and fingerlings collection, handling, and packing and transportation are mentioned." [Abstract]

184. Drewes, E. 1986. Small-scale aquaculture development project in South Thailand: result and impact. BOBP/Rep/28. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme. [Bay of Bengal Programme, Madras, India]

The paper evaluates the performance of a BOBP-assisted project for small-scale aquaculture development on the southwest coast of Thailand, in terms of the impact generated by each component. The project work comprises several components - aquaculture, community development, and activities for women. The report is based on a review of project documents (e.g., progress reports, project preparation and assessment reports) as well as interviews with fisheries officers, small-scale fisherfolk and large-scale fish farmers undertaken in October 1985 in eight selected villages in Satun, Trang and Phang Nga provinces.

185. Durairaj, S. and Umamaheswari, R. 1991. Polyculture of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards). In: National Symposium on New Horizons in Freshwater Aquaculture, January 23-25, 1991. Proceedings. pp. 244-245. [Dep. Fish., Madras 600 005, Tamilnadu, India]

"This paper deals with the polyculture of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii in four experimental ponds in Madras and Chingleput during 1986. Culture experiments were carried out in two different phases: (i) effect of different supplementary feeds; and (ii) the effect of different stocking densities of prawn 4.0/m in pond 1 and 3.5/m2 in pond 3. By adopting a prawn stocking density of 3.5-4/m2 and a fish stocking rate of 4 000/ha in these polyculture systems, a prawn production of 350 to 606 kg/ha and fish production of 664 kg to 1406 kg/ha was achieved in a six-month culture period. Carps used in the study were catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The growth and yields of fish do not appear to be influenced by prawn stocking rates. These studies have indicated that prawn-cum-fish culture is technically and economically viable." [Abstract]

186. Dwivedi, S.N. 1982. Prawn culture and policy options. Technology import and culture through fishermen vis-a-vis industry. J. Indian Fish. Asso. 12-13:1-11. [Cent. Inst. Fish. Educ., India, Bombay, India]

Until today, the major objective of fishery development in India was to improve the socio-economic condition of the fishermen and to increase production of protein food to fight malnutrition. Therefore, all government agencies worked for small fishermen who use cheap technology with government loans and subsidies and inadequate extension services. As a result, there is appropriate low-input technology for fishermen who now can produce around 1 000 kg/ha/yr of prawn in a few crops. The Indian Government has to decide whether the prawn culture should be undertaken through small fishermen to improve their socio-economic condition or through private industry with the high technology input and pre-defined objectives of export trade.

187. Edwards, P., Boromthanarat, S. and Minh Tam, D. 1982. Seaweeds of economic importance in Thailand. Botanica Marina 25(5):237-246. [Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand]

This paper analyzes the importance of seaweeds and seaweed products in the Thai economy. Seaweeds were found to be relatively unimportant in the Thai diet since they are consumed only in small quantities, specifically by coastal people. Nonetheless, seaweed cultivation as a source of phycocolloids should be undertaken, since Government statistics indicated the import of agar and algin in rapidly increasing amounts. But the production of high quality, bacteriological grade agar may not be feasible due to the absence of significant Gelidium populations. Suggestions to set up a local seaweed industry in Thailand to reduce the need to import algae were made almost 50 years ago, but implementation has yet to take place.

188. Elsy, R. 1987. Indonesia. A marketing strategy for seafarmed products in Indonesia. A report prepared for the Seafarming Development Project. 33 p.

"Details are given of project activities regarding the marketing of marine cultured products in Indonesia. A marketing development strategy is proposed, examining also the specific sectors: finfish, green mussels, seaweed, cockles and oysters. Export markets are also considered." [Abstract]

189. Eng, T.C., Hooi, T.B. and Wang, L.T. 1985. A case study on commercial cage culture of finfish in Penang. 52 p.

"The economical viability of marine fish cage culture in Penang is discussed with respect to a case study undertaken. Culture techniques, marketing, management, financial performance, problems and constraints, sensitivity analysis and future development potential are considered. The recommendations of the study are included. (Corporate Author: FAO Technical Cooperation Programme on Assistance to the Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia (Lembaga Kemajun Ikan Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))." [Abstract]

190. ESCAP. 1983. Handling, marketing and consumption of aquaculture products in China: report of a study tour in China (September 14-30, 1982). Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

One of the constraints to the development of aquaculture production in Asia is the lack of demand for freshwater fish due to inadequate handling, marketing and preparation. As this is not the case in China, a study tour was organized to show Chinese methods. This document incorporates information gathered during the tour, dealing specifically with post-harvest handling, marketing and pricing systems. [In: Garruccio, M.R. (comp.). Marketing in fisheries, a selective annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 817, Revision 1.]

191. Escover, E.M. 1987. Small-scale tilapia hatcheries in the Philippines. In: Pullin, R.S.V., Bhukaswar, T., Tonguthai, K. and MacLean, J. (eds.). The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 15. Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Fisheries, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resource Management. [Centre for Policy and Development Studies, University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines]

"The emergence of small-scale tilapia hatcheries in the Philippines came about in the late 1970s as an off-shoot of the introduction of the culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The fast proliferation of tilapia hatcheries was more pronounced in the provinces of Rizal and Laguna bordering Laguna de Bay, the largest freshwater lake in the Philippines. Despite the numerous problems encountered by operators, new entrants are still entering the tilapia hatchery industry, not only in these areas but also in other parts of the country where tilapia are grown. This trend presumes that operation of tilapia hatcheries is promising.

This paper presents the daily management practices of six small private hatcheries in Rizal and Laguna provinces that were part of a one-year record keeping project conducted in late 1982 and 1983. The analysis focused on labour utilization, its seasonal variations and sources and the costs and returns of operating small hatcheries. Likewise, the paper discusses the potential contribution of small-scale hatcheries to the tilapia industry and to rural households." [Abstract]

192. Escover, E.M., Salon, O.T. and Lim, C.P. 1985. Tilapia marketing in Bicol, Philippines. In: Smith, I.R., Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine Tilapia Economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [Ateneo de Naga, Naga City, Philippines]

"This study analyzes the marketing system for tilapia in Bicol, Philippines. The 37 tilapia traders interviewed in eight selected areas in the Camarines Sur and Albay provinces were mostly full-time traders who received 71% of their income from tilapia trading. They had an average capital investment of p 105 which was lower than their monthly operating capital requirements. (p 11.00 = $US 1.00 in 1983).

Tilapias from Lake Buhi and Lake Bato passed through from one to four intermediaries before they finally reached the consumers. Tilapia buying and selling was a profitable activity. After deducting all costs, including imputed labour costs, the wholesalers/ retailers averaged p 554 monthly net profit; the producers/ wholesalers/ retailers, p 452; and the retailers p 359. Marketing margins per kg were p 1.06 1.80 for retailers and p 0.37 0.63 for wholesalers/retailers.

A low selling price, low demand for tilapia, perishability due to the long distance between source and market outlets, erratic supply and poor quality of tilapia were the common marketing problems encountered by tilapia traders, but these do not detract from a view of the profitability of tilapia marketing." [Abstract]

193. Escover, E.M., Salon, O.T. and Smith, I.R. 1987. The economics of tilapia fingerling production and marketing in the Philippines. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 18:1-13. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Metro Manila 0718, Philippines]

"These analyses of the tilapia fingerling industry in the Philippines focus on the economics of production in different hatchery systems and on fingerling marketing channels. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data from government and private hatcheries in late 1982 and from December 1983 to March 1984.

The relative profitabilities of different hatchery systems (land-based and lake-based) are estimated and the economies of scale are analyzed. Conceptual and methodological issues inherent in analyses based on cross-sectional data are discussed in the context of the extreme difficulty of standardizing inputs and output from private tilapia hatcheries which are characterized by a wide variation in management practices." [Abstract]

194. Esquires, P. 1992. Investment policies for fisheries development. In: Garcia, M.P. (ed.). Policies and Issues on Philippine Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Proceedings of the Round Table Discussion of Philippine Fisheries Policies, December 12-13, 1989, DOST, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila; and the Workshop on Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries, November 26, 1991, Bureau of Soils and Water Resources Management, Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila. [Marine and Aquacult. Div., BOI, DTI, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines]

"Lowering the tariff rates on prawn feeds and on some prawn feed ingredients will help improve the competitiveness of Philippine prawns in the world market. This paper argues that the move will decrease the domestic prices of the imported and local prawn feeds, and will encourage local consumption of the product. The move, coupled with the BOI subsidy scheme, will be more beneficial to the country because domestic prices of prawn will decline, thus promoting its local production and consumption." [Abstract]

195. Eys, S. van. 1988. Production and marketing of value added seafood products. In: Shrimp ‘88, Bangkok, Thailand, January 26-28, 1988. Conference Proceedings. pp. 58-63. [INFOPESCA, Apdo. 6 4894, Estafeta El Dorado, Panama]

"A discussion is presented on value added seafood products and their production and marketing in developing countries, considering in particular the Asian region. The following constraints facing the producer of value added seafood in a developing country are examined: product development; packaging; marketing; and tariff and non-tariff barriers. Some recommendations are included to aid those involved in value added seafood production." [Abstract]

196. FAO. 1979. Aquaculture development in China. Report on an FAO/UNDP Aquaculture Study Tour to the People’s Republic of China, led by T.V.R. Pillay, Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme, FAO, Rome, Italy, May 2 - 1 June 1978. Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme, ADCP/REP/79/10. Rome, Italy, United Nations Development Programme and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

This report on aquaculture in China includes descriptions of the marketing systems, as well as the management, cultural practices, integrated farming, education and training, and research.

197. FAO/Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand. 1980. Thai freshwater prawn and brine shrimp farming. Report on a study of economics, marketing and processing requirements, THA/75/008/80/WP17. Bangpagang, Thailand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The report presents the results of market research studies to determine domestic distribution and sales characteristics, export market potential, and processing and packaging techniques to maintain quality standards for export in freshwater prawn farming. It also covers the production, processing and marketing of brine shrimps. [In: Garruccio, M.R. (comp.). Marketing in fisheries, a selective annotated bibliography. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 817, Revision 1.]

198. Fast, A.W., Shang, Y.C., Wanitprapha, K. and Hanvivatanakit, P. 1995. Marine shrimp culture and trawling in Thailand during 1985/86: characterizations and financial comparisons. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 10:319-336. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, USA]

"A financial comparison between shrimp farming and shrimp fishing was made in Thailand, based on a 1986 survey data from 99 shrimp farms, and on 1985 catch data from 35 otter trawlers of < 14 m length. Trawler harvests had wide species diversity, with 38 species and species groups. Shrimp accounted for 21% of trawler catch by weight and 52% by value, but most shrimp were small and of low value ($US 0.36/kg). Low value shrimp accounted for 90% of shrimp in trawler catch by weight, but only 23.8% by value. Penaeus monodon accounted for only 0.4% of trawler catch by value. Shrimp farm production was characterized by P. monodon monoculture of a large, uniform size (32 to 40 g) and high value ($US 7.03 to $US 7.60/kg); which accounted for 84% to 100% of farm harvests by value. Average production cost for trawler caught shrimp was $US 0.54/kg, with revenues of $US 0.60/kg, which yielded net profits of $US 0.06/kg. Farmed shrimp production costs ranged from $US 4.27 to $US 10.52/kg, with revenues of $US 7.03 to $US 7.60/kg; net profits ranged from ($US 2.92)/kg for certain extensive culture situations to $US 2.73/kg for intensive culture. The price changes for either farmed or ocean caught shrimp in Thailand would have an impact on profits mostly in their respective industry sub-sectors, due to greatest market similarities; but because of substantial differences between these two sub-sectors, they were relatively insensitive to each other’s costs, price, and profit conditions." [from Abstract]

199. Fegan, D.F. 1992. Recent developments and issues in the penaeid shrimp hatchery industry. In: Aquaculture ‘92: growing toward the 21stst century. p. 90.

"In recent years, the penaeid shrimp hatchery industry has undergone a number of changes. The great expansion of hatcheries in the 1980s has caused a glut of post-larvae in some areas, while others are still developing the necessary technology and infrastructure. The collapse of the Taiwanese shrimp industry, including hatcheries, has caused great concern. Hatcheries, as operations for an investment, have also undergone impressive development as techniques are refined and the risks and opportunities involved became better understood. This review covers recent developments in shrimp hatcheries in terms of technology employed and their use as business ventures. After a comparison of the various systems used, some of the most important issues facing shrimp larval rearing and some significant recent research and their implications are discussed." [Abstract]

200. Ferdouse, F. 1992. Latest developments in Asian markets. In: de Saram, H. and Singh, T. (eds.). Shrimp ‘92, Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 3rdrd Global Conference on the Shrimp Industry. Hong Kong, September 14-16, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. [INFOFISH, P.O. Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]

"Shrimp producing countries in Asia are supplementing each other’s markets and marketing facilities. Steady economic growth, particularly in Southeast Asian countries, continues to provide more disposable income to consumers, thus helping to expand the shrimp market within the region. The 1989 market crash certainly played an important role in this market expansion. Asian markets, as well as processing facilities, are taking new shapes, shifting locations for better economy of scale in operations. An abundance of raw material within the region is common, thus stimulating joint venture operations. A substantial volume of shrimp trading in Asia has evolved around value added products, such as live or chilled shrimp. Value addition is also taking place for growing supermarket and catering sectors. Shrimp has became an indispensable seafood in Southeast Asian catering. A significant market expansion is about to take place when Korea lifts restrictions on frozen shrimp imports in 1994." [Abstract]

201. Fermin, F. 1985. The introduction of integrated backyard fishponds in Lowland Cavite, Philippines. In: Smith, I.R.; Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine Tilapia Economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines]

"This paper describes the process of re-introducing backyard fishponds in lowland Cavite in the Philippines, through an integrated approach to rural reconstruction known as the People’s School System. This paper describes: (i) the training process of Barangay Scholars at the People’s School; (ii) the adaptation of the technology by the Barangay Scholars and other adaptors in the village; and (iii) a study on the economic returns and the impact of the technology on six small-scale fishfarmers. Patterns of adaptation by the Barangay Scholars and other farmers in the village are discussed, together with recommendations for future project expansion. Although typhoons and flooding affected some of the fishponds, the 14 Barangay Scholars were successful in involving an additional 45 farmers in family-operated integrated backyard fishponds. Water and manure supply are the major problems faced by the farmers. Although the programme is still in its early stages, the economic prospects for the backyard fishponds and their contributions to household nutrition appear quite favourable." [Abstract]

202. Ferrer, E.M. 1991. Territorial use rights in fisheries and the management of artificial reefs in the Philippines. In: Chou, Loke Ming, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an Integrated Management of Tropical Coastal Resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 22 pp. 299-302. [Coll. Soc. Work and Community Dev., Univ. Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines]

Territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs) is an alternative coastal resources management (CRM) scheme that aims to create the appropriate environment for self management, through the establishment of private or community ownership over common property resources. TURFs can take the form of leasehold arrangements, franchises or allocations of ownership over an area or fish stock (e.g., award of a certificate of stewardship). The experience of the Marine Conservation Development Program (MCDP) of Silliman University (Philippines) illustrates the potentials of TURFs as an alternative management scheme for artificial reefs, in particular, and for coastal resources, in general. The TURFs concept was used by the MCDP so that the ‘owners’ of the resources would be interested in the current and future productivity and in the health of ‘their’ coral reefs, and thus be inclined to control fishing practices and efforts to improve net benefits from the resources.

203. Firdausy, C. and Tisdell, C. 1991. Economic returns from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) farming in Bali. Asian Fish. Sci. 4(1)61-73. [Dep. Econ., Univ. Queensland, Qld. 4072, Australia]

"The farming of seaweed is becoming more common in Indonesia with the species known as Eucheuma cottonii being the most commonly cultured. There appears, however, to be no estimates of the economic returns from this activity for Indonesia. After providing a brief background on culture technique and marketing aspects, the investment, cost and revenue data from a 1-ha E. cottonii farm in Jungut Batu, Bali, are analyzed. It is estimated that the payback period for this activity on the farm is 7.8 months and that seaweed farming gives an accounting rate of return of 123% and an economic rate of return (IRR) of 153%. Thus, E. cottonii farming is a potentially attractive investment in Indonesia and more so since it is relatively labour intensive and does not require significant quantities of processed or imported inputs such as fertilizers, chemicals, fuel and food." [Abstract]

204. Fitzgerald Jr., W.J. 1988. Comparative economics of four aquaculture species under monoculture and polyculture production in Guam. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 19(3)132-142. [Department of Commerce, Government of Guam, Tamuning, Guam]

"Financial analysis, which included break even, net present value, internal rate of return, present value index, payback period and financial ratios, was carried out on data from three aquaculture farms located on Guam. The analysis included four primary species, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Chanos chanos, Clarias batrachus, and a hybrid Oreochromis mossambicus/O. niloticus, and two culture methods, monoculture and polyculture. The monoculture of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus, showed the greatest capital return. The use of NPV, PVI, IRR, and payback period as decision criteria also resulted in the selection of Asian catfish monoculture from the alternative species and culture methods considered. Tilapia polyculture had the lowest return on investment (less than 1%) and required 92% of the total production to reach the breakeven point. The application of the analysis methods presented provide a means for management to reduce financial risks and make informed choices between alternative strategies." [Abstract]

205. FitzGerald, W.J., Jr. 1992. Pacific Aquaculture Association. In: Aquaculture ‘92: growing toward the 21stst century. pp. 92-93. [Dep. Commerce, GITC Build., Suite 600, 590 South Marine Dr., Tamuning 96911, Guam]

"The Pacific Aquaculture Association (PAA) is a regional organization formed to promote appropriate aquaculture development in the tropical Pacific Islands, spanning an area over 5 000 miles wide. Projects approved annually by the PAA Board members (from the Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands and American Samoa) are funded by the US Department of the Interior through the Pacific Aquaculture Programme at the University of Hawaii. Priority aquaculture species of PAA are giant clams, trochus, black-lipped pearl oyster, penaeid shrimp, bath sponges, rabbitfish, groupers, aquarium species, mullet, milkfish, and green snails. Pilot demonstration projects, training applied research and economic and marketing studies are being pursued under PAA support." [Abstract]

206. Flaherty, M. and Karnjanakesorn, C. 1995. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand. Environmental Management 19(1):27-37. [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada]

"Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earner of foreign exchange. The growth in production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of nearshore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand’s marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these impacts have for the rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry." [Abstract]

207. Foster, K.B. and Poggie, J.J. 1992. Customary marine tenure practices for mariculture management in outlying communities of Pohnpei. In: Pollnac, R. and Weeks, P. (eds). Coastal aquaculture in developing coutries: problems and perspectives. Rhode Island, USA, University of Rhode Island, ICMRD. pp. 33-53.

"Micronesian government officials have embarked upon a course to include the development of marine resources in contemporary efforts to create a sounder and more self-sufficient economy for the people of Micronesia. One strategy for change is the introduction of mariculture projects to remote villages and outer islands for subsistence use and income generation opportunities. This paper focuses on the prospects for inclusion of customary marine resource practices into government management policy and strategies involved in the establishment and protection of mariculture projects for ocean farmers in Pohnpei." [Part of Introduction]

208. Formacion, C. 1986. Nutrition and the role of women in fishing. UPV Technical Report 1986. [Division of Physical Science, Iloilo, Philippines]

As part of the project on nutrition and the role of women in fishing villages in Iloilo, Philippines, the nutrition socio-economic survey was conducted to assess the food and nutrition situation of the three fishing villages. It aimed to identify the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of nutritionally disadvantaged fishing households and determine possible indicators for monitoring and evaluating nutrition oriented development projects.

209. Fujimura, T. 1990. Management of a shrimp farm in Malaysia. In: Akiyama, D.M. (ed.). Proceedings of the Southeast Asia Shrimp Farm Management Workshop, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, July 26 - August 11, 1989. Singapore, Singapore American Soybean Assoc. pp. 22-41. [Tetap Bakti Sdn. Bhd., Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia]

"Details are given of the culture of shrimp at Tetap Bakti Sdn.Bhd., in Sabah, East Malaysia. Pond preparation, post-larval stocking, grow-out management, and economics of the farm are described." [Abstract]

210. Furtado, J.I. 1980. Research and information requirements for integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Farming Systems. Proceedings of the ICLARM SEARCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, Philippines, August 6-9, 1979. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [Department of Zoology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]

"The major factors which affect the performance of integrated farming systems are identified as energy, materials, space, time and information diversity. In rice-fish farming, the requirements of the rice crop, pesticide use and land/water conflicts all require further study. In animal fish farming, work is needed on species combination and production systems, with particular attention to marketing and to public and animal health. The socio-economic aspects of integrated farming systems are complex, and the following needs are apparent: increased dissemination of information; detailed socio-economic analyses; evaluation of different technologies and the impacts of technology transfer; economic, marketing and distribution studies; and clear government policies and programmes." [Abstract]

211. Galapitage, D.C. 1982. Economics of cage culture of tilapia in Sri Lanka. In: Aquaculture Economics Research in Asia: Proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, June 2-5, 1981. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre. [Department of Economics, University of Sri Jayawardarapura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka]

"Cage culture of tilapia is very new in Sri Lanka, and this paper reports on preliminary production trials. An evaluation of the economic feasibility of cage culture in Sri Lanka is conducted and recommendations are made to improve its economic feasibility." [Abstract]

212. Gangopadhyay, S. and Giri, A.K. 1990. Augmentation of income through inland fish production - a case study. Economic Affairs 35(3):163-171. [Department of Agricultural Economics, West Bengal, India]

"The present exercise aims: (i) to compare the returns and costs in pisciculture vis a vis crop production; (ii) to compare the relative importance of resource used in pisciculture with that observed in crop production; and (iii) to examine whether adoption of pisciculture along with crop production may lead to more equitable distribution of income among the rural households in comparison with distribution of income among the households adopting crop production only." [from Introduction and Objectives]

213. Garrigue, C. 1989. Seaweed culture, processing and marketing. Rapp. Missions Sci. Mer Biol. Mar. Cent. Noumea ORSTOM. Noumea, New Caledonia, ORSTOM. No. 4, 26 p. [Inst. Fr. Rech. Sci. Dev. Coop., ORSTOM, BP A5, Noumea, New Caledonia]

"This document provides a description of the workshop, Seaweed Culture, Marketing and Processing, which was organised by FAO and a factory from USA called FMC (Marine Colloids Division) in Suva, Fiji in November 1989. Emphasis is put on the cultivation system for the red algae Eucheuma, which produces carrageenans used in industry. The industrial requirements for quality, post-harvesting, packing and expedition of the product is provided. It also gives information on the world trade. This document is preliminary to a possible study on the potentiality of New Caledonian seaweed culture and exploitation." [Abstract]

214. George, C.D. 1994. Concept of the South Sea pearl and its future from lessons of the past. J. Shellfish Res. 13(1):336. [P.O. Box 5811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia]

"The pearls from the South Seas are a later addition to the ones taken since antiquity from the legendary pearl fisheries of Arabia, India, the Americas and elsewhere. With the exploration of the Indo-Pacific region, the much larger pearls discovered attracted more admiration - especially the black ones from Polynesia. As the fisheries were declining, advances in the alluring mystery of pearl formation were promising new horizons in reproducing them at will." [Abstract]

215. Gervis, M.H. and Sims, N.A. 1992. The biology and culture of pearl oysters (Bivalvia: Pteriidae). ICLARM Stud. Rev. No. 21. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 49 p.

"Pearl oysters are farmed throughout the Indo-Pacific region, including the Red Sea. The biology and ecology of four pearl oyster species from the family Pteriidae, Pinctada fucata, P. maxima, P. margaritifera and Pteria penguin, are reviewed here. The culture techniques used for each of these species is described and the research needs, economics and marketing aspects are discussed. P. margaritifera and P. maxima culture is likely to proliferate throughout the Indo-Pacific region in the next decade, and there is also good potential for developing P. fucata culture in India and Sri Lanka. The culture of P. fucata martensii in Japan faces stagnation or reduced profitability unless remedial measures are taken to improve the culture environment and the quality standards imposed on exported pearls." [Abstract]

216. Ghosh, A. 1992. Rice-fish farming development in India: past, present and future. In: Dela Cruz, C.R., Lightfoot, C., Costa Pierce, B.A., Carangal, V.R. and Bimbao, M.A.P. (eds.). Rice-Fish Research and Development in Asia. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 24 pp. 27-43. [Cent. Inland Capt. Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore 743, West Bengal, India]

"Rice-fish culture is an age old practice in India. The country has a resource of 2.3 million ha of deepwater rice plots in the freshwater sector, drawing attention to immediate exploitation through rice-fish culture. In addition, monocropped ricefields under high monsoon precipitation in some coastal belts of the country are also used for fish culture during the summer fallow period, particularly for raising prawns. Based on these two traditional techniques of rice-fish culture, diverse techniques are being evolved by the farmers in different parts of the country with the sole objective of deriving higher returns from ricefields. Transformation of the techniques from the capture culture to culture system with necessary inputs has been projected with economics. Research thrusts needed for better management of the fish agro-ecosystem to develop complementary interrelationships between the two commodities is also discussed." [Abstract]

217. Ghosh, A. and Chattopadhyay, G.N. 1986. Paddy-cum-fish culture in coastal paddy fields of West Bengal. Integrated farming systems. Notes of lectures delivered at the training programme organized for West Bengal fisheries officers, September 9-23, 1986. Barrackpore, India, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute. No. 48. [Cent. Inland Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore, West Bengal, India]

A discussion is presented on the use of coastal saline soils in India for integrated paddy-cum-fish culture. Procedures to be followed are detailed under the following headings: site selection; plot renovation; subsequent brackishwater aquaculture; soil desalination; Kharif paddy cultivation;synchronous freshwater aquaculture; and production rates. An economic analysis is also presented. [Abstract]

218. Ghosh, A., Chattopadhyay, G.N. and Charkraborty, P.K. 1985. Package of practices for increased production in rice-cum-fish cultivation in coastal paddy fields. Aquacult. Ext. Man. Cent. Inland Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore New Ser. Barrackpore, India, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute. No. 6, 16 p. [CIFRI, Barrackpore, West Bengal, India]

"Aquaculture techniques for ricefield aquaculture are detailed, describing plot selection, paddy field management, plot preparation, summer fish crop, kharif cultivation of paddy along with fish. Yield and production rates, economics and general observations and constraints are also considered." [Abstract]

219. Ghosh, S.K. and Pathak, S.C. 1988. Economics of paddy-cum-fish culture in the northeastern states of India. In: Joseph, M.M. (ed.). The First Indian Fisheries Forum, Proceedings. December 4-8, 1987, Mangalore, Karnataka. pp. 445-449. [Natl. Bank Agric. and Rural Dev., Panbazar, Guwahati 781 001, Assam, India]

"The advantages of rearing fish in paddy fields are many and important for the northeastern states. Three different situations for such integrated crop-cum-fish culture have been envisaged in the region, namely the monocropped areas in the low hills; the monocropped areas in the plains of Assam, Manipur and Tripura; and the assured irrigated double cropped areas in the plains of Assam and Manipur. The additional production prospects from fish in the three situations vary from

200 kg/ha/crop to 1 000 kg/ha/2 crops at a negligible extra cost. Three model schemes were developed in this connection and their financial viability is worked out." [Abstract]

220. Gokulakrishnan, P. and Bandyopadhyay, S. 1995. Formulation and characterisation of some pelleted feeds for Penaeus monodon. Fish. Technol. Soc. Fish. Technol. India 32(1):19-24. [Aquacult. Eng. Sect., Dep. Agric. Food Eng., IIT Kharagpur 721 302, India]

"Three least cost-feed formulae were designed with a linear programming model on the basis of nutritional and energy requirements of Penaeus monodon and processed through conventional meat mincer and cooking intruder. Four feeds developed from these formulae were characterized with respect to proximate composition, energy, pellet diameter, true and bulk densities, settling rate and water stability. Results showed that these feeds resemble some commercial shrimp feeds available in the market. Aquarium culture experiments with these feeds yielded a feed conversion ratio similar to each other, but slightly higher than that of the commercial feed sample." [Abstract]

221. Goldman, B. 1994. Environmental management in Yap, Caroline Islands: can the dream be realized? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 29(1-3):42-51. [Australian Mus., P.O. Box A285, Sydney S., New South Wales 2000, Australia]

"Fifty years ago, the small developing island states throughout Oceania entertained dreams of achieving economic self-sufficiency and social development. These island states are now beginning to realize the magnitude of their natural resource and environmental management problems and today these dreams seem further from realization than before. The State of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia is used as an example to explore these problems and some of the mechanisms that are being considered to rectify them. The population of Yap is small but growing; its oceanic waters are still relatively pristine; there is some indication of pollution in Colonia Harbour; education levels of the community are poor and little effort is being made to educate future leaders capable of managing the environment and the marine resources. The chain of responsibility and decision-making within Government is hampered by a top heavy legislative and executive Government underlain by a constitutionally enshrined power of veto vested in councils of traditional chiefs. The Government recently commissioned a marine resources and coastal management plan which has now been completed. This plan discusses the significant environmental and resource management issues underlying Yap’s development objectives, identifies appropriate Government agencies to take responsibility, indicates manpower and training needs and outlines certain legislative changes that may be required. The need and desirability for continuing foreign aid is without doubt, but responsibility transfer must also accompany technology transfer if it is to truly meet the objectives of aiding the developing nations in the Third World." [from Abstract]

222. Gonzales, E.R. 1984. Small-scale tilapia cage technology adopted in fishing villages in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Aquaculture 41:161-169. [Binangonan Research Station, Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC), Binangonan, Rizal, Philippines]

"A small-scale tilapia cage project was tested in two fishing villages in the Philippines. The results showed that household incomes of participating families increased from p 6183 to p 41768 per year, and household savings from about zero to p 71.02 per day. Participating families consequently purchased gear for sustenance fishing, and luxury foods for their households." [Abstract]

223. Gonzales, L.A. 1985. Philippine tilapia marketing in the context of structural demand for protein: a comment. In: Smith, I.R., Torres, E.B. and Tan, E.O. (eds.). Philippine Tilapia Economics. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 12. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines]

"Prepared and presented as a comment on the four tilapia marketing papers at the Philippine tilapia economics workshop, this paper discusses the apparent profitability of tilapia marketing in the context of market structure and demand for protein. It is suggested that estimation of structural demand relationships for tilapia will help clarify the production and marketing strategies that are necessary to support the young tilapia industry." [Abstract]

224. Gu, Qingyi. 1994. The biology of Dianchi Lake Carass aurats (Carassius auratus) and its transgrowing result. Shandong Fish. Qilu Yuye 11(4):21-23. [Freshwater Fish. Res. Cent., Wuxi 210004, China]

"The paper introduced the discussion of the biology of Dian Lake goldfish (Carassius auratus) and its transgrowing result. From 1986 to 1989, 20 000 big-sized fingerlings and 20 090 fry (3cm long) of the Dian Lake C. Auratus, transported from Dian Lake in Yunnan Province were released into the Garden Lake in Anhui Province, thus forming a great stock in 1989. During three years the total output of goldfish was 221 300 kg. The economic and social efficiency was much marked. If the goldfish were transported for release into the lakes in Shandong, a good result would achieve success in three or five years." [from Abstract]

225. Guan Rui Jie and Chen Yi de. 1989. Reform and development of China’s fisheries. FAO No. 822. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [FAO, Rome, Italy]

The growth and development of aquatic organisms are discussed. In the past decade, China’s fisheries have undergone significant development; changes in organizational structure in particular have given more incentive to producers and have led to average annual growth rates of around 12% in the 1982-88 period. The growth in inland aquaculture production and the growth in exports and the incomes of fishermen are noted. Recent reforms in the institutional arrangements within the fisheries sector, and particularly in the organization of production and distribution, are described both for marine fisheries and aquaculture.

226. Guerrero, R.D.,III. undated. Cage culture of tilapia in the Philippines. In: International Workshop on Pen and Cage Culture of Fish, February 11-22, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre; Tigbauan, Philippines, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. pp. 105-106. [Cent. Luzon State Univ., Philippines]

"A brief description of the cage culture of tilapia is presented. References are made to: (i) the Tilapia species cultured; (ii) the design and construction of floating cages; (iii) the management and production of cages; (iv) the economic analysis of cage culture systems; and (v) prospects and problems." [Abstract]

227. Guerrero, R.D., III. 1995. Evaluation of home made feeds used for commercial tilapia production in the Philippines. In: Liao, D.S. (ed.). International Cooperation for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development. Proceedings of the 7thth Biennial Conference, IIFET Taipei ‘94, July 18-21, 1994. Vol. 2. pp. 1-13. [Inst. of Fish. Econ., National Taiwan Ocean Univ., 2 Pei Ning Rd., Keelung, Taiwan (P.C.), and Philippines Council for Aquatic and Marine, Research and Development]

"Tilapia farming is a major foodfish industry in the Philippines. With intensification of fish culture, the use of feeds has become necessary. Use of supplemental and complete feeds for semi-intensive and intensive culture of tilapia in freshwater ponds and cages is widely practised in the country. Home-made feeds using locally available ingredients such as rice bran, fish meal, copra meal and soybean meal have been formulated and commercially applied in the tilapia industry for fry production and grow-out of the fish. An evaluation of the feeding practices for culture of tilapia in ponds and cages showed that home-made feeds can be efficient and cost-effective if proper methods are applied." [Abstract]

228. Gujral, G.S., Jain, S.K. and Vasudevan, P. 1989. Energy recovery of aquatic substrates in Pleurotus cultivation: an edible mushroom. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 26(1):75-77. [Cent. Rural Dev. and Appropriate Technol., Indian Inst. Technol., Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India]

"Mushroom cultivation is the easiest biological means of converting agroresidues into energy-rich food. In terms of economics, the valueless wastes are transformed into edible mushrooms, but in terms of energy, as in other biological processes, some amount is lost. The present note highlights the efficiency of energy recovery in conversion of various aquatic substrates into the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor caju. Earlier data obtained by the authors in terms of the growth and subsequent analysis of P. sajor caju on six aquatic substrates, namely water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), duckweed (Lemna minor), water velvet (Azolla pinnata), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa), was used in computing the energy analysis." [from Abstract]

229. Guo, F.C., Teo, L.H. and Chen, T.W. 1995. Effects of anesthetics on the oxygen consumption rates of platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Guenther). Aquacult. Res. 26(12):887-894. [Dep. Zool., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Kent Ridge Rd., Singapore 0511, Singapore]

"This study was carried out to find out the effects of anesthetics, 2-phenoxyethanol, quinaldine sulphate, MS-222 and metomidate, at various dosages, on the oxygen consumption rates of two size groups of platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus (Guenther) at three temperatures. The results show that the oxygen consumption by the platyfish of both size groups was temperature dependent, being higher at higher temperature, but not size dependent. The effects of anesthetics on the oxygen consumption rates of platyfish were dosage dependent and temperature dependent, especially for 2-phenoxyethanol; the effect always being significantly greater at lower temperature. Small and large fish did not show much difference in their responses to anesthetic treatments. However, with 2-phenoxyethanol, the effect on the large platyfish was always better than on the small ones at 20-25 ° C. At 220-440 ppm and at 20 ° C, 2-phenoxyethanol was more effective than the other anesthetics in suppressing oxygen consumption by the platyfish." [Abstract]

230. Guo, J.Y. and Yuan, C.Y. 1987. The function of a compound agro-ecosystem in Zhangzhuang Village. Acta Ecol. Sin. Shengtai Xuebao. 7(1):12-20. [Jiangsu Acad. Agric. Sci., Jiangsu, China]

"The structure and function of a typical compound agro-ecosystem (cropping integrated with pig farming and fishery), at Zhangzhuang Village, Wuxian County (China) were studied by field experiments and systematic analysis. Models on energy flow, nutrient elements flow and money flow were established, and some practical measures for improving the agro-ecosystem are proposed. The net value of output of four kinds of agro-ecosystems, cropping, pig farming, fishery and compound agro-ecosystem, were simulated by computer. Taking the variance coefficients as criteria, it was proved that the compound agro-ecosystem was the most stable. The condition for the existence and development of the compound agro-ecosystem is discussed through model analysis." [from Abstract]

231. Gupta, J. 1993. Scientific prawn culture in homesteads - a gainful self-employment opportunity for coastal women. Indian Farming 43(5). [Agric. Extension, FEED, Cent. Mar. Fish. Res. Inst., Kochi, Kerala 683 031, India]

"The areas like semi-intensive shrimp farming, culture of the spiny lobsters, crabs, groupers, grey mullets, cockles, seaweeds, etc., are described as potential for the speedy development of aquaculture activities in India. Few crash programmes on these activities would give a sudden jump in production, so as to achieve a billion dollar export within next few years. The paper briefly discusses each of these areas." [Abstract]

232. Gupta, M.V., Ahmed, M., Bimbao, M.A.P. and Lightfoot, C. 1992. Socio-economic impact and farmers’ assessment of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Bangladesh. ICLARM Tech. Rep. No. 35. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. 50 p.

"A socio-economic study of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in seasonal ponds in Mymensingh, Bangladesh, indicated that these unused or underused seasonal water bodies, most of which are actually ditches, can be beneficially used for farming tilapia. The tilapia culture technology is simple, requiring very low labour input and, hence, can also be undertaken by women and children. Ponds of 169 m 2 yielded an average 23.6 kg of fish, which is almost equivalent to the national annual consumption of low-income rural households with six family members. The study further indicated that 70% of fish produced is consumed on-farm, improving the nutrition of farming families. Revenue from 28% of fish and fingerlings sold was enough to meet the operational costs and this makes the operation sustainable. Return on investment was 343%, indicating the economic viability of the operation. Some 90% of the farmers surveyed indicated that they are happy with the technology and of these 80% indicated that they will expand their operations." [Abstract]

233. Habib, M.A.B., Rashiduzzaman, M., Molla, A.R., Hasan, M.R. and Begum, A. 1994. A survey on socio-economic and technical aspects of pond fish culture in Bangladesh. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds.). Socio-economics of aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. pp. 265-274. [Bangladesh Agricultural Univ., Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh]

"An extensive survey of socio-economic and technical problems of pond culture in Rupgonj Thana, in the Narayangonj District of Bangladesh was conducted. During the study, a sample of 100 pond owners was selected randomly from 14 villages of Thana. Less than one third (30%) of the ponds surveyed were performing fish culture. The other 70% contained wild stock and were not being used for fish culture due to some social, economic, or technical problems. Social problems were mainly related to pond ownership patterns and theft from the ponds. Economic problems were mostly related such as a lack of sufficient funds for re-excavating ponds, purchasing fish fry, and inadequate marketing facilities. Technical problems included a lack of healthy fish fry, lack of training for fish farmers, inadequate supervision by the Thana Fishery Officer, and infestation of parasites and diseases." [Abstract]

234. Habib ul Hassan. 1987. Pond culture of jaira and kalri (Penaeid shrimps) in Pakistan. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 30(6):448-451. [Inst. Mar. Sci., Univ. Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan]

"Preliminary investigations were conducted at an experimental pond with an area of 50 m x 2 m. In this pond 2 500 juveniles of Penaeus merguiensis, Penaeus penicillatus (‘jaira’), Metapenaeus affinis and Metapenaeus monoceros (‘kalri’) were stocked at 3-5 cm size. After feeding for three months, the shrimps were harvested on 21 July 1986. The catch was 60 kg of large shrimps, with an average length of 15 cm and average weight of 33 g each, which is the largest size availability in the local market today at a cost of about PRs 200/ kg." [from Abstract]

235. Habibullah Khan, Md. 1984. Marine intensive tourism in ASEAN countries. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Congress on Marine Technology, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 24-27, 1984. Manoa, Hawaii, USA, Marine Technology Soc. p. MRM5/10. [Dep. Econ. Stat., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Singapore]

"This study intends to make a survey of the various tourist resorts in the coastal areas of countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), with particular attention to Sentosa and St. John’s islands in Singapore; Phuket, Samui and Pattaya in Thailand; Penang in Malaysia; Sombrero Park in the Philippines; and Bali in Indonesia. Demand for marine-based tourism in this region depends on a number of factors. These include tourist’s income, volume of sea-borne trade in relation to total trade, cost of travel by sea in relation to airfare, relative prices in different countries, and degree of marine pollution, as well as various other social, political and demographic factors. A marine-intensive tourist industry depends on a well-preserved environment and it is therefore often in conflict with other marine resource users. The introduction of pollutants into seas by petroleum hydrocarbons and other sources is disastrous for water-based tourist resorts. The recreational activities (sports diving, collection of aquarium fish, shells, corals, and the dumping of non-biodegradable rubbish) of tourists have caused ecological damage in many countries. Expanding tourist centres in coastal belts have also had adverse effects on fisheries, aquaculture, mariculture and mangroves. The proposed study will attempt to uncover these conflicting uses of marine resources with special reference to ASEAN countries." [from Abstract]

236. Hamada, E. and Yagi, T. 1993. Marketing structure of aquaculture in Japan and Korea. Bull. Fac. Fish. Nagasaki Univ. Chodai Suikenpo 73:19-23. [Tokyo Univ. Fish., Konan, Minato, Tokyo 108, Japan]

"In this study we have observed and evaluated the foundations of Japanese and Korean fish farming industries by comparing the marketing structure in both Japan and Korea." [from Abstract]

237. Hambrey, J. and Gervis, M. 1993. The economic potential of village based farming of giant clams (Tridacna Gigas) in Solomon Islands. In: Fitt, W.K. (ed.). Biology and mariculture of giant clams. Canberra, A.C.T., Australia, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. No. 47, pp. 138-146. [Coast. Aquacult. Cent., ICLARM, Honiara, Solomon Islands]

"Economic analysis indicates that the adductor muscle and mantle are unlikely to contribute more than half the farm-gate value at which giant clam farming is financially viable in the Solomon Islands; high-value markets for the shell will need to be developed as well. There are, however, other disincentives: high investment requirements; long payback period; and the fixed ratio of meat to shell." [Abstract]

238. Hannig, W. 1988. Towards a Blue Revolution: socio-economic aspects of brackishwater pond cultivation in Java. Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Gadjah Mada University Press. [Sociology of Development Research Centre, University of Bielefeld]

"This study is based on partial results from a field research which covered three rice-fish culture villages and two brackishwater pond cultivation villages by intensive investigation as well as some forty villages of either type by short-term surveys in 1984-85. We will start this report with a concise discussion of conditions under which Indonesian development plans and programmes have to be executed. In Chapter B, we will try to elaborate the position of fisheries in general, and inland fisheries in particular, within the Indonesian economy, and fisheries development plans which were/are to be executed in the course of the third and fourth Five Year Plan. Chapter C will exclusively refer to conditions of brackishwater pond cultivation in Central Java. First of all problems related to regional programme implementation, as well as the regional situation in the production and distribution sphere, will be illustrated. In Chapter D, we will elaborate the situation of brackishwater pond cultivation and the living conditions of aquaculturally based households at the local level. Finally, in Chapter E, we will try to outline very succinctly some possible improvement chances not only for aquacultural development with regard to increased production and productivity, but first and foremost with regard to a higher degree of socio-economic equity among aquacultural producers." [from Preface]

239. Hanvivatanakit, P. 1988. Oyster in Ranong Surat Thani offers a model. Bay of Bengal News (30):6-7

"The results of the study are the present costs and earnings of oyster culture using pipes and bamboo poles." [from Abstract]

240. Hao, V.N., Thanh, P.C., Tinh, N.T. and Due, H.M. 1997. Dissemination and evaluation of genetically improved tilapia species in southern Viet Nam. Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam, Research Institute for Aquaculture No.2.

"After two-year experiment of dissemination and evaluation of genetically improved tilapia species in southern Viet Nam, the GIFT strain of fifth generation gained the highest position high-value traits. This superiority, demonstrated in the growth rate (GIFT 213.33 + 3.47 gr/ind, Thai 152.25 + 2.37 gr/ ind, Vet 143.73 + 2.20 gr/ind), the feed conversion ration (FCR) (GIFT 2.51, Vet 2.72 and Thai 2.73), the survival rate (GIFT and Thai strains 86.75%, Vet 65.25%), and the yield (GIFT 58.2 kg, Thai 41.19 kg and Vet 37.5 kg) after four months raising on the on-station trial.

The on-farm trial observed the slow growth rate of the GIFT fifth generation and the other test strains in the poor culture technique and appropriate ecological condition." [Abstract]

241. Haque, F. and Octavio, G. 1979. An economic analysis of sustenance and commercial fishing in western Visayas. In: Librero, A.R. and Collier, W.L. (eds.). Economics of Aquaculture, Sea Fishing and Coastal Resource Use in Asia. Proceedings of the Second Biennial Meeting of the Agricultural Economics Society of Southeast Asia, November 3-6, 1977, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. pp. 201-208.

"Some preliminary findings of a marine fisheries study carried out in western Visayas are reported. A generalized production function was fitted to the data to study input productivity. Results show the catch to differ significantly by type of business and type of fishing gear. The coefficient associated with these variables indicated the degree of neutral shifts in the production function. The results also indicate significant coefficients for boat length, capital investment and engine size." [Abstract]

242. Hatch, U., Agbayani, R. and Belleza, E. 1996. Economic analysis of prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines, II: Grow-out operations. Asian Fisheries Science 9:127-141. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Auburn University, Alabama, USA]

"The dramatic fall in prawn prices coupled with environmental concerns has resulted in relative stagnation of prawn grow-out operations in the Philippines. Leaders of the Philippine aquaculture sector are concerned that their cost of production is higher than that of their close competitors in Indonesia and Thailand. Moreover, the environmental and production ‘crash’ experienced in Taiwan has led to a general perception that intensive culture cannot be sustained. The sector recently experienced a lack of direction and growth, combined with crowded watersheds, excessive use of water bodies, overuse of groundwater and continued destruction of mangrove.

A field survey of prawn growers was conducted in August-October 1992, using a standardized economic questionnaire that included costs, returns and growers’ perceptions of constraints. Economic estimates were developed for representative production systems: intensive, semi-intensive, extensive and prawn milkfish rotation.

The incentive to expand the prawn pond area is not strong. Existing intensive facilities can be operated efficiently and profitably, but new intensive operations will most likely need to include water treatment capabilities for water entering and exiting grow-out ponds. Canals, reservoirs or ponds used for water quality improvement may be able to concurrently produce a profitable crop, such as milkfish prawn rotation. Internal rate of return for semi-intensive ponds using earthen ponds was higher than for other culture systems. If, over time, water quality and conservation constraints are sufficiently addressed, stocking densities might be increased. Research and extension programmes targeting equity should focus on integrated systems." [from Abstract]

243. Helfrich, P. (ed.). 1982. Proceedings of the Seminar/Workshop on Utilization and Management of In-shore Marine Ecosystems of the Tropical Pacific Islands. November 24-30, 1979, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. Sea Grant Coop. Rep. Hawaii Univ. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, Hawaii University Sea Grant College Program. 124p. [South Pacific Univeristy, Suva, Fiji, Institute of Marine Resources]

"The Seminar/Workshop held on November 24-30, 1979 in Suva, Fiji, inaugurated a joint programme of the University of the South Pacific and the University of Hawaii under the International Sea Grant Programme to seek solutions to marine problems facing the emerging nations of the tropical Pacific. It was primarily concerned with deriving basic management guidelines. The five topics included: coral reef ecosystems; traditional patterns of utilization; present patterns of utilization and development; fisheries; technology transfer and management guidelines." [from Abstract]

244. Hettiarachchi, A. and Kularatne, M. 1988. Observations on small-scale pond culture of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man). J. Inland Fish. 4:25-29. [Freshwater Fish. Stn., Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka]

"The findings are presented of a study conducted to investigate the feasibility of small-scale pond culture of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) on a commercial basis in Sri Lanka. It is suggested that further trials be carried out with different stocking densities and feeds, in order to determine conditions which optimize the economic gains in pond culture of the freshwater prawn." [Abstract]

245. Hirasawa, Y. 1985. Economics of shrimp culture in Asia. In: Taki, Y., Primavera, J.H. and Llobrera, J.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps. Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4-7, 1984. Southeast Asian Fish. Dev. Cent., Iloilo City, Philippines. pp. 131-150. [Tokyo Univ. Fish., Konan 4-5-7, Minato ku, Tokyo 108, Japan]

"The Japanese market for shrimp has been expanding over the past 20 years, and the amount of imported shrimp has reached its ceiling. Since 1980, the amount imported has been 160 000 t with some allowance. It will be rather difficult to exceed this level with the present price. Considering this situation, it is very important to reduce the cost of cultured shrimp because of severe competition in the market. Various shrimp culture systems in Japan and Southeast Asia are described. They range from the extensive to intensive system. The cost forecast for cultured shrimp seems to indicate that extensive and semi-intensive methods will become dominant in the Asian region. Presently, productivity of these systems are low but can be greatly improved by using the ‘continuing method’ and ‘circulating method’ of pond management." [Abstract]

246. Hirasawa, Y. and Chen, C.C. 1994. Study on raising the natural productivity of fishponds and reducing aquaculture cost. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds.). Socio-economics of aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. pp. 139-155. [Nat. Taiwan Ocean Univ., 2 Pei Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan (T.C.)]

"The main focus of this study is utilization of the natural productivity of fish ponds to reduce production cost. There are many ways to reduce the cost of production, such as maximizing the efficiency of natural pond productivity. Improving natural pond productivity involves maintenance of the pond environment and water quality by appropriate fertilization technology. However, the natural pond productivity will be lost if the culture intensity is too high, resulting in increased production cost and other environmental related risks." [Abstract]

247. Hopkins, M.L. and Hopkins, K.D. 1983. Philippines (fish farming). In: Brown, E.E. (ed.). World fish farming: cultivation and economics. Second Edition. pp. 459-472. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Manila 0718, Philippines]

"Milkfish (Chanos chanos) culture in brackishwater dominates the Pacific aquaculture industry. A detailed account is given of methods used; tilapia, shrimp and other species cultured are also considered. Potentials and prospects for the future of the industry are discussed." [Abstract]

248. Hopkins, K.D. and Cruz, E.M. 1982. The ICLARM - CLSU integrated animal-fish farming project: final report. ICLARM Technical Reports 5. Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, Freshwater Aquaculture Centre, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. [ICLARM, MC P.O. Box 2631, Makati, Manila 0718, Philippines]

"The International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management and Central Luzon State University Integrated Animal Fish Farming Project spanned four years (1978-1981) at Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Eighteen major experiments were conducted with pig-fish, duck-fish, and chicken-fish systems. The livestock were grown in houses on the pond dikes and their manure was added daily to ponds that were 400 to 1000m 2 in size. Most of the experiments were factorial designs with livestock numbers and fish stocking densities as the main variables. The fish were a polyculture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Cyprinus carpio with predators, Channa striata or Clarias batrachus, used in certain experiments to control tilapia recruitment. Mean net-fish yields of greater than 15 kg/ha/day of market size tilapia and 4 kg/ha/day of carp were attained with manure loads of approximately 100 kg dry matter/ha/day with pig manure and with chicken manure. Higher manure loads reduced yields. Duck-fish experiments had lower yields than those of pig or chicken-fish experiments.

In addition to fish growth and yields, water chemistry, plankton populations, and livestock and fish parasites were monitored. Preliminary economic analyses showed that livestock fish systems can be highly profitable and can contribute to increasing rural incomes, in addition to utilizing protein in feed stocks more efficiently than livestock systems alone." [from Abstract]

249. Hoque, M.T. 1995. Sustainable agriculture: a perspective on fish culture for the small-scale resource poor farmers of Bangladesh. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 5(3):97-113. [Department of Fisheries Biology and Aquaculture, University of Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia]

"Fisheries play an important role in the agriculture based economy of Bangladesh; inland water bodies comprise 12% of the total geographical area of the country. Still, the majority of the population is protein deficient. Per capita fish availability is 20.9 gm, which is only 26% of the standard nutrition level. More than 70% of the farmers are small and resource poor and have no capacity to become involved in the semi-intensive and intensive fish culture; most of the modern aquaculture practices are high-yielding but input costs are too high, not cost-effective, and involve higher risk." [Abstract]

250. Hsiao, Ching Kai. 1994. Analysis of demand for aquaculture water in Taiwan. In: Shang, Y.C., Leung, P.S., Lee, C.S., Su, M.S. and Liao, I.C. (eds.). Socio-economics of aquaculture. Tungkang Marine Laboratory Conference Proceedings 4. pp. 341-349. [Dept. of Agric. Eco., National Chung Shing Univ., Taichung, Taiwan 402 (P.C.)]

"This paper constructs a model of aquaculture’s demand for water and identifies the technological relationship of output and input by estimating a production function of a cultured fishery. The parameters of the models were estimated with data collected from a field survey of water used by the different types of aquaculture in selected districts of Taiwan (P.C.) during 1991. Empirical results are reported for four species: tilapia, milkfish, ell, and grass shrimp. The price elasticity estimates of water range from 0.089 to 0.940. The signs and sizes of the estimates suggest that most aquaculture farms do deploy substitutes when unit costs of water are relatively high. The output elasticity estimates of demand equations, except for grass shrimp, are all positive and less than unity. As for the production functions, most of the output elasticities of various inputs are positive and less than unity. This result is consistent with the fact that the marginal product of each input diminishes as that factor increases. The sum of the elasticities for each equation shows that the production function exhibits constant or slightly increasing returns to scale. The marginal values of water for four species of aquaculture were also derived from the C-D production function. The results from the above analysis imply important policy implications for modern water resource management and the future development of aquaculture." [Abstract]

251. Hsu, L.H.L. and Chou, L.M. 1991. Assessment of reef resources at sites identified for artificial reef establishment in Singapore. In: Chou, Loke Ming, Chua, Thia Eng, Khoo, Hong Woo, Lim, Poh Eng, Paw, J.N., Silvestre, G.T., Valencia, M.J., White, A.T. and Wong, Poh Kam (eds.). Towards an integrated management of tropical coastal resources. Proceedings of the ASEAN-US Technical Workshop on Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, October 28-31, 1988. Temasek Hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management. No. 22 pp. 327-331. [Dep. Zool., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Kent Ridge 0511, Singapore]

"High sedimentation levels accompanying large-scale land reclamation and heavy shipping activity in the Singapore seas over the past 20 years have reduced the abundance, but not the diversity, of coral reef life forms. Since artificial reefs have shown in many parts of the world that they can enhance living marine resources, they were considered part of a habitat restoration effort. Site selection surveys for possible artificial reef establishment were carried out at seven sites between February 1987 and June 1988. Results showed that Terumbu Bemban has the highest percentage of live coral cover (65.88%) and the largest average size of coral colonies. Cyrene Reefs has the highest diversity, with 28 genera covering 48.06% of the transect. Pulau Semakau has the lowest average coral cover and diversity, as well as the lowest average coral colony size. Although Terumbu Jarat and Pulau Semakau have poor community structure and low recruitment potential, reef enhancement using artificial reefs will be more significant." [Abstract]

252. Hu, Bao Tong and Yang, Hua Zhu. 1984. Integrated management of fish-cum-duck farming and its economic efficiency and revenue. Bangkok, Thailand, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. 4 p. [Reg. Lead Cent. China, Asian Pacific Reg. Res. and Train. Cent. Integrated Fish Farming, Wuxi, China]

A brief account is given of fish-cum-duck practices in China, considering in particular their economic efficiency and revenue. Three types of farming practices exist: (i) raising large groups of ducks in open water; (ii) raising ducks on pond shore; and (iii) raising ducks on surfaces of fish ponds. [Abstract]

253. Huazhu, Y. and Zhiyun, L. 1990. Raising the economic benefits of pond fish culture. In: Hirano, R. and Hanyu, I. (eds.). The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society. [Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences, Wuxi, China]

"According to the outcomes of our economic survey on Zhangzhuang Aquafarm, Wuxian County, Suzhou and two Helei aquafarms, Wuxi, the main approaches to raise the economic benefits of pond fish culture are: (i) proper stocking pattern: if herbivorous fish accounts for more than 50% of the total stocking weight, the economic returns are the best; (ii) optimum stocking weight: if the stocking weight ranges from 2 400-2 550 kg/ha, the net production will reach about 12 630 kg/ha, the highest in theory; (iii) the peak profit is 9 216 yuan/ha when net production reaches 12 630 kg/ha; (iv) cost control: if the cost is controlled below 16 470 yuan/ha, the profit will be the maximum. In addition, the technical measures such as harvesting and stocking in rotation, rearing fingerlings in grow-out ponds and reasonable prophylaxis of fish diseases are also effective measures to get more profit." [Abstract]

254. Hulse, J.H., Neal, R.A. and Steedman, D.W. 1982. Foreword (Aquaculture economics research in Asia). In: Aquaculture economics research In Asia. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Singapore, June 2-5, 1981. pp. 5-6.

"A workshop was sponsored to encourage multidisciplinary analysis of aquaculture systems to generate a better understanding of the ways in which economic analysis can contribute to the development and application of new technology so that the potential benefits to those engaged in production and to consumers of fish can be realized and maximized. Three major subject areas were reviewed: microeconomic analysis of experimental aquaculture production; micro-economic analysis of existing aquaculture production; and social welfare economic considerations for aquaculture development. Cases study presentations of research methodology and economic analysis in various countries in Asia are included, as well as appendices of terms and bibliographies." [from Abstract]

255. Hurtado Ponce, A.Q., Agbayani, R.F. and Chavoso, E.A.J. 1996. Economics of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii using the fixed bottom line and hanging longline methods in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines. J. Appl. Phycol. 8(2):105-109. [Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, Iloilo 5021, Philippines]

"A socio-economic survey was conducted among the Kappaphycus alvarezii planters of Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines, in order to determine some social information, farming practices and cost and returns of farming the seaweed. Cultivation is dominated by brown and green morphotypes using the fixed bottom and hanging longline methods. Approximately 9.3 t d. wt ha-1 and 7.2 t d. wt ha-1 is produced from fixed bottom and hanging longline methods, respectively, after 60-90 days of culture. The former method requires a working capital and total investment of p 7 490 and p 1 870, respectively, compared to the hanging longline which requires p 8 455 and p 25 464, respectively ($ US 1 = p 26). A higher total revenue (p 139 500), net income (p 187 895), and return of investment 1002%), but a shorter payback period (0.10 years) were obtained in fixed bottom than in hanging longline. A lower total expenses were incurred in fixed bottom (p 21 354) than in hanging longline (p 24 566). The farming of K. alvarezii in this area has brought tremendous economic impact to the marginal fishermen." [from Abstract]

256. Hussain, M.G. and Mazid, M.A. 1997. Performance evaluation of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain in Bangladesh. Paper presented in the Final Workshop of DEGITA Project, February 18-19, 1997, Manila, Philippines. Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia Species in Asia (DEGITA) Project.

As a member of INGA since 1994, the Fisheries Research Institute initiated the evaluation of the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain in connection with the implementation of the DEGITA project in its Freshwater Station, Myensingh, Bangladesh. Evaluation experiments have been conducted both under on station and on-farm conditions.

257. Hviding, E. 1993. The rural context of giant clam mariculture in Solomon Islands: an anthropological study. ICLARM Technical Reports 39. Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and University of Bergen, Stromgaten, Bergen, Norway, Centre for Development Studies.

"This study, based on field research in a number of locations throughout the Solomon Islands and supplemented by reviews of published and unpublished literature and other documentary sources, examines important elements of the context of village- based giant clam mariculture in the Pacific Islands region. With the increased feasibility of and interest in the development of mariculture in the South Pacific, particularly of giant clams, but also of algae and other marine products, important social, economic, and legal challenges arise. The study of the Solomon Islands examines social and cultural parameters typically relevant for mariculture development throughout the Pacific Islands region." [from Abstract]

258. Hwang, J. 1992. Taiwan: from success to uncertainty. Far East. Agric. 1992:18-21.

"Eel culture takes the lead in aquaculture exports from Taiwan. In 1990, total production amounted to 56 000 t of which 46 000 t were exported to Japan. However, since 1978, increases in the cost of feed (50% rise in cost) and labour (100% rise in cost) have made eel culture much less profitable. Attempts at artificial hatchery to produce eels have failed so that all juvenile are captured at sea. Taiwan’s leading competitors in the eel trade with Japan are China and Malaysia. Fish culture production has gone up but profits have dropped. In 1990, 344 263 metric tons (mt) were produced for a value of $US 1.1 billion. As of 1990, aquaculture covered 190 000 acres with 70 species under commercial culture from fish and seaweed to crocodiles. In some cases, too many fish are produced for the market to absorb and the uncontrolled pumping of group water is becoming a problem. In all cases, Taiwan research and development institutions are proposing solutions." [from Abstract]

259. ICLARM. 1981. ICLARM-CLSU integrated animal-fish farming project: poultry-fish and pig-fish trials. ICLARM Technical Reports 2. Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Freshwater Aquaculture Centre, and Manila, Philippines, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.

260. Illukkumbura, I.M.D.B. 1986. Observations on stocking of the Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Ham) in the open waters of Kandalama and Udawalawe reservoirs in Sri Lanka. J. Inland Fish. 3:63-68. [Inland Fish. Div., Minist. Fish., New Secretariat Build., Maligawatte, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka]

"An examination is made of the results of the stocking of Kandalama and Udawalawe reservoirs in Sri Lanka with Labeo rohita fingerlings in the years 1983, 1984 and 1985. An economic analysis is also made of production costs and financial returns. Although the study showed significant financial recovery, further research is required before final conclusions may be drawn." [Abstract]

261. Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission. 1988. Report of the Seventh Session of the Working Party of Experts on Aquaculture. Bangkok, Thailand, August 1-6, 1988. FAO Fisheries Report No. 411. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

"This document is the final formal report of the Seventh Session of the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission (IPFC) Working Party of Experts on Aquaculture held in Bangkok, Thailand, August 1-6, 1988. The session discussed activities during the inter-sessional period; country reviews; the status of shrimp culture; the status of mollusc culture, processing and marketing; the status of seaweed culture, processing and marketing; marketing constraints and price trends of aquaculture products; aquaculture development in the South Pacific sub-region; progress in regional cooperation in aquaculture research, training and information exchange, and priority areas for the next intercessional period." [from Abstract]

262. Indonesia, Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan. 1990. Proceedings of the Shrimp Culture Industry Workshop. Jepara, Indonesia, September 25-28, 1989. Jepara, Indonesia, Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre.

263. Indra, R. 1982. Fish cage culture development in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Report of the Training Course on Small-scale Pen and Cage Culture for Finfish.

This paper analyzes the cost and returns of fish cage culture in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Fish cages are mainly located in three big natural lakes in the area. Descriptions of appropriate fish cages are given in the study.

264. Interagency Technical Working Group. 1985. Policy study in the economic role of pond input prices on fishpond operations and market pricing. General Information Series 8(3). Quezon City, Philippines, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

265. International Centre for Aquaculture. 1979. Fish marketing in Central Luzon, Philippines. Research and Development Series No. 21. Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA, International Centre for Aquaculture, Agricultural Experiment Station.

"The primary objectives of this study were to determine the consumption statistics of fish by species, the seasonality of demand and supply, the price size relationship of fish, and the economic impact of rice-fish culture in Central Luzon." [from Summary and Conclusions]

266. Islam, M.S., Hasan, K.R. and Kar, N.K. 1995. Problems and prospects of fish culture in ponds in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Economic Affairs 40(1):27-32. [Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, On-Farm Research Division, Rajshahi, Bangladesh]

This article reports on a study of the fish culture systems of the High Barind Region of Bangladesh. The study was undertaken to: (i) identify the major problems and constraints regarding fish culture in ponds; and (ii) find out the prospects of fish culture in perennial and seasonal miniponds in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh." [from article]

267. Israel, D., Apud, F. and Franco, N. 1985. The economics of different prawn and shrimp pond culture systems: a comparative analysis. In: Taki, Y., Primavera, J.H. and Llobrera, J.A. (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference On The Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps. Iloilo City, Philippines, December 4-7, 1984. Iloilo City, Philippines, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre pp. 172-173. [Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, P.O. Box 256, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines]

"The paper aims to present a comparative economic evaluation of different pond culture systems for prawn (Panaeus monodon) and shrimp (P. indicus and P. merguiensis), using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The different culture systems include extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of prawns and shrimps and the extensive polyculture of these species with milkfish (Chanos chanos)." [Abstract]

268. Israel, D.C., Sevilleja, R.C. and Circa, A.V. 1995. Application of output risk programming in rice-fish culture. In: Liao, D.S. (ed.). International cooperation for fisheries and aquaculture development. Proceedings of the 7thth Biennial Conference, IIFET Taipei ‘94, July 18-24, 1994. Vol. 2. pp. 1-13. [Inst. of Fish. Econ., National Taiwan Ocean Univ., 2 Pei Ning Rd., Keelung, Taiwan (P.C.)]

"The study assessed the effects of output risk on profitability and adoption of rice-fish culture in the Philippines. It used data from irrigated rice farms in Guimba, Nueva Ecija for the wet season of 1990 and dry season of 1991. A target MOTAD programming model was utilized in the analysis.

The study found that rice-fish culture was more profitable but also more risky compared to rice monoculture during the wet season and more profitable and unrisky during the dry season. Based on this, the study concluded that rice-fish culture was economically superior to rice monoculture and this advantage increases when farmers are more willing to take risk.

The study recommended that technical research emphasize technologies that will lessen the variability of fish output from rice-fish culture. Furthermore, the study argued that a concerted extension programme involving relevant government agencies, research institutions and academic institutions be put up to make technology dissemination effective." [from Abstract]

269. Israel, D.C., Agbayani, R.F. and Dela Puna, D.T.Jr. 1986. Comparative economic analysis of different scales of prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatchery production systems. Research Report No. 7. Bangkok, Thailand, Asian Fisheries Social Science Research Network.

270. Jacob, C. and George, M.J. 1993. Commercial scale hatchery production of seeds of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) in Kerala, India. In: Carrillo, M., Dahle, L., Morales, J., Sorgeloos, P., Svennevig, N. and Wyban, J. (eds.). From discovery to commercialization. Ostende, Belgium, European Aquaculture Soc. No. 19 p. 138. [Royal Freshwat. Shrimp Hatchery, Perumanoor, Ernakulam, Kochi 682015, Kerala, India]

271. James, R., Muthukrishnan, J. and Sampath, K. 1993. Effects of food quality on temporal and energetics cost of feeding in Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprinidae). J. Aquacult. Trop. 8(1):47-53. [Dep. Zool., V.O.C. Coll., Tuticorin 628 008, Tamil Nadu, India]

"Temporal and energy costs of feeding Cyprinus carpio on Chironomus larva, Culex pipiens, and Daphnia were studied. In 16, 30-40, or 80-85 min. satiation time, test animals fed on Chironomus, C. pipins, or Daphnia consumed 10, 28, or 299 individuals, equivalent to 31, 52, or 28 mg of live weight respectively; fish fed on Daphnia took five times as much time for satiation as those fed on Chironomus. Rates of feeding, absorption, and conversion were maximum in fish fed on Chironomus. There was no marked variation in the absorption efficiency in relation to the prey. Test animals fed on Chironomus, C. pipiens, and Daphnia exhibited nitrogen conversion efficiency of 30, 15, and 3.4% respectively. Daphnia-fed animals spent more energy on metabolism, showing poor rate and efficiency of conversion in addition to a high temporal cost. In aquaculture, it is advisable to feed cultivable fishes with large, nutritionally rich prey organisms in order to minimize temporal and energy costs of feeding and maximize growth." [from Abstract]

272. Jantrarotai, W. and Jantrarotai, P. 1993. On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for catfish and snakehead. In: New, M.B., Tacon, A.G,.J. and Czavas, I. (eds). Proceedings of the Regional Expert Consultation on Farm-made Aquafeeds. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 101-119.

"This is a review of the current status of farm-made feed preparation and feeding strategies for catfish (Clarias spp) and snakehead (Channa Striatus) in Thailand. An economic comparison between the use of ram-made feeds and commercial feeds is also provided." [ from Abstract]

273. Jara, R.S. 1984. Aquaculture and mangroves in the Philippines. In: Ong, J.E. and Gong, W.K. (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Productivity of the Mangrove Ecosystem: Management Implications. Penang, Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. pp. 97-107. [Nat. Resour. Manage. Cent., 8thth Fl., Triumph Build., 1610 Quezon Ave., Quezon City, Philippines]

"In the Philippines, the most important uses of the mangrove swamps from the economic standpoint include aquaculture, forest product gathering, fry gathering and land reclamation. Of these, aquaculture, which involves the conversion of mangrove swamps into fishpond has caused an issue between operators and conservationists. Over the past few decades, the total area of fishponds has increased from 88 681 ha in 1952 to 195 831 ha in 1981. Therefore, on average, about 4 000 ha of mangrove swamps were converted into fish ponds every year during this period. In view of the rapid depletion of mangrove swamps, the Government has formulated strategies for the proper management of the mangrove resources in the Philippines. An examination is made of the status of aquaculture and mangrove forests in the Philippines; a discussion on the strategies being implemented for the proper management of the resources is included. (Published in cooperation with the Malaysian National Science Research and Development Council)." [from Abstract]

274. Jayagopal, P. and Sathiadhas, R. 1993. Productivity and profitability of prawn farming practices - an economic analysis. In: Rengarajan, K., Noble, A., Prathibha, Kripa, V., Sridhar, N. and Zakhriah, M. (eds.). Mariculture research under the postgraduate programme in mariculture. Part 4. Cochin, India, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Vol. 55. pp. 16-25. [CMFRI, P.B. No. 1603, Ernakulam, Cochin 682 014, India]

"In the last two decades, considerable progress has been achieved in the field of prawn farming, but there is a dearth of information regarding the economics of various culture practices. The existence of various culture practices and the reluctance of traditional prawn farmers to adopt the semi-intensive culture methods has made it imperative to conduct a comparative economic analysis. The present investigation was carried out with the following specific objectives: (i) to assess the productivity and profitability of different types of prawn culture practices; (ii) to analyze the comparative economic efficiency of prawn farms based on their location, size and technique; and (iii) to estimate the input-output relationship for prawn production in the semi-intensive culture system." [from Abstract]

275. Jayamanne, S.C. 1992. The mud crab fishery in Sri Lanka. In: Angell, C.A. (ed.). Report of the Seminar on the Mud Crab Culture and Trade. Surat Thani, Thailand, November 5-8, 1991. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development. pp. 41-48. [Natl. Aquat. Resour. Agency, Crow Island, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka]

"Mud crab (Scylla serrata) production in Sri Lanka grew from 1 422 t in 1980 to 1 973 t in 1984, reaching a peak of 2 309 t in 1983. Production has declined in recent years due to civil strife and overfishing. The average size and catch/unit effort of mud crab have declined in Negombo Lagoon, the principal fishing area. Sri Lanka mud crab are well known in the export trade and are considered a quality product. Singapore receives 90% of Sri Lanka’s exports. Recommended management measures include the prohibition of capturing immature crab, educating fisherfolk and developing aquaculture of the mud crab." [Abstract]

276. Jayaraman, R., Parthasarathy, R. and Chandrabose, B. 1995. Economics of integrated fish-duck-azolla farming system. Indian Veterinary Journal 72(5):478-481.

277. Jayaraman, R., Chinnadurai, M., Narayanan, S., Senthilathiban, R., Suresh, R., Selvaraj, P. and Durairaj, N. 1988. Strategies for production of and market development for Indian marine resources. In: CMFRI Spec. Publ. No. 40. p. 88. [MPEDA, Machilipatnam, India]

"The non-optimal utilization of Indian marine fisheries resources has led to concentration of fishing effort on a few high unit value species and negligible harvest and utilization of other species that are abundantly available. Furthermore, the marine fish production has been showing only a gradual increase for the past 15 years. The supply of marine fish fell short of demand by about a million tonnes in 1985. Adoption of appropriate conservation/management practices for the heavily and indiscriminately exploited capture fisheries, exploitation of other potential marine fisheries, and deepsea fishing are some measures that could step up marine fish production. Furthermore, the potential of coastal aquaculture in supplementing marine fish production has not been fully utilized in India." [Abstract]

278. Jayaraman, R., Sai, J.P., Rao, V.S., Babu, K.R.R. and Joshua, K. 1988. An economic analysis of prawn culture in Andhra Pradesh - some preliminary findings. In: CMFRI Spec. Publ. No. 40. p. 48. [MPEDA, Reg. Cent. (Prawn Framing), Machilipatnam 521 001, India]

"This paper analyzes the economics of prawn culture by fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh, where adoption of prawn culture is witnessed as highly encouraging, identifies the various constraints to prawn culture and offers suggestions to overcome them. The results of a case study on these aspects are also presented and discussed." [Abstract]

279. Jayaraman, R., Sai, J.P., Rao, V.S., Joshua, K. and Babu, K.R.R. 1988. An economic analysis of setting up of prawn seed bank in Andhra Pradesh - some preliminary findings. In: CMFRI Spec. Publ. No. 40. p. 59. [MPEDA, Reg. Cent. (Prawn Farming), Machilipatnam 521 001, India]

"The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) assists the prawn farmers in setting up prawn seed banks by providing technical assistance on prawn culture; undertaking site selection and farm surveys; preparing project reports for submission to the banks for financial assistance, releasing subsidy to the tune of 15% on the capital cost of the project; and providing continued technical assistance throughout the culture period. Already some prawn farmers have started establishing such prawn seed banks and supplying prawn seeds commercially. This paper presents and discusses results of case studies on the economic feasibility of setting up prawn seed banks by fish farmers/prawn farmers." [from Abstract]

280. Jayaraman, R., Selvaraj, P., Kumar, J.V. and Ramkumar, R.K. 1988. An economic analysis of trends in the export of Indian marine products. In: CMFRI Spec. Publ. No. 40. p. 89. [MPEDA Reg. Cent., Machilipatnam, India]

"Export of marine products has increased dramatically from Rs 400 million in 1971 to about Rs 4 000 million in 1985-86. The share of shrimps in Indian marine products has increased steadily since their introduction to the international market in 1971 and was about 60% in terms of quantity and about 83% in terms of value of total marine products’ exports from India during 1985-86. The development of Indian marine fishing industry is claimed to be largely due to the development of shrimp fisheries, as the demand for them seems to be on the increase. Based on the results of the analyses, projections of future exports were made for 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988. The projections for 1985 were found to agree with those reported figures for 1985 and it is suggested that these models can be used by the policy planners and concerned administrators." [Abstract]

281. Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K. 1994. Shrimp culture in Sri Lanka: immediate profits or sustainable development. Annual Scientific Sessions 1993. Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific Sessions, November 2, 1993 Nara, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka, NARA. pp. 22-24. [National Aquatic Resources Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka]

"Shrimp culture is a highly profitable industry compared to traditional animal husbandry, agricultural and fisheries’ activities in Sri Lanka. Intertidal zones including ecologically sensitive areas (mangroves and salt marshes) and supratidal zones with traditional agricultural lands are converted to shrimp farms. Physical changes in the water source as a result of activities related to shrimp culture include siltation, sedimentation and high concentrations of total suspended solids levels. Toxic metabolites (ammonia, sulphide and nitrites) are above favourable ranges for shrimp culture during most past of the year in main brackishwater systems. Several user conflicts have been identified between shrimp farmers and communities engaged in traditional animal husbandry, fishing agricultural and small-scale industrial activities such as salt production. During the late 1980s, most of the farms were stricken by diseases, reducing production in farms to as much as 64%. Import of contaminated larvae, intensive culture practices, deterioration of water quality in main water sources, and problems related to acid sulphate soil conditions have been identified as the main contributory factors for disease outbreaks. The rehabilitation of the Dutch canal, the introduction of sediment treatment systems (sedimentation tanks, biological filtration), low-density culture systems, establishment of buffer zones, protection of environmentally sensitive areas and an integrated management plan for the entire coastal area are some of the recommendations to reduce environmental problems and achieve sustainable development." [from Abstract]

282. Jennings, C.D., Phommasack, B., Sourignadeth, B. and Kay, B.H. 1995. Aedes aegypti control in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, with reference to copepods. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53(4):324-330. [Queensland Inst. Med. Res., Herston, Brisbane, Australia]

"An evaluation of the Lao Aedes aegypti control programme and of the predatory abilities of copepods from Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic was undertaken before a field release of copepods in Thongkankam village, Vientiane. Copepods were transported to Australia for evaluation of their predatory abilities and their survival under various nutrient and pH conditions. Mesocyclops guangxiensis was chosen for release over M. Aspericornis, due to its higher reproduction rate and its ability to survive in lower nutrient environments. Mesocyclops guangxiensis was released into 142 containers and 20 wells in a village in Vientiane. Copepods were present in 7% of the containers after one month and were absent six months post-inoculation. In comparison, 100% of wells were still positive after six months, with average numbers of Ae. aegypti in the wells decreasing from 59.5 plus or minus 18.5 ( plus or minus SEM) to 0 after six months. Numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles maculatus also decreased to 0 after six months. This study indicates that predacious copepods will be accepted by the community and could be integrated as a low-cost, persistent control agent into new strategies for improving surveillance and control of dengue vectors." [Abstract]

283. Jhingran, V.G. and Sharma, B.K. 1980. Integrated livestock-fish farming in India. In: Pullin, R.S.V. and Shehadeh, Z.H. (eds.). Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 4. Manila, International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and College, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, Southeast Asian Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture. [CIFRI, West Bengal, India]

"The integration of fish culture with livestock rearing holds great promise and potential for augmenting production of animal protein, betterment of the economy, and generation of employment in rural India. Until recently, however, no worthwhile attempt was made in this direction even though 80% of the country’s population live in villages, and are undernourished and in urgent need of gainful employment.

The work done on pig-fish farming and duck-fish farming in India is described and the results obtained, including the economics of integrated systems, are compared with those of modern semi-intensive fish culture. Integrated farming systems involving fish production have opened up new horizons of high animal protein production at very low cost. Fish yields of 7 300 kg/ha/yr and 4 323 kg/ha/yr were achieved for pig-fish and duck-fish farming, respectively. The pig and duck manure replaced fish feed and pond fertilizers. The costs/kg of fish produced were Rs l.07 (pig-fish) and Rs l.61 (duck-fish). The raising of ducks on a fish pond fits very well with the ecological niche concept of polyculture: the unutilized surface water niche in fish culture becomes occupied.

The possibilities of combining horticulture and fish culture by growing vegetables, fruit trees, and cattle fodder on the terraced embankments of ponds and using pond detritus as fertilizer are also discussed." [Abstract]

284. Jhingran, A.G. and Ghosh, A. 1988. Aquaculture as a potential system of sewage disposal - a case study. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 20(2):1-8. [Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"Solid and liquid wastes generated from human and animal sources can easily be converted into food by productive means of waste disposal that boost crop yield as well as fish through aquaculture. The re-use of wastewater effluents for aquaculture offers attractive economic and social benefits besides reducing pollution of surface water resources. Sewage disposal is carried out more effectively by integrating aquaculture with agriculture and animal husbandry through an ecologically balanced wastewater disposal system for productive purpose and to improve the environment. Case studies on fish culture using domestic sewage, carried out in the State of West Bengal, have indicated the great potential benefits from waste re-use technologies in developing countries." [Abstract]

285. Jhingran, A.G. and Paul, S. 1988. Planning for fisheries development - search for appropriate policy instruments. In: CMFRI Spec. Publ. No. 40. p. 5. [Cent. Inland Capture Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"The Indian fisheries economy for the last several years has been characterized by sluggish growth rates in production (3.5%), inadequate marketing infrastructure, demand and supply imbalances, inter-sectoral conflicts, insignificant contribution of deepsea fishing (1%), lack of diversification in export trade and apathetic entrepreneurship in offshore fishing. Unlike marine fisheries, inland fisheries have registered a higher growth rate of production. Despite imperfections of the marketing system, land-based culture fisheries have been favourably placed. Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs) have brought 150 000 ha under scientific fish farming. Reservoirs (3 million ha) afford opportunities for enhancing inland fish production for augmentation of domestic availabilities. An examination is made of some of these areas so as to have a sound basis for the task of policy formulation for both marine and inland fisheries." [Abstract]

286. Jhingran, V.G. and Sharma, B.K. 1986. Integrated livestock-fish farming in India. In: Research plans for integrated aquaculture. FAO-UNDP Technical Assistance Proj., Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 46-53. [Cent. Inland Fish. Res. Inst., ICAR, Barrackpore 743 101, West Bengal, India]

"The work done on pig-fish farming and duck-fish farming in India is described and the results obtained, including the economics of integrated systems, are compared with those of modern semi-intensive fish culture. Fish yields of 7 300 kg/ha/yr and 4 323 kg/ha/yr were achieved for pig-fish and duck-fish farming, respectively. The pig and duck manure replaced fish feed and pond fertilizers. The cost/kg of fish produced were Rs 1.07 (pig-fish) and Rs 1.61 (duck-fish). The possibilities of combining horticulture and fish culture by growing vegetables, fruit trees, and cattle fodder on the terraced embankments of ponds and using pond detritus as fertilizer are also discussed." [Abstract]

287. Jiang, Binxing. 1993. The resources of Dongsha, Jiangsu Province, and their development potential. J. Nat. Resour. Ziran Ziyuan Xuebao 8(1):26-31. [Yancheng Educ. Coll., Jiangsu, Yancheng 224002, China]

"Dongsha is the largest and highest of all the sand bars off the coast of Jiangsu Province, but it is still underdeveloped. This paper, on the basis of actual investigations, maps of the Yellow Sea, satellite photos, and other available data concerned, analyzes Dongsha’s land and biological resources and the potential of its energy resources development. Moreover, it sets forth suggestions on how to properly develop Dongsha according to local conditions." [from Abstract]

288. Jiuchang, Ren, Xiaoming, Cai, Zhixiang, Zong, Moshan, Wang, Song Gang, Li, Chongren, Xu and Jianmei, Yang. 1994. The strategic role of ecological research in the design of an environmentally comprehensive plan for a new economic development area - Meizhou Bay, China. J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health 3(4):243-246. [Cent. Environ. Sci., Peking Univ., Beijing 100871, China]

"The Government of China is planning a new economic development area, located at Meizhou Bay on the Chinese mainland, opposite the island of Taiwan. Aspects of this development plan will be subject to an assessment of the potential environmental effects. Especially important considerations are changes in land use associated with urbanization and industrial developments, and any activities that could degrade air and water quality, with potential risks for human health, aquaculture, agriculture, and wildlife. During 1988 to 1990, we conducted studies related to meteorology, environmental geology and engineering, physical oceanography, and marine chemistry and biology. To protect culturally important orchards of fruit trees (including litchi, orange, and tangerine) from air pollution, and aquaculture facilities for prawn and oyster from oil pollution, these toxic stressors were given priority in our eco-toxicological research, and in the planning of allowable waste discharges. To protect Meizhou Bay from eutrophication and nutrient loading, eco-dynamic models were developed to allow simulation of ecological changes potentially associated with nutrient-laden discharges. The results of our ecological research will play a strategic role in reconciling conflicts between economic development and environmental degradation, over both the short and the long term." [Abstract]

289. Jose, M.M., Mathew, P.M. and Susheela, E. 1992. Prospects of mixed culture of fresh and brackish water fishes in brackishwater ponds in the south west coast of India. Indian Zool. 16(1-2):55-59. [Kerala Agric. Univ. Fish. Unit, R.R.S. Vyttila, Cochin 682 019, India]

"Results of the experiment conducted on the mixed culture of fresh and brackishwater fishes in Vyttila fish farm, Cochin, under Kerala Agricultural University, are presented. Fresh water species of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthamiethys molitrix were cultured, along with brackishwater species Chanos chanos and Mugil cephalus, in a pond of 0.15 ha area during the low- saline phase. The fish production from this amounted to 1 446 kg/ha/4 months, which when compared with that from the culture of brackishwater species alone in this farm is almost double. Details of growth and production rates of different species and the economics of the culture operation are presented. Salient ecological conditions of the pond during the rearing period are also discussed. The results show that culture of carps, along with brackishwater species in brackishwater ponds during the low-saline phase, can increase the production at least two-fold." [from Abstract]

290. Jory, D.E. 1996. Marine shrimp farming in the Kingdom of Thailand: Part I. Aquaculture Magazine 22(3):97-106.

"Seafood production is an integral and important component of Thailand’s economy. Thailand is now the seventh seafood producer and the top seafood exporter in the world, as well as being the largest exporter of both marine shrimp and canned tuna. Marine shrimp comprise approximately 32% of the total value of Thai seafood exports. The paramount aquaculture activity is the production of black tiger shrimp." [Abstract]

291. Joseph, A. and Vadhyar, K.J. 1994. Milkfish production and ecology of brackishwater ponds treated with organic versus inorganic fertilizers in Cochin, India. Fish. Technol. Soc. Fish. Technol. Kochi 31(2):95-101. [Coll. Fish., Kerala Agric. Univ., Panangad, Cochin 682 506, India]

"The paper deals with a comparative study of growth, survival and yield of milkfish as well as the ecological characteristics of two brackishwater culture ponds (0.042 ha each), one treated with organic fertilizer (cowdung) and the other with inorganic fertilizers (superphosphate and urea). Milkfish, Chanos chanos, of 6 g average weight were stocked at a rate of 4 500 fingerlings ha/l in both the ponds. Remarkably better growth of fish (238 g), 86% of survival and gross and net productions of 852 kg ha/l respectively, were obtained after 120 days of culture from the pond treated with cowdung, than from the pond treated with inorganic fertilizers which showed a growth of only 63 g, survival of 82% and gross and net production of 226 and 199 kg ha/l, respectively during the same period. The operational economics of milkfish production from the ponds has been compared. The rate of return on operational costs works out to be 298% in the pond treated with cowdung and 3% in the pond treated with chemical fertilizers." [Abstract]

292. Joseph, L. 1993. Boom time for prawn farming in Sri Lanka. Bay of Bengal News (52):23-25.

"An account is given of the development of brackishwater prawn farming in Sri Lanka, detailing aquaculture operations, hatcheries, production and marketing, economics, regulation and monitoring. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is the species that is almost exclusively used in commercial prawn culture today. Existing technological, social and environmental issues/constraints are outlined." [Abstract]

293. Joshi, V.P. and Raje, P.C. 1993. Packaging and transportation trials with the seedlings of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In: Natarajan, P. and Jayaprakas, V. (eds.). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Aquaculture Development in India Problems and Prospects. Thiruvananthapuram, India, Kerala Univ., November 27-29, 1990 pp. 21-26. [Mar. Biol. Res. Stn., Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India]

"The transportation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii seedlings, either hatchery produced or collected from wild, always faces the problem of heavy mortality during transportation. It is essential that shrimp seed should reach the shrimp farmer with the highest possible survival. In view of this, packaging and transportation trials were conducted to study the effect of variables, such as packaging density, means of packaging, mode of transportation and the size of postlarvae on seed survival. The conventional method of packaging seed prawns in oxygenated polyethylene bags with a certain amount of water, as well as unconventional methods such as dry packaging in aquatic weeds and chilled sawdust, were attempted. The oxygenated polyethylene bags packed in a used tea chest (4 bags in each) were found to be the most suitable, yielding a high rate of survival. The most suitable number to be transported in one bag was 200 and the most suitable size for transportation was found to be 12-16 mm or P 20 post-larvae." [from Abstract]

294. Juntarashote, K. 1984. Study on economic returns of small-scale capture fisheries and coastal aquaculture. Current Technology Paper No. 30. Samutprakarn, Thailand, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. 28 p.

"The findings of the study present the costs and earnings of the small-scale capture fisheries and coastal aquaculture sector of Thailand. The shows that the rates of return varied from 36.3% to 121.6%, with hook fishing giving the highest rate (72.4%.) In cage culture operations, the feeding costs accounted for the major portion of the total costs (40%). It is concluded that the economic returns of the small-scale operations may be considered as a sideline business of the small-scale fishery." [from Abstract]

295. Juliano, R.O. 1983. Observations on the brackishwater farming industry in the Philippines. Fish Today 5(2):28-36. [Univ. Philippines, Visayas, Philippines]

"The status of the Philippine brackishwater farming industry is discussed, considering the various problems facing the industry regarding: acid sulphate soils; aquaculture economics; technology level; marketing of the aquaculture products; environmental degradation; aquaculture seedling production; the absentee fishfarm owner; the fishpond lease agreement; credit problems; and saltmaking as an alternative fishpond use. Possible ways of increasing fishfarm yields are indicated." [Abstract]

296. Kalimuthu, S. and Najmuddin, M. 1979. Seaweed culture in Mandapam. Preliminary evaluation on benchmark survey. In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Technology Transfer in Coastal Aquaculture. CMFRI Special Publication No. 6.

A brief status report of seaweed culture in Mandapam is presented. Information on the socio-economic conditions of the farmers is given, and the progress and constraints of the CMFRI’s aquaculture development programme in the area are evaluated.

297. Kamachandran, N.P.V., Mathew, K.J., Parameswaran, P.P., Vincent, D. and Rengarajan, K. 1979. Prawn culture in Quilon. In: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Technology Transfer in Coastal Aquaculture. CMFRI Special Publication No. 6.

A brief status report of prawn (Penaeidae) culture in Quilon is presented. Information on the socio-economic conditions of the prawn farmers is given and the progress and constraints of the CMFRI’s aquaculture development programme in the area are evaluated.

298. Kamal, M.Y. 1991. Riverine fisheries in India - a retrospect. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 23(2):1-8. [Indian Counc. Agric. Res., Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi 110 001, India]

"Rivers in India constitute the backbone of capture fisheries. The 113 major and minor rivers, along with their principal tributaries form a repository of biological wealth, are unmatched in qualitative and quantitative abundance. The rivers have through the ages supported a flourishing artisanal fisheries, providing livelihood to millions of small-scale fishermen. Many of the commercial farms, especially the Indian major carps, besides supporting a lucrative riverine fisheries have also formed vital components in the aquaculture sector throughout the country. However, the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the rivers has adversely affected the fish production potentialities and they no longer support rich biotic wealth. The paper besides elucidating the malaises, also attempts to outline approaches for conservation and management of the Indian rivers.’ [Abstract]

299. Kao-ian, S. 1988. An economic analysis of the green mussel (Perna viridis) culture system in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand, Asian Fisheries Social Science Research Network, Kasetsart University.

"The objectives of the study are fourfold: (i) to investigate the general characteristics of green mussel production by the direct pole staking method and fish staketrap method; (ii) to determine the costs and returns of green mussel production by the direct pole staking method and fish staketrap method; (iii) to estimate the production function, returns to scale and the economic efficiency in the utilization of each input factor in the production of green mussel by the direct pole staking method and fish staketrap method; and (iv) to determine appropriate development guidelines for the production of green mussel for purposes of future promotion of this industry." [from Objectives]

300. Khan, G., Islam, S., Mustafa, G., Sada, N. and Chowdhury, Z.A. 1994. Biosocioeconomic assessment of the effect of the estuarine set bagnet on the marine fisheries of Bangladesh. Madras, India, Bay of Bengal Programme. 28 p. [Manage, and Dev. Proj., Dep. Fish., Chittagong, Bangladesh]

"The estuarine set bagnet (ESBN) fishery of Bangladesh is one of the country’s most important traditional fisheries and a large population of small-scale fisherfolk have been dependent on it for a long time. In the last two decades, the introduction and rapid expansion of the bottom trawl fishery and of shrimp culture have contributed to problems of interaction and competition among the fisheries which exploit the same penaeid shrimp and demersal finfish stocks. The traditional, but less efficient, ESBN fishery has not only become vulnerable, being likely to be affected by other fisheries, but may also be destructive to small penaeid shrimp and some of the finfish resources that these other fisheries exploit. The Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh, decided to investigate this issue and the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP) was requested to assist. Bio-economic and socio-economic surveys were undertaken in 1989/90 and a National Seminar was held in January 1992 to discuss the results. Because of the interactive nature of the marine fisheries, it was necessary, for the assessment and management of any one fishery, to consider the other fisheries exploiting the same resources. Therefore, in addition to the estuarine set bagnet fishery, other fisheries were investigated, such as those employing marine set bagnets (MSBN), trammelnets (TRN), beach seines (BS), bottom longlines (BLL) and trawlnets (TWL), as well as shrimp fry collection using pushnets (PN) and dragnets (DN), were investigated. The present paper is based on the results and findings of these investigations and assesses the biosocioeconomic impact of the ESBN fishery on the other marine fisheries of Bangladesh." [Abstract]

301. Khan, M.S. 1979. Culture fishing in ponds in Bangladesh. In: Librero, A.R. and Collier, W.L. (eds.). Economics of aquaculture, sea fishing and coastal resource use in Asia. Proceedings of the Second Biennial Meeting of the Agricultural Economics Society of Southeast Asia, November 3-6, 1977, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Los Banos, Philippines, Agricultural Development Council, and Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research. [Department of Economics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh]

Pond culture in Bangladesh was investigated by a survey in Fatehpur, Chittagong, which has a high density of ponds. The ponds were used for a variety of purposes - washing and bathing, drinking-water storage, irrigation and fish farming. Fish from the ponds were mostly used for domestic consumption; only 20% of the households involved reported selling the fish. The selling of fish produced in ponds for aquaculture was inhibited by several factors: lack of cooperation among owners; lack of funds; losses through low survival rate of fry; and theft. The promotion of aquaculture development in ponds requires a great effort involving economic, social and institutional reforms.

302. Khan, M.S. 1985. Culture fisheries of Bangladesh: the issue of unused ponds. In: Panayotou, T. (ed.). Small-scale fisheries in Asia: socio-economic analysis and policy. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre.

"The main purpose of this study is to investigate the present state of fish culture and to attempt to answer why ponds are not utilized for fish production. First, the issues and hypotheses are discussed and the data and methodology are described. Costs and returns of fish culture in ponds are analyzed and a profit function developed. The features characteristic of cultured and noncultured ponds and of their owners are then compared and a production and investment function developed. The results are summarized and policy implications noted, suggesting ways to increase and improve pond utilization for fish production." [from article]

303. Khoo, Hong Woo. 1995. Transgenesis and its applications in aquaculture. Asian Fish. Sci. 8(1):1-25. [Fish. Biol. Lab., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Rd., Singapore 0511, Singapore]

"The main transgenesis techniques which are successful in introducing exogenous genes into fish are micro-injection and electroporation. Genes are introduced into one celled embryos, as well as oocytes. Micro-injection is the more established method but it depends on individual treatment of the egg. Electroporation, on the other hand, is a mass method only recently shown to be effective. Other transfer techniques, such as those using sperms, liposomes, microprojectiles, embryonic stem cells and retroviruses as the vehicle, have also been reported to produce transgenic fish. Most transgenic experiments are at present conducted on finfish, and hardly any on other aquatic organisms such as invertebrates, except for sea urchins and (more recently) abalones. The genes with potential transgenic applications in aquaculture which have been shown to be effective in fish are the growth hormone and the anti-freeze genes. The potentials of manipulating reproduction, sex, coloration, disease resistance and other phenotypes are discussed. Studies on ecological, social and ethical issues of transgenic research and applications to animals in general and to fish in particular, are also reviewed." [from Abstract]

304. Kim, B.W., Kim, E.H. and Chang, H.N. 1991. Application of light emitting diodes as a light source to a photosynthetic culture of Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. Biotechnol. Tech. 5(5):343-348. [Bioprocess Eng. Res. Cent., Korea Adv. Inst. Sci. and Technol., Daedok Sci. Town, Taejon 305 701, Republic of Korea]

"Economical light energy supply plays a key role in determining the success of industrial application of photosynthetic micro-organisms. The bacteriochlorophyll of Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum harvests the light at 760 nm, which oxidizes toxic H2S by photosynthesis. Light emitting diode (LED), which emits a maximum intensity at 710 nm and 60% of its maximum at 760 nm, was adopted as an alternative light source to inefficient incandescent light. With the array of the LEDs adjustable to the reactor wall, 95% of the light energy was saved over the incandescent light source in comparable conditions." [Abstract]

305. Kingsley, R.C.S. 1986. Aquaculture - understanding the risk factors. INFOFISH Mark. Dig. (6):17-18. [Commer. Risks Consultants (CRC), Singapore, Singapore]

"Development of the aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia is discussed with respect to the financing aspects and risks involved." [Abstract]

(Continue ....)

Previous pageTop of PageNext Page