Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

Session 1. Management: Thought and process

Session guide: Management of research
Reading note: Management: Thought and process




Plenary participatory lecture



At the end of the session participants should be able to:

1. Define management
2. See management it its historical perspective
3. Delineate management functions
4. Understand the unique situation of management within research


Exhibit 1

Definition of management

Exhibit 2

Schools of management thought

Exhibit 3

Disciplinary bases for management

Exhibit 4

Management theory

Exhibit 5

Conceptual framework of management

Exhibit 6

Functions of an agricultural research manager

Exhibit 7

Delegation of authority

Exhibit 8

Considerations in delegation

Exhibit 9

Attitudinal requirements for delegation

Exhibit 10

Guidelines for effective delegation

Exhibit 11

Communication skills

Exhibit 12

Manager's role in fostering good communication

Exhibit 13

Characteristics of a manager

Exhibit 14

Research organizations

Exhibit 15

Authority system within an organization

Exhibit 16

Management as a profession


Reading note:

Management: Thought and Process


1. Arnon, I. 1968. Organization and Administration of Agricultural Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Read pages 1-67.

2. Francis, P.H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York, NY: Amacom. Read pages 128-30.

3. Massie, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Read pages 13-26.


Overhead projector and chalkboard

Session guide: Management of research

This session is designed to give an overview of management thought and process. Use the Reading note Management: Thought and Process as background reading for this introduction. Give participants a brief description of management, stressing different management definitions as a function of one's perspective. EXHIBIT 1 may be used as a general definition.

Ask participants to give their perception of management. This would help evolve a detailed description of management, stressing the nebulous nature of management. Note that management has evolved over time. It is defined uniquely by each person implementing it.

Emphasize that management does not have a unique body of knowledge. Over time it has adopted new theories and practices. Show EXHIBIT 2. Discuss various schools of management thought, and again emphasize that management is defined uniquely, depending upon the disciplinary bias and the task performed. Show EXHIBIT 3 on disciplinary bases of management. Now discuss some of the important management thoughts. Show EXHIBIT 4. Discuss management as an activity, a process, and an integrative function. Use examples from your own organization to illustrate these thoughts.

Ask participants 'What does a manager do?' Answers are likely to be general, as shown in EXHIBIT 4. Now ask 'What is the process of management?', or stated simply: 'What does a manager do?' It is a unique process, and consists of

(i) planning
(ii) organizing
(iii) monitoring and controlling, and
(iv) evaluating.

Why this process? Obviously to implement decisions. Decision making is at the core of management. It involves combining human, physical and capital resources in a skilful manner to achieve defined objectives. Show EXHIBIT 5, and illustrate what these resources are in the context of an organization.

Now initiate discussion on the functions of a manager. Show EXHIBIT 6. A manager performs the structural functions of planning, organizing, monitoring and controlling, and evaluating. Discuss each of these functions, seeking examples from participants. Programme and project selection is an important decision in a research organization. How is this done? Beginning with a decision to achieve an objective, a manager plans to exploit opportunities within the identified constraints. A plan has to be implemented, and that necessitates an organization capable of integrating human and physical resources. Organization involves fixing responsibilities through division of labour. An organization may be structured on a disciplinary or a programme basis, or the two could be combined in a matrix organization. Location and distribution of various units within an organization, the degree of de-centralization in decision making, and relationships between various units are other important organizational issues.

Ask participants to discuss:

· the issue of centralization versus de-centralization, and to identify the factors which would support each option; and

· describe their experience with different organizational structures. Some participants may also have experience with a matrix organization.

Implementation has to be monitored for control. Feedback is necessary to know that implementation conforms to plan and deviations are dealt with appropriate managerial interventions. Monitoring is done through a management information system (MIS). Ask participants to suggest types of information that an MIS should be able to provide for management. List these on the chalkboard.

Finally, evaluation. While monitoring is concurrent evaluation, managers also do ex post evaluation to gather information on how well the implementation has proceeded and the extent to which the objectives have been fulfilled. Evaluation also provides useful feedback for future planning. Ask participants to describe their experiences with evaluation.

Managers perform several functions which permeate through all their activities. These are pervasive functions and include motivating, leadership, directing, prioritizing, communicating, delegating and systematizing. Discuss these briefly.

Delegation of authority is a much discussed issue. Show EXHIBITS 7, 8, 9, and 10. Delegation enables accomplishment, and is necessary to achieve full potential. Discuss the various considerations and attitudinal requirements for delegation. Delegation is a function most managers have difficulty in implementing, perhaps because of attitudinal constraints. Currently, there is great emphasis on 'soft' skills that a manager should possess. Communication is thus quite important.

Research activities rely heavily on the generation and diffusion of technical information throughout the research community. Certain direct relationships appear to exist linking research productivity with how well technical information is communicated within an organization. Any improvement in the way individuals obtain, use and disseminate research information can have a direct bearing on the efficiency and success of their efforts.

Show EXHIBIT 11, and discuss various models of communication. EXHIBIT 12 describes the manager's role in fostering good communication. Use this exhibit as an example for stimulating discussion.

Close the discussion on structural and pervasive functions of a manager by noting that many of these functions will be discussed in detail later on.

Since managers have to play many roles, they have to have certain characteristics. Show EXHIBIT 13, and discuss each of these characteristics. Discuss distinctive characteristics mat a research manager should have, considering mat research places unique demands on managers. Use examples from your own organization to discuss these characteristics and how they influence the style of management. Emphasize that managers must have the ability to define the relationship of their group's activities to overall organizational goals. They must be sensitive to the legitimate contribution of their efforts to the organization, as viewed by superiors. They must be aware of new options and possibilities, and constantly re-assess the results of previous activities in relation to potential opportunities. Note that managers' skill mix tend to change as they advance within me management hierarchy.

At this stage, it is useful to reiterate the distinctive features of a research organization. Show EXHIBIT 14. As key figures in creating the style and effectiveness of the organization, research managers must constantly be aware of their relationship with the organization.

All managers operate within an organization structure. The structure prevents individuals from deviating too far from the purpose of the organization and introduces stability into intra-group relationships by reducing uncertainty. It must be understood that human behaviour operates around an authority system within an organization. EXHIBIT 15 outlines the manner in which decisions are made and supported within an organization.

Conclude the session with a discussion of management as a profession. Show EXHIBIT 16. By discussing the function of management in the context of a profession, you will introduce the concept of level of excellence, established and monitored by a peer group. This is important, for it gives an isolated manager a sense of community and a standard to strive for. Give examples of local professional organizations' goals, projects, and products (journals, seminars, etc.) for the group to understand what a professional association does.



The process whereby a cooperative group directs actions towards common goals.
























Source: Masse, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.




· Activity
· Process
· Integrative function
· Internal to an organization


· Does thing better
· Optimizes use of finite resources


· Planning
· Organizing
· Monitoring and Controlling
· Evaluating


· Decision making







· Planning

· Motivating

· Organizing

· Leading

· Monitoring and Controlling

· Directing

· Evaluating

· Prioritizing

· Communicating

· Delegating

· Systematizing



The primary purpose of delegation is to make the operation of an institution possible.

Just as no one person in an institute can do all the tasks necessary for accomplishment of a group purpose, so it is impossible, as an institution grows, for one person to exercise all the authority for making decisions.



· The competence to make decisions on the part of the person to whom authority is delegated.

· Adequate and reliable information pertinent to the decision must be available to the person making the decision.

· The scope of the impact of a decision (i.e., How many and which units are affected by any decision?)




· Let go
· Give opportunity to the ideas of others
· Let others make mistakes
· Trust subordinates
· Establish and use broad controls



· Define assignments and delegate authority in the light of results expected
· Select the person in the light of the task to be done
· Maintain open lines of communication
· Establish proper controls
· Reward effective delegation
· Reward successful assumption of authority





1. A manger should ensure that a good, working communication system functions within the unit, promoted by:

- regular staff meetings,
- briefings,
- circulation of memoranda, and
- circulation of reports.

2. A manager should strive to identify and develop those among the staff who have the potential to be good communicators.

3. A manger should recognize the need to develop good communication skills among the staff, by:

- providing opportunities for participation in in-house technical meetings and seminars, as well as in professional meetings, and

- being a good teacher of effective communication skills.





· Professional excellence

· Caring about people

· Analytical ability

· Commands respect

· Diagnostic skills

· Good judgement

· Planning skills

· Creative

· Leadership qualities

· Oriented towards excellence

· Decision making capabilities

· Tolerance of ambiguity

· Ability to delegate authority and responsibility

· Negotiating skills

· Coordination and liaison ability

· Human relations management skills

· Conflict management skills




· Effectively staffed and people-oriented
· Has high standards
· Operates in a sound manner
· Provides a creative and productive atmosphere
· Manifests enthusiasm, with a 'can-do' attitude

Source: Francis, P. H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York, NY: Amacom. pp. 18-19.



1. The authority system functions within a hierarchical structure in which a few make decisions for the relatively many.

2. All decisions in an authority system are communicated from the executives to their subordinates.

3. Power, authority and influence are exercised continuously at all hierarchical levels.

Power The ability to control behaviour.

Authority The formal right to issue orders or directives by virtue of one's position in the organizational structure.

Influence The ability to control others by suggestion or example rather than by direct command.




1. A profession is based on a proven systematic body of knowledge, and thus requires intellectual training.

2. A profession maintains an experimental attitude towards information, and thus continually searches for new ideas.

3. A profession emphasizes services to others, and usually develops a code of ethics that requires that financial return not be the sole motive.

4. Entrance into a profession is usually restricted by standards established by an association that requires that its members be accepted by a peer group composed of people with common training and attitude.

Source: Masse, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 10.

Reading note: Management: Thought and process

Management has been around as long as there has been a need for decision making. Even though scientific management began and established itself in the early twentieth century, references to planning and organization are found in ancient Greek and Biblical literature, and in histories of the Roman Empire. Imagine building ancient monuments such as the Great Pyramid, and consider what that would have required in terms of planning, work allocation, organizing, directing and decision making.

Management does not have a unique body of knowledge. The theories and precepts of management have been adopted from other disciplines and applied to real life situations, with a clear focus on performance of managerial roles.

Management has evolved and changed considerably over a period of time. It has continuously adopted new theories and practices and replaced old ones so as to make management activity increasingly efficient. The universal theory of management evolved in the early twentieth century has been replaced by a number of contingency theories currently in vogue. In the early twentieth century, the focus was on physical factors, viewed from industrial, engineering and economic perspectives. Subsequently, the focus shifted to productivity, with an emphasis on human factors.

Managerial accounting and classical concepts of personnel and finance management were emphasized. Thereafter, many schools of thoughts evolved, each influencing the evolution of modern management. Some of these are described below.

· The quantitative measurement school began with concern for handling uncertainty and making decisions logically through use of mathematical models and statistical techniques. Simultaneously, there evolved the decision theory school, which also stresses managerial decisions, and considers the management process as a series of decisions that must be made by managers as they confront problems. Subsequently, computers used with a systems approach became the instruments of sound and logical decision making. The systems management school considers management as a system composed of various sub-systems (finance, accounting, production and marketing). These sub-systems are interconnected in some fashion, and operate to achieve the overall objective of the organization.

· The social school views management as a system of cultural interrelationships. It deals with identifying various social groups in an organization and integrating these groups into a complete social system. It recognizes that the organization is not isolated and must operate within the purview of social organisms in a changing environment.

· The behaviourial science school encompasses psychology, sociology and anthropology. It looks at management as a process of generating active interaction among individuals in an organization to influence individual or collective behaviour. It considers human behaviour important and focal to managerial actions. This approach views various activities in relation to their impact and influence on people, who are the primary component of management.

· Currently, the emphasis is on contingency theories specific to the environmental situations in which they are applied. The contingency management school attempts to translate systems theory by assessing the operating factors in any situation and establishing definite patterns and relationships between those factors, which can then be used as guides in other, similar situations. Legal aspects, cultural considerations and public administration issues are also stressed.

· In the eyes of the operational or management process school, management is a unique process, which consists of certain sub-activities (planning, organizing, controlling and decision making). It considers management as a series of operations and processes which provide guidelines for successful management. This is similar to the approach of the empirical school, which considers management from the standpoint of experience which can be generalized and certain guiding principles derived.


Management is an activity, a process and an integrative function. It evolves as a set of effective practices by individuals in performance of specific tasks.

Management is dynamic in nature and thus has many definitions depending upon the disciplinary approach adopted. An empirical definition of management would emerge in the context of specific managerial roles, which are undoubtedly influenced by a large number of organizational variables. On this broad canvas, management can be defined as a science or art for planning, organizing, implementing, controlling and monitoring, and evaluating, in order to accomplish tasks and organizational goals. These sub-activities constitute the unique management process.

Management is internal to an organization. This does not mean that it is confined to the corporate offices of organizations, but rather that it extends to research laboratories, producing centres, processing units, consuming masses and other places.


If we consider management as optimizing the use of resources to accomplish goals, then the managerial functions can be easily discerned. Managers plan, organize, allocate staff, direct and control resources in an organized group effort to achieve desired objectives. This approach has many aspects, but the key variables are resources, objectives and efforts.

The objectives may be organizational or individual. For example, the broad objectives of a research organization may be to carry out innovative or adaptive research. The objectives of individual scientists in the organization may be to achieve professional growth and recognition, and even a sense of fulfilment in being associated with the organization. The role of management is to organize and coordinate so as to fulfil both individual and organizational objectives in optimal manner.

Human resources management involves getting the persons best suited for particular tasks, and getting the best out of them. Thus, management is responsible for utilizing the available skills to ensure the most efficient use of all human resources. Combined together, all workers should then deliver their best.

Physical resources vary from organization to organization. In a research organization, physical resources are laboratory equipment and apparatus, plant, machinery and facilities. The task of a research manager is to ensure the availability of technologically suitable and advanced apparatus and equipment, within the available financial resources, and to ensure that they are well maintained. In this way, scientific work should be interrupted as little as possible, if at all.


From the above, it is obvious that management is basically an exercise in doing things better. Hodge and Johnson (1970) defined management as

"the process of making decisions and issuing commands on behalf of an organization's membership groups, taking into consideration the complex of objectives, limitations and standards underlying the production and distribution of values, required to satisfy memberships' needs."

Management as a process consists of continuous decision making, necessitated by variations in goals and also the fact that lack of complete knowledge creates risk and uncertainty associated with decision making. Specific decisions are greatly influenced by the organizational goals which have to be achieved.


Since management is coordination and integration of available resources to accomplish specific goals, it can be viewed in terms of various managerial functions: planning, organizing, monitoring and controlling, and evaluating - all functions which a manager performs. These are the structural functions of a manager. In addition, a manager also directs, leads, motivates, communicates, delegates, prioritizes and systematizes. These are the pervasive functions of a manager.

Structural functions

Achievement of goals requires decisions and their implementation. Changing situations give rise to new problems and hinder implementation. Problem solving necessitates decision making in various forms. One of the basic functions of a manager is to make decisions. Problems have to be foreseen, identified and available facts and data analyzed under appropriate assumptions to generate alternatives. These are then evaluated in the context of the specific decision to be made and within the overall framework of the organization. Managers use specified decision making criteria or key variables to assess various alternatives. That is decision making. In this process, decision making ties together other functions. Participative decision making is desirable to ensure smooth implementation.

Decisions have to be implemented through action on the part of other people, and that requires planning. The plan should:

· relate to the objectives;
· fix responsibilities;
· specify procedures which must be followed;
· give a blueprint for communicating the decision to all involved and concerned; and
· have provision for participation.

Then follows implementation, and that requires organizing. This involves evolving a formal structure to facilitate coordination and integration of resources for efficient accomplishment of both long- and short-term plans. Organizing begins with the concept of division of work over a series of operating units, each being responsible for a particular element of implementation. In the process of developing the total organization structure, consideration has to be given to such issues as the degree of de-centralization, span of control, delegation, utilization of staff departments and chain of command. Relationships among the various operating units have to be specified. These relationships may take many forms, including authority relationships.

Implementation has to be monitored and controlled. It has four phases, namely:

· defining standards and objectives,
· determining how performance is to be measured;
· developing a reporting system, and
· taking corrective action when and where needed.

Monitoring facilitates control, to ensure that events conform to plans. Thus, in this context 'control' is concerned with progress in implementation. Through effective monitoring and control, a manager receives continuous feedback on exactly where the implementation stands at any given time with respect to achieving the objectives. If objectives are not being achieved, or if their accomplishment is behind schedule, the manager can use available information to identify the areas that are causing problems and develop alternatives to overcome these problems.

Monitoring is concurrent evaluation. However, implementation has to be evaluated as a whole upon conclusion. This provides:

· useful information on the effectiveness of implementation and achievement of goals;
· a yardstick for measuring performance; and
· feedback for future planning.

Pervasive functions

A manager has to perform several functions which permeate any organization.

Research managers give guidance and direction to scientists under them regarding job requirements. This involves defining the work and specific role of the scientists, determining and communicating performance standards, and administering through specific policies and procedures. This is also the leadership function. After developing an appreciation of the importance of human motivation, a manager must be concerned about how the human element should be managed. A manager should create a climate where the needs of the individual are integrated with the needs of the organization. This means creating a climate in which the individuals can best satisfy their goals by working toward the goals of the organization. Of particular significance in leadership is the quality of face-to-face and day-to-day interaction that managers have with their subordinates.

Although many factors are involved in creating a 'result producing' climate, communication and participation are two key concerns. One of the basic functions of the manager is to open up better communication channels. It helps the members of the organization to develop mutual trust and understanding, and to resolve conflicts. The extent and degree to which managers work with their subordinates in a coaching and counselling capacity to help them accomplish their specific job objectives - and thus perform at their best - determines how successful they will be in their efforts at directing and leading. Delegation of authority and responsibility is essential to make the subordinates responsible. In delegating authority, managers should see that it goes as near to the point of action as possible.

Prioritizing is essential in the context of limited resources and time-related targets. It facilitates systematization of the management process.


Since managers have multifarious activities, they have to have appropriate characteristics to support performance. Mintzberg (1973) studied various activities of managers and identified ten distinct managerial characteristics relating to interpersonal, informational and decision making qualities. Since then a host of other desirable characteristics of a good manager have been identified (Table 1).

Table 1 Characteristics of a manager



· Professional excellence

· Caring about people

· Analytical abilities

· Commanding respect

· Diagnostic skills

· Good judgment

· Planning skills

· Drive and energy

· Resource allocation

· Creative

· Leadership qualities

· Oriented towards excellence

· Decision making capabilities

· Tolerance of ambiguity

· Delegation of authority and responsibility

· Negotiating skills

· Coordinating and liaison

· Human relations manager

· Managing conflicts


Agricultural research is the most widespread form of organized research in the world in which both developed and developing countries are engaged. As agricultural research has to be adapted to specific ecological considerations, it does not have universal applicability. The extent to which a country benefits from the research findings of other countries also depends on its own research organizations.

In the context of NARS, management broadly involves defining agricultural research goals and priorities; formulating detailed research programmes in consonance with national agricultural research strategy; assigning responsibilities to various departments; allocating financial, human and physical resources to the respective institutions; implementing approved research programmes; periodically evaluating; obtaining feedback on the impact, strengths and weakness of new technology, and incorporating them into the technology generation process; and keeping key policy-makers informed of agricultural research achievements.

Distinctive features

Agricultural research "requires lumpy investments, involves externalities and is subject to long gestation lags" (Lele and Goldsmith, 1986). It is because of this that agricultural research has almost always to be conducted by government research organizations. In developing country situations, organizations lack vital human skills, material resources and basic infrastructure. Often, too little funds are allocated, and even they either are reduced or arrive too late. Despite all these limitations, research organizations strive their utmost to improve agricultural productivity.

Research organizations have specific, limited and clearly defined targets for their activities, which impart to them some distinctive features. Creativity is the core of a research organization. Individuality is the key to creativity in research. Scientists and technical staff are the most important assets of a research organization. They are the producers and creators of the organizational output. The main outputs of research are knowledge and technology, which are too abstract to measure and evaluate on a regular basis. Because of this, very little evaluation and monitoring is done in a research organization, particularly during intermediate stages of projects. Administrative interference and management control are minimized since scientists tend to be highly individualistic. Activities and staff are organized either according to discipline, or interdisciplinary teams are constituted, taking a project approach. In a research organization, the degree of command and direction is minimal, so that a subordinate has to report and be accountable to only one superior, and not to many. Even though a non-interfering environment conducive to research is created, conflicts are natural between scientists and technical personnel on the one hand, and administrative staff on the other.

Management functions

Management of agricultural research in an institution or organization involves four functions.

The first of these functions is planning. The first step of the planning process is to set goals. If goals are not trivial, there will be constraints to reaching them, as well as opportunities that an institution may be able to take advantage of. After identifying the constraints and opportunities, the next step is to establish objectives aimed at overcoming the constraints or taking advantage of existing opportunities. To achieve the objectives, management identifies programmes and, within the programme limits, management and staff can determine staff, equipment, facilities and funds. The summation of all the resources needed to carry out all of an institute's planned projects is sometimes called the institute's logistics plan.

Major tasks in the planning process are selecting an institute's programmes and projects. While some institutes do this on the basis of subjective judgment, many institutes follow formal models, with established selection criteria.

The second management function is organizing. Once an institute plan exists, management has the basis for structuring to achieve the plan's goals and objectives, or at least to examine the existing structure to determine any changes that might be needed. There are many ways to organize or structure a research institute. A common issue is whether the institute should be centralized in one location or de-centralized in several regional centres. There are pros and cons for each option.

Another issue is whether the institute should be organized on a disciplinary or on a programme basis, again, with pros and cons for each. These approaches may be combined through a matrix structure.

The third management function is monitoring and controlling. Implementation must be monitored in accordance with the plan, and any deviations identified brought back under control to keep the institute focused on achieving the plan's goals and objectives. Monitoring and controlling is an ongoing activity. To effectively monitor and control, management needs some form of management information system (MIS).

The fourth management function is evaluating. The main reason for an evaluation is to assist decision making. If no decision is to be made and no action is to be taken as a result of the evaluation, one can question 'Why spend the resources to conduct it?'

A secondary - but important - reason for conducting scheduled evaluations is for the psychological effect this has on the research management and staff. Knowing that there is to be an evaluation to measure achievement against an institute's planned goals and objectives stimulates everyone involved to make extra effort to obtain the desired project and programme results. Thus, productivity is increased.

Pervasive functions

The functions of an agricultural research manager go beyond the typical functions of a manager, considered to be planning, coordinating, organizing, controlling and motivating. Agricultural research is a combination of three sub-systems: disciplinary areas and commodities; the management process itself; and people, who include policy-makers, scientists, research personnel, extension workers, producers, processors and consumers. The agricultural research manager has to integrate and harmonize these various sub-systems to achieve the desired goals.

Thus the agricultural research manager has to:

· clearly define objectives and set priorities. The goals should be action oriented and the research should be multi-disciplinary;

· establish effective means of communication;

· synchronize with field-level requirements;

· stimulate creativity and innovation;

· evolve participatory processes; and

· manage the external interfaces with research, extension, clients and user groups, government and funding agencies.

Obviously, management of agricultural research has to be professionalized in order to perform the tasks listed above. Professionalization is also vital, considering that research costs are spiralling, resources - particularly human - and funds are difficult to mobilize, and there is an urgent need for properly managing NARS.

Nickel (1989) has emphasized the creation and maintenance of an institutional value system, planning human resources needs, motivation for excellence and the cultivation of attitudes that promote effectiveness, in addition to practical aspects of personnel selection and evaluation. He writes:

"The essence of research management is the art and science of dealing with people. Without good and well-motivated staff, the best facilities and most adequate financial resources remain unproductive. With people who have been carefully selected to do specific tasks; who have been well informed as to what is expected of them; who are skilfully coached to do that task; and, above all, who are highly motivated, there is almost no limit to what can be accomplished, even with less-than-ideal facilities and budgets. Motivation involves making people know they are doing something important; treating them as individuals who can be trusted to perform responsibly; recognizing their achievements; and surrounding them with an environment conducive to creativity and productivity. A research leader must devote a large portion of his time to this task and constantly strive to improve his competence in his this vital management skill."


Arnon, I. 1968. Organization and Administration of Agricultural Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Burt, K.S. No date. Management: A Short Course for Managers. New York, NY: John Wiley.

Dalton, G.E. 1982 Managing Agricultural Systems. London: Allied Science Publ.

Francis, P.H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York, NY: AMACOM. See pages 128-130.

Holt, D.H. 1987. Management: Principles and Practices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lele, U., & Goldsmith, A.A. 1986. Building Agricultural Research Capacity: India. Experience with the Rockefeller Foundation and its Significance for Africa. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Massie, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Mintzberg, H. 1973. The Nature of Management Work. New York, NY: Harper & Row

Nickel, J.L. 1989. Research Management for Development. San Jose, Costa Rica: IICA.

Peters, J.J., & Waterman, R.H., Jr. 1982. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page