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- Certain chemical substances and biological agents incorporated into feed, either intentionally or unintentionally, can result in hazards in food of animal origin and may enter feed at any stage of production up to the point of feeding.

- The risks to human health associated with hazards involved in animal feeding are relatively low in comparison the risks arising from to foodborne hazards from other sources.

- Where foodborne hazards originate in feed, the hazard should be adequately controlled.

- Feed ingredients which do not pose any foodborne risk or for which any foodborne risk can be adequately controlled should not be prohibited from use in feed on the basis of food safety concerns.

- Changes in feed or in the formulation of feed, as well as changes in feed processing methods, may result in changes in the risk from foodborne hazards which originate in feed. It is important that this be recognised and that potential risks be evaluated before any change is made.

- The management of risk from foodborne hazards which originate in feed needs to be weighed against the potentially greater risks that would result from an inadequate or overly expensive food supply as well as the environmental risk that would result from the failure to recycle nutrients.

- There is a need for collaboration between all parties involved in feed and animal production, especially those in a position to provide veterinary clinical and epidemiological information, to establish the linkage between any identified or potential hazard and the level of risk. Such information is essential for the development and maintenance of appropriate risk management options and safe feeding practices.

- Regulatory programmes should be established which ensure that foods of animal origin produced for human consumption are both safe and wholesome. In this context, the hazards which have been identified by the Consultation are well recognised, and suitable and appropriate control measures are in place in many countries. Examples include ante- and post-mortem inspection of slaughter stock, the control of the manufacture and use of veterinary drugs and agricultural chemicals, as well as residue monitoring programmes.

- Though no conclusive evidence has yet been published, the Consultation determined it to be prudent not to exclude BSE as a potential foodborne hazard. It concluded that the risk that arises from this should be assessed and managed in exactly the same way as other foodborne hazards. This may necessitate the exclusion of certain material from feed for particular circumstances.

- The disciplines that apply to international trade in both food and feed, as well as in feed ingredients were agreed to during the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and set out in the SPS Agreement. The code of practice for good animal feeding that has been developed by the Consultation is intended to provide guidance which will minimise foodborne risks associated with feeds in a manner which is consistent with the principles of the SPS Agreement. The Consultation was of the view that adherence to this code should obviate the need for any trade restrictions on food or feed based on feed related human health concerns.

- With respect to the production of food from aquatic animals using formulated feed, the food safety issues are the same as those applying to the production of food from terrestrial animals and no special issues apply. The Consultation concluded, however, that there may be food safety issues associated with the feeding of aquatic species through the fertilization of ponds by animal manure, agricultural by-products and other wastes. It noted that this issue is to be considered by the WHO/FAO/NACA Study Group on Food Safety Issues on Food Safety Issues associated with Products from Aquaculture and concluded that was the appropriate forum for this issue to be addressed.

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