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Gaultheria procumbens L.

(Wintergreen oil, Teaberry, Boxberry, Chickerberry)

Gaultheria procumbens L. Wren, 1975


Low shrub, leaves are obovate or broadly elliptical, slightly serrate at the margin, short-stalked,leathery, glossy green above and paler green beneath. Wren, 1975


Habitat United States and Canada. Wren, 1975
Uses The oil is used in medicine and perfumery. Jouhar and Poucher, 1991
Oil The vapour from 200 mg of oil in 860 ml desiccators caused 98 percent mortality in C. chinensis within 24 hours. The LD5 0 following vapour exposure for 24 hours was 0.88 mg/litre for adult C. chinensis and 4.62 mg/litre for adult S. oryzae. Ahmed and Eapen, 1986
Constituents Include methyl salicylate (98-99 percent) and gaultheric acid. Duke, 1985


Jatropha curcas L.

(Physic nut, Barbados nut, Purging nut, Ratanjyothi oil)


Jatropha curcas L.

Duke, 1985





Abbiw, 1990

Description A stiffed branched, rather fleshy tree about 1.8-7.0 m tall. Leaves either hairless or slightly hairy, about 10-15 cm long and 9-12.5 cm wide. Fruits about 2.5 cm in diameter, with three compartments, each containing a seed. Verdcourt, et al. 1969
Habitat Cultivated in the tropics. Uphof, 1968
Uses Used as a traditional medicine, a molluscicide, rodenticide and as an insect repellent. Duke, 1985
Oil 0.2 percent (v/w) admixed with stored gram reduced the numbers of eggs laid by adult C. maculatus and prevented egg hatch 33 days after treatment. The treatment did not cause adult mortality. Jadhav and Jadhav, 1984
Seed viability 0.2 percent (v/w) admixed with stored gram did not reduce seed germination. Jadhav and Jadhav, 1984
Toxicity Poisoning in humans from overdoses of the oil or ingestion of the seed has been reported in the United Kingdom, Africa and the United States. There are two strains, one with toxic seeds, one without. They cannot be distinguished visually.

Seeds are reported to be highly toxic to mice and goats.

Kingsbury, 1964

Adolf, et al. 1984

Constituents Bark, fruit, leaf and root are all reported to contain hydrogen cyanide; the plant also contains toxalbumin and curcin. Seed oil contains a diterpenoid (12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol) which causes skin irritation. Duke, 1985; Adolf, et al. 1984


Butea frondosa

(Flame of the Forest)


Butea frondosa
Description Showy tree up to 15 m, bearing masses of scarlet-red flowers, 5 cm long, appearing before leaves; leaves consisting of three leaflets. Graf, 1986
Habitat Native to India and Burma. Graf, 1986
Uses The gum and leaves are used in traditional medicine in India and Indonesia. Perry, 1980
Oil 5 ml/kg wheat prevented attack by natural infestations of insects in a store for 12 months. The oil treatment reduced infestation to 3.3 percent compared with 63 percent in the untreated control. Gupta, et al.1991
Seed viability Application of 5 ml/kg wheat reduced germination by 8 percent Gupta, et al. 1991


Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.
syn. Lonchocarpus maculatus DC.

(Madre da Cacao)






Gliricidia sepium Steud. syn. Lonchocarpus maculatus DC.
Perry, 1980; Uphof, 1968; Vallador, et al. 1994
Description Ornamental tree to 9 m; pinnate leaves; clusters of flowers, pinkish-lilac with white, in profusion before leaves; pods to 12 cm long. Graf, 1981
Habitat Native to Mexico; introduced into the Philippines. Perry, 1980
Uses Juice of leaves, bark and roots are used in local Filipino medicine.

Shade tree in coffee plantations; seeds or powdered bark mixed with rice as rat or mouse poison.

Perry, 1980


Uphof, 1968

Powder Seven percent (w/w) admixed with maize reduced damage caused by corn weevil and red flour beetle (40.67 percent) compared to the untreated control (75.67 percent) during six months storage. Vallador, et al. 1994
Seed viability Seven percent (w/w) admixed with maize increased the percentage germination of maize one month after application. Vallador, et al. 1994

Psoralea coylifolia L.
syn. Trifolium unifolium Forsk.












Psoralea coylifolia syn. Trifolium unifolium Forsk.
Perry, 1980; Uphof, 1968
Description Erect annual, pubescent herb, 0.5-1.25 m high with gland-dotted branches. Leaves simple, alternate, 4-7 x 3-5 cm, cordate, dentate, obtuse, subtruncate, mucronate, pubescent on both sides. Inflorescence short, dense, peduncled raceme; peduncles 2.5-7 cm long with three flowers in axil of each bract. Verma, et al. 1993
Habitat India, China and Indo-China. Perry, 1980
Uses Seeds are used in traditional Hindu medicine in Indida; also used in Chinese and Indo-Chinese medicine. Perry, 1980
Petroleum ether extract of seeds 0.5 percent (v/w) admixed with green gram prevented damage caused by C. chinensis for a period of 90 days. Chander and Ahmed, 1982
Constituents Seeds contain: oil, oleoresin, psoraline, essential oil, fixed oil, resin, psoralen, isopsoralen and psoralidin. Perry, 1980


Pongamia glabra Vent
(P. pinnara (L.) Merr.)









 Pongamia glabra Vent P. pinnara  (L.) Merr.
Perry, 1980
Description Medium sized tree with spreading glaborous branches forming a dense canopy. Verma, et al. 1993
Habitat A costal plant ranging south from Southern China to Polynesia. Perry, 1980
Uses Oil, sap and root bark have antiseptic properties. Various parts are used as a fish poison.

Seeds are used to produce a non-edible oil (Pongam or Hongay oil).

Perry, 1980

Ketkar, 1987; Uphof, 1968

Oil 200 ppm admixed with wheat caused 100 percent mortality in adult S. oryzae and 80 percent mortality in adult R. dominica within 24 hours when assessed 15 days after treatment. When assessed at 30 and 60 days after treatment, mortality in S. oryzae was 90 percent and 40 percent, respectively, whereas mortality in R. dominica was 40 percent and 0percent, respectively.

0.2 percent (v/w) admixed with green gram reduced weight loss caused by adult C. chinensis to 4 percent compared with 92 percent in untreated controls, 40 days after treatment.

5 ml/kg applied to wheat held in a store for 12 months prevented attack by natural infestations of insects. The treatment maintained the percentage infestation at below 4 percent compared with 63 percent in the controls.

0.75 percent (v/w) admixed with pigeon pea inhibited adult emergence of C. chinensis after an exposure time of 100 days.

10 ml/kg admixed with mung bean and stored for 18 months prevented the emergence of F1 adult C. chinensis, following artificial introductions of adult insects throughout the trial.

10.38 mg/cm2 applied to filter paper in choice chamber tests showed Class V repellency (87 percent repellency) against T. castaneum, when assessed over eight weeks.

Sighamony, et al. 1986

Ketkar, 1987

Gupta, et al. 1988

Khaire, et al. 1992

Babu, et al. 1989


Sighamony, et al. 1981

Seed viability 200 ppm admixed with wheat had not reduced seed viability three days after application.
10 ml/kg admixed with mung bean had not reduced seed viability 18 months after application.

One percent (v/w) admixed with pigeon pea did not reduce seed germination 100 days after application.

Sighamony, et al. 1986

Babu, et al. 1989

Khaire, et al. 1992

Constituents Oil contains a precipitate (karanjin) which separates from standing oil. Karanjin contains a hydroxyflavone called pongamol.

4,5-dihydroxy-1-methyl 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid.

Perry, 1980

Southon and Buckingham, 1988


Trigonella foenum-graecum L.







 Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Jlani and Su, 1983
Description Erect aromatic annual up to 50 cm tall, sparsely pubescent; leaves obovate; 1-2 pale yellow or white flowers in leaf-axils. Thulin, 1983
Habitat Native to Southern Europe and Asia also cultivated in North Africa. Thulin, 1983
Uses Cultivated as a leaf vegetable in India and for the high starch content of seeds in the Middle East, Morroco and Egypt. Also used as a seasoning, a medicinal plant and for gum. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Petroleum ether extract of leaves 680 m g/cm2 applied to paper in repellency tests produced Class IV repellency (79 percent repellency) against adult T. castaneum one week aher treatment; repellency declining to Class lll (31 percent) eight weeks after treatment. This indicated that the material was not a good repellent.

One percent extract applied to filter paper in repellency tests produced Class IV (74 percent) repellency against T. castaneum one week after treatment, repellency declined to Class lll (45 percent), four weeks after treatment.

Jilani and Su, 1983



Malik and Mujtaba Naqvi, 1984

Constituents Include the alkaloid trigonelline and a steroidal sapogenin, diosgenin.

Seeds contain coumarin and estrogen; also reported to contain trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors.

Southon and Buckingham, 1988

Duke, 1985

Toxicity Addition of powdered seeds (4 percent) in the diet of pregnant or lactating albino rats did not have any detrimental effects on the growth of the young or lactation.

Coumarin and estrogen can be toxic in overdoses.

Mital and Gopaldas, 1986


Duke, 1985


Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) W. Watts

(Gingergrass, Palmarosa)




Photograph unavailable



Rehm and Epsig, 1991; Srivastava, et al. 1988
Description Perennial grass Uphof, 1968
Habitat East India, cultivated in Java and Sumatra. Uphof, 1968
Uses Gingergrass oil is used in perfumery and in the food industry. It has a high geraniol content and is also known as 'East Indian geranium oil'. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Essential oil


0.2 percent (v/w) oil on red gram prevented oviposition and F1 emergence of C. chinensis for a period of 45 days after inital release of adults. Srivastava, et al. 1988


Oryza sativa L.











Oryza sativa L.

Rehm and Espig, 1991
Description Perennial grass; uniflorous spikelets with hard lemma and palea which enclose the grain when ripe; hermaphrodite flower with six anthers; ligule 8-20 mm in length. Rehm and Espig, 1991


Habitat South East Asia. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Uses Seed is eaten; oil, wax and animal feed can be produced from rice mill residues. The husks can be used for construction, as a polishing material or for burning. The ashes are high in silicates and are used in fireproof bricks, cement and as an additive to rubber. Rice straw has high value as animal fodder and is used to cultivate padi straw mushrooms. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Bran oil One percent (w/w) admixed with green gram prevented oviposition in C. chinensis and reduced egg laying in C. maculatus by 96 percent. 0.5 percent (w/w) totally prevented emergence of F1 adults in both species. Doharey, et al. 1988



Bystropogon spp.





Photograph unavailable


Schultz, 1986


Annual plant reaching a height of 60-100 cm. Both sides of leaves carry a number of glands containing essential oil. Schultz, 1986
Habitat Grows at an altitude of 2 000-3 000 m in the Andes and Canary Islands. Schultz, 1986
Uses The leaves are used as a protectant for stored products and a traditional medicine in the Andes, South America. Schultz, 1986
Essential oil 100m l of oil applied to filter paper discs in 1litre fumigation chambers caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. maculatus, E. kuehnilla, S. cerealla and A. obtectus after a 2 hour exposure period. Adult mortality in S. granarius was 59 percent, in T. castaneum 53 percent, and in P. truncatus 38 percent; O. surinamensis was unaffected. Schultz, 1986
Seed viability The oil had no effect on the seed viability of pea, lentil or wheat, although treatment produced a peppermint-like smell in the seed which was lost following aeration. Schultz, 1986


Coleus amboinicus Lour. syn. C. aromaticus Benth; Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.)

(Indian borage, Oreille, Oregano)


Coleus amboinicus  syn. C. aromaticus Benth; Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.
Perry, 1980; Rehm and Espig, 1991
Description An erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic herb; stems green, fleshy. Leaves broadly ovate, crenate, fleshy, rounded or obtuse, base decurrent, often cordate, 4-9 cm long. Flower small in distinct, many flowered whorls. Merrill, 1912
Habitat Asia and the West Indies. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Uses The leaves are used as seasoning for fish and meat, and as a vegetable.

Used in Indo-China, Indonesia and the Philippines to treat bronchitis, asthma, chronic coughs, sores, burns and insect stings.

Uphof, 1968

Perry, 1980

Oil 100 mg/ml acetone applied to filter paper caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis confined on the treated paper within 48 hours. 5-100 mg/50 g mung bean seed caused 97-100 percent adult mortality within 24 hours and prevented egg laying. Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990
Constituents Reported constituents include potassium and ethereal oil with phenol; oil is reported to have antiseptic properties. Perry, 1980


Hyptis spicigera Lam.

(Black sesame, Black beni-seed)







 Hyptis spicigera Lam.
ehm and Espig, 1991
Description An erect aromatic herb, up to 1 m in height, with terminal inflorescence, dense cylindrical or ovoid-cylindrica spike to 9 cm long of very small white/mauve flowers. Burkill, 1995


Senegal to Western Cameroons, possibly native to Brazil, now widely naturalised in tropical Africa and Asia. Prefers roadsides, waste places and cultivated places, often damp places. Burkill, 1995
Uses The seeds are eaten and used for oil production; yield 24-37 percent of a drying oil. Leaves eaten as a vegetable.

Whole plant burnt as a mosquito repellent; crushed plant applied to head to relieve head colds and headaches.

In the Upper Volta, whole plants are used in traditional stores to protect cowpeas against damage by Callosobruchus spp.

Rehm and Espig, 1991


Dalziel, 1937

Lambert, et al. 1985

Ethanol extract (1 g/ml) Application of 300 m l extract/10 g of P. vulgaris prevented oviposition and adult emergence in A. obtectus. Lambert, et al. 1985


Hyptis suaveolens Poit.
syn. Marrubium indicum Blanco.





Photograph unavailable



Perry, 1980; Uphof, 1968
Description Stout bush up to 1 m tall, strongly aromatic; blue flowers 6 mm across, bourne in lax axillary heads. Burkill, 1995
Habitat Native to tropical America,widely established in tropical Africa, Asia and northern Australia.. Burkill, 1995
Uses Stem, leaves and root used in traditional medicine in China, Taiwan, Malay Peninsula, Indonesia and the Philippines. Also used as an insect repellent in the Philippines. Perry, 1980
Dried powder (shoot) Ten percent (w/w) admixed with cowpeas reduced damage by adult C. maculatus for a period of four months. Fatope, et al. 1995
Constituents Essential oil reported to contain sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols; volatile oil contains menthol. Perry, 1980
Toxicity Alcohol extract of leaves shows anti-implantation activity (antifertility in females). Oliver-Bever, 1986


Lavendula angustifolia Mill.
(L. officinalis Chaix.)








Lavendula angustifolia Mill. (L. officinalis Chaix.)

Rehm and Espig, 1991






Description Small shrub with woody stem; 15-60 cm in height; leaves opposite, lanceolate, very narrow, 2-5 cm long, grey-green, and revolute. Flowers small, blue and strong-smelling in a terminal spike. Schauenberg and Paris, 1977; Flück, 1976
Habitat Indigenous to the mountainous region of the western half of the Mediterranean; cultivated widely. Grieve, 1974
Uses Lavender is used in cosmetics and perfumery.

Essential oil is carminative and stimulant, and used as an insect repellent.

Rehm and Espig, 1991

Duke, 1985

Oil 5 µl/litre of air in fumigation chambers caused 100 percent mortality in adult R. dominica and over 90 percent mortality in adult O. surinamensis within 24 hours. Shaaya, et al. 1991
Constituents Lavender contains 0.5 to 1.5 percent volatile oil, tannins, coumarins (coumarin, umbelliferone and herniarin), flavonoids (luteolin) and ursolic acid. Principal ingredients of volatile oil include: linalyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and its esters, lavandulol, nerol, cineole, caryophyllene, coumarine, limonene, betaocimene, furfural, ethyl amyl ketone, thujone and pinocamphone.

Include: linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, linalool, geraniol, limonene, d-pinene, coumarin, furfurol, d-borneol, cineol.

Steam-volatile constituents include: linalyl acetate (34.2 percent), linalool (30.8 percent) and t-caryophyllene (11.1 percent).

Duke, 1985




Jouhar and Poucher, 1991

Regnault-Rogers, et al. 1993

Toxicity Large doses of the oil produce a narcotic effect and have also been shown to cause dermatitis. Duke, 1985


Mentha arvensis L.

(Cornmint, Japanese mint)










Mentha arvensis L.

Rehm and Espig, 1991
Description A prostrrate, glabrous, or slightly hairy, strongly aromatic, much branched herb; stems up to 40 cm long, usually purplish, ultimate branches ascending. Leaves elliptic to oblong ovate, short petioled serrate, rounded to obtuse, 1.5-4 cm long. Flowers in axillary capitate whorls. Merrill, 1912
Habitat Temperate Europe and Asia. Uphof, 1968
Uses This source of peppermint oil has a high menthol content (82-86 percent). Rehm and Espig, 1991
Oil The vapour from 200 mg of oil in 860 ml desiccators caused 70 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within 24 hours. The LD50 following vapour exposure for 24 hours was 2.18 mg/litre for adult C. chinensis and 3.3 mg/litre for adult S. oryzae.

Vapour from 2.04 ml of oil in 12.51 ml dessicator (166 m l/litre) caused 99.54 percent adult mortality of
S. oryzae after an exposure period of three months.

Ahmed and Eapen, 1986



Singh, et al. 1995

0.2 percent (w/w) applied to red gram prevented oviposition and adult emergence of C. chinensis up to 90 days after application. Srivastava, et al. 1988
Constituents Include: menthol, menthone end menthyl acetate. Singh, et al. 1989

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