cover The use of spices and medicinals as bioactive protectants for grainsTHE USE OF SPICES AND MEDICINALS AS BIOACTIVE PROTECTANTS FOR GRAINS


Table of Contents
by Peter Golob
Caroline Moss
Melanie Dales
Alex Fidgen
Jenny Evans
and
Irene Gudrups
Natural Resources Institute
Chatham Maritime
Chatham, Kent
UK


FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 137

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 1999

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-15
ISBN 92-5-104294-2

Copyright

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is hereby granted without fee and without a formal request provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and full citation on the first page. Copyright for components of this work owned by others than FAO must be honoured. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or fee.

Request permission to publish from:

The Chief Editor,
FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,
00100 Rome, Italy,
e-mail:copyright@fao.org

Contents

FOREWORD

ABBREVIATIONS OF INSECT NAME

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION

  1.1 The problems of on-farm storage
  1.2 Insect control methods
        1.2.1
Physical control

        1.2.2 Chemical control

  1.3 Plant materials

CHAPTER 2 – PLANTS AS STORAGE PESTICIDES

  2.1 Current status of the use of plants by small-scale farmers
  2.2 Current research
  2.3 Admixture of plant materials
  2.4 Extract of plant materials
  2.5 Repellency trials
        2.5.1 Antifeedant tests

        2.5.2 Vapour or fumigant toxicity assessment

  2.6 Problems associated with current research
        2.6.1 Methodology

        2.6.2 Identification of active ingredient

CHAPTER 3a – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3b – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3c – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3d – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3e – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3f – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3g – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 3h – ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES WITH INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 4 - BOTANICAL OILS AS GRAIN PROTECTANTS

CHAPTER 5 - TOXICOLOGY OF PLANT MATERIALS UNDER CONSIDERATION

CHAPTER 6 - DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SPICES AND MEDICINALS AS GRAIN PROTECTANTS

  6.1 Considerations on selection of plant materials and plant-derived oils as stored product protectants
        6.1.1 Botanical characteristics

        6.1.2 Effect on seed viability

        6.1.3 Effect on food quality: taint

  6.2 Potential for commercial development of spices and medicinals
        6.2.1 The current status of the commercial production of botanical pesticides

        6.2.2 Further research

        6.2.3 Toxicological testing and registration
        6.2.4 Introduction of plant protectants at the farm village level
        6.2.5 Environmental and safety considerations

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING

APPENDIX 1 – Index of plant species

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 List of commonly found secondary metabolites
Table 2 Toxicity data for some chemical components of different plant genera
Table 3 List of toxins found in the six most frequently examined plant genera