CHAPTER 3e: ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANT FAMILIES
WITH INSECTICIDAL AND FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES
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Thymus vulgaris L.
|Rehm and Epsig, 1991
|Description||Undershrub, 10-30 cm high, rarely procumbent; branches short, woody. Leaves 4-10 mm long, opposite, linear or elliptical, margins slightly revolute, upper surface slightly hairy, lower surface hairy. Flowers 3-7 mm long, pink or lilac, arranged in whorls in leaf axils.||Flück, 1976|
|Habitat||Native to Mediterranean countries; occassionaly found in wild; widely cultivated.||Flück, 1976|
|Uses||A culinary herb; essential oil
is used in liqueurs and medicines.
Essential oil (thymol) is antiseptic, modifies intestinal flora, improves appetite, is a resolutive and suppressant for coughs.
|Rehm and Espig, 1991
l/litre of air in a fumigation chamber caused 90 percent mortality in
adult A. obtectus after 3 hours of exposure.
15 m l/litre of air in a fumigation chamber caused less than 70 percent mortality in adult O. surinamensis and R. dominica following 24 hours of exposure.
|Klingauf, et al. 1983
Shaaya and Pisarev, 1991
|Antifungal activity||Sporulation and aflatoxin production
was inhibited in three toxigenic strains of Aspergilli (A. flavus
ATCC 15548, A. flavus NRRL 3251 and A. parasiticus) cultured
on ground thyme (1.5 g) and sterile water for 30 days.
500 m l/ml of thymol completely inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus after an incubation period of ten days.
0.4 mg/ml of thymol (extracted from powdered thyme) in potatoe-dextrose agar inhibited the growth and toxin production of A. flavus and A. versicolor after an incubation period of ten days.
|Llewellyn, et al. 1981
|Constituents||Essential oil contains thymol
(40 percent), caracrol, cymol, borneol, linalool and tannin.
Steam-volatile consituents include p-cymene (17.3 percent) and thymol (47.5 percent).
Thymol and terpinen-4-ol are major compounds.
|Regnault-Roger, et al.
Schauenberg and Paris, 1977
|Toxicity||The oil is poisonous and can cause dermatitis.||Duke, 1985|
Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd.
|Dunkel, et al. 1991b
|Uses||This perennial mint is used as a traditional medicine in Rwanda.||Dunkel, et al. 1991b|
|Dried milled leaves
|Two percent (w/w) admixed with
pinto beans significantly decreased ovipositon by A. obtectus and
Z. subfasciatus after an exposure period of six days.
Ten percent (w/w) admixed with pinto beans reduced oviposition in Z. subfasciatus by 40 percent and reduced egg hatch by 50 percent.
Include: linalool, 8(14), 15-sandaracopimaradiene-7a ,18-diol, a diterpenol, which has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activiity for bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.
|Dunkel, et al. 1991b
Cinnamomum aromaticum Ness.
(Cassia, Chinese cassia)
||Rehm and Espig, 1991|
|Aromatic, evergreen tree to 12 m high with brittle-leathery lanceolate, opposite light green leaves, strongly 3-nerved, to 15 cm long; surge of young leaves a showy cream or flushed red; small flowers in panicles.||Graf, 1986|
|Habitat||Southern China and Southeast Asia.||Su , 1985b|
|Uses||Aromatic spice used for culinary and medicinal purposes; the bark is used as a substitute for cinnamon.||Su , 1985b; Graf, 1986|
|Extract of bark and cinnamon oil||600 m g/cm squared applied to paper in repellency tests produced class lll against T. confusum, declining to class ll (18 percent) repellency two months after treatment. Topical application of either treatment at 50 m g/insect caused low mortality in adults C. maculatus, T. confusum and L. serricorne.||Su , 1985b|
|Constituents||Include cinnamomum, cinnamolaurine,
laurolitsine and norcinnamolauine.
Oil contains 85-90 percent cinnamic aldehyde.
Also cinnamyl acetate, phenyl-propyl acetate and tannin.
|Southon and Buckingham, 1988
Laurus nobilis L.
(Sweet bay, Laurel)
|Rehm and Espig, 1991
|Description||Small evergreen tree with shiny grey bark. Leaves light to olive-green, elliptical, 8 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, thick and leathery.||Schauenberg and Paris, 1977; Tainter, 1993|
|Habitat||Asia Minor; Mediterranean regions; Southern Europe. Cultivated in tubs as an ornemental plant.||Schauenberg and Paris, 1977|
|Uses||Leaves are used for culinary flavouring and in traditional medicine. Oil has bactericidal and fungicidal action.||Duke, 1985|
|Oil||15 µl/litre of air in fumigation chambers caused 100 percent mortality in adult R. dominica within 24 hours.||Shaaya, et al. 1991|
|Plant||Fifteen volatile components from bay were tested for their repellent activity against adult T. castaneum in a choice chamber. Benzaldehyde at 50 ppm showed the highest repellency of 71 percent over a 24 hour test period. Piperidine and geraniol at 50 ppm showed moderate repellency.||Saim and Meloan, 1986|
|Bay leaves contain about 1.5-2.5
percent volatile oil. The major component is cineole.
The 19 volatile compounds identified include four chlorinated compounds: chloroform, ethylene bichloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethane and methylene dichloride.
Pinene, phellandrene, cineole, linalool and geraniol have also been reported.
Steam-volatile consituents include cineole-b -Phell. (48.6 percent), sabinene (9.1 percent), a -pinene (7.1 percent), b -pinene (4.9 percent) and linalool (4.1 percent).
Allium sativum L.
|Schauenberg and Paris, 1977
|Description||Perennial plant with a compound bulb composed of several partial bulbs (cloves) enclosed in a common membrane. Leaves erect, firm with rough margins, 1 cm wide and up to 15 cm long. Unbranched stem bears an apical umbel of rose-white to greenish flowers.||Flück, 1976|
|Habitat||Originated in India and Central Asia; now widely cultivated.||Schauenberg and Paris, 1977|
|Uses||Fresh cloves are used as flavouring in cooking. They are also used in traditional medicine.||Ayensu, 1981; Schauenberg and Paris, 1977|
|Powder (clove)||Two percent (w/w) admixed with
wheat caused a reduction in the percentage of damage caused by T. granarium
larvae; four months after the initial introduction of the larvae, the
percentage of damage was 25 percent compared with 70 percent in the control.
Two percent (w/w) admixed with cowpea did not cause a significant reduction in oviposition and adult emergence of C. maculatus after an exposure period of ten and 70 days respectively.
|Jood, et al. 1993
Javaid and Poswal, 1995
|Extract||0.02 percent applied to paddy
at a rate of 21/100 kg reduced the number of C. cephalonica larvae
emerging from eggs that had been introduced into the rice; however, the
results, when analysed, were not statistically significant.
One percent (w/w) protected gram against attack by C. chinensis for 135 days.
Three percent (w/w) of ether extract admixed with gram prevented damage by C. chinensis up to 135 days after application.
|Prusty, et al. 1989
Agarwal, et al. 1988
|Oil||1 ml of 1 percent oil applied to filter paper and stored for four months produced 88 percent repellency against adult T. castaneum in a choice-chamber experiment, when assessed after five days of exposure. The level of repellency had declined to 48 percent after eight weeks.||Mohiuddin, et al. 1987|
|Antifungal activity||Two percent (w/v) ground garlic in potato dextrose agar completely inhibited growth of seven mycotoxin-producing moulds for up to 21 days.||Azzouz and Bullerman, 1982|
Whole plant contains an antibiotic essential oil including allicine and diallyl sulphide.
|Mohiadden, et al.1987
Schauenberg and Paris, 1977
|Toxicity||Garlic is considered to be a safe flavouring in food. The recommended safe levels are 800-1 300 ppm of garlic, or 10-15 ppm garlic oil. Very high doses of garlic components are toxic. The LD50 value for allicin in mice is 60 mg/kg body weight.||Joseph and Sundaresh, 1989|
Azadirachta indica Juss.
(Neem, Nim, Sabah-bah, Azad-daracht, Margosa)
|Rehm and Espig, 1991|
|Description||Large, evergreen tree growing up to 16 m in height. Compound leaves, small white flowers.||Chevallier, 1996|
|Habitat||Native to forests and woody areas throughout India and Sri Lanka; now naturalized in tropical regions of Indonesia, Australia and West Africa.||Chevallier, 1996|
|Uses||It is used as an anthelmintic in China; as a fish poison, and in traditional medicine in Colombia and India.||Duke, 1985|
|Petroleum ether extract of leaves||680 ug/cm2 applied to filter paper produced Class Ill (42 percent) repellency against T. castaneum eight weeks after treatment, compared with Class V (81.5 percent) repellency one week after treatment.||Jilani and Su, 1983|
|Oil||One percent applied to pea seeds reduced damage by C. chinensis over a three month storage period by reducing F1 adult emergence.||Kumari, et al. 1990|
|10 ml/kg applied to cowpeas prevented Fl adult production following repeated introduction of adult C. maculatus over a six month trial.||Daniel and Smith, 1991|
|10 ml/kg applied to chickpea caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis and prevented egg laying.||Das, 1986|
|1 ml of 1 percent oil applied to filter paper in a choice-chamber repellency test produced Class V (86 percent) repellency against T. castaneum after four weeks when assessed after five days of exposure: repellency had declined to Class 111 (52 percent) after eight weeks.||Mohiuddin, et al. 1987|
|0.2 percent (v/w) oil applied to gram prevented the emergence of F1 C. maculatus when adults were introduced 33 days after treatment.||Jadhav and Jadhav, 1984|
|800 ug/cm2 oil applied to filter paper in choice-chamber repellency tests produced 64 percent repellency against R. dominica eight weeks after treatment, compared with 77 percent, one week after treatment.||Jilani and Saxena, 1990|
|8 ml/kg applied to cowpeas almost completely prevented emergence of Fl adult C. maculatus following the introduction of adults three months after application. The oil did not increase parent mortality compared with the control treatment.||Pereira, 1983|
|800 ug/cm2 applied
to filter paper in a choice-chamber test produced 70 percent repellency
T. castaneum four weeks after treatment; repellency had declined to 59 percent, eight weeks after treatment.
|Jilani, et al, 1988|
|Application of 0.5 percent protected green gram for three months against damage by C. chinensis introduced days after treatment.||Ketkar, 1987|
|5 ml/kg applied to maize caused 97 percent mortality in S. zeamais and 22 percent mortality in P truncatus when assessed after ten days. Maize oil at 5 ml/kg caused 20 percent mortality in 5. zeamais and 4 percent mortality in P. truncatus during the same period.||Maredia, et al. 1992|
|0.5 ml/100 g gram seed caused 55 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within three days; it ignificantly reduced the number of eggs laid and Fl production.||Ali, et al. 1983|
|Application of 0.5 percent to black gram reduced the number of eggs laid by C. chinensis and prevented emergence of Fl adults.||Sujatha and Punnaiah, 1984|
|Application of 0.25 percent to green gram reduced the number of eggs produced by C. chinensis and prevented emergence of F1 adults.||Sujatha and Punnaiah, 1985|
|Application of 5 percent (v/w) protected cowpea for four months against damage by an initial infestation of C. maculatus.||Tanzubil, 1986|
|1 ml/kg applied to wheat significantly reduced the amount of damage by S. cerealella by reducing F1 production.||Verma, et al. 1983|
|Oil seed cake||Five percent (w/w) admixed with maize significantly reduced damage by S. oryzae by inhibiting oviposition.||Bowry, et al. 1984|
|Water extract of seeds||Dipping seeds in an 80 percent concentration of extract significantly reduced damage by C. maculatus on cowpea and S. zeamais on maize seed when introduced at time zero after the seeds had been stored for five months, by reducing egg hatch of Fl.||Makanjuola, 1989|
|De-oiled seed kernel||0.06 percent (w/w) admixed with wheat prevented the development of the 1st instar larvae which hatched from eggs laid by adult T. granarium.||Singh and Kataria, 1984|
|De-oiled kernel powder||One percent applied to wheat flour caused 100 percent mortality in 1st instar larvae of T. granarium within 14 days; the larvae in the untreated control survived and eventually developed into adults.||Singh and Singh, 1985|
|Ground seed powder||0.5 g/20 g maize caused 100 percent mortality in adult S. oryzae within ten days, reduced egg laying and prevented F1 emergence.||lvbijaro, 1983|
|Five percent admixed with wheat significantly reduced damage by S. oryzae when repeatedly introduced to the wheat at 15 day intervals for 60 days, by reducing Fl emergence.||Rout, 1986|
|Three percent admixed with green gram caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within 15 days, compared to 12 percent in the controls; it also prevented oviposition.||Ahmed and Ahamad, 1992|
|Seed oil||2 ml/kg cowpea did not cause a reduction in oviposition by C. maculatus but it significantly reduced the number of Fl adults emerging from the eggs laid.||lvbijaro, 1990|
|Seed powder||1 g/25 g dried Tilapia fish caused 100 percent mortality in adult D. maculatus within 14 days and prevented egg laying. 0.5 g/25 g fish significantly reduced the number of 1st instar larvae, which developed into 2nd instar larvae.||Okorie, et al. 1990|
|Extract||One percent extract admixed with paddy rice, stored for six months and used in choice chamber trials, significantly reduced the percentage of damage caused by S. cerealella and R. dominica.||Ambika Devi and Mohandas, 1982|
|(85 percent purity)||5 ppm admixed with wheat or wheat flour prevented the emergence of Fl S. granarius and T. confusum respectively, when adult insects were introduced to food media.||Smet, et al. 1991|
|Margosan-O Extract||800 m g/cm2 applied to filter paper in a choice-chamber test produced 67 percent repellency against T. castaneum four weeks after treatment; repellency had declined to 53 percent eight weeks after treatment.||Jilani, et al. 1988|
|800 m g/cm2 applied to filter paper in a choice-chamber test produced 77 percent repellency against R. dominica one week after treatment; repellency had declined to 62 percent eight weeks after treatment.||Jilani and Saxena, 1990|
|0.2 percent (w/w) applied to wheat caused 50 percent mortality in adult S. oryzae and 15 percent mortality in a R. dominica within three days; Fl emergence was reduced by 98 percent and 94 percent, respectively.||Dunkel, et al. 1991|
Melia azedarach L.
(Chinaberry, Persian lilac)
||Duke, 1985; Perry and Hay, 1982
|Description||A fast growing, deciduous tree, wide spreading to 12 m; bark dark brown with deep furrows; leaves 30-60 cm long, bipinnate with ovate, toothed, pointed leaflets 2.5-5 cm long. Flowers small, loosely clustered on short-stemmed 10-20 cm sprays, mauve or lilac petals surrounding a deep purple tube. Fruit yellow, berry-like, 6-12 mm long.||Perry and Hay, 1982
|Habitat||Originates from Northern India and China; now widely cultivated.||Perry and Hay, 1982|
|Timber used for construction; fruit oils used in candles and paints; seed for soaps; leaves and seeds as insecticides; bark used as fish poison in Mexico. Leaves, bark and flowers used in traditional medicine.||Perry and Hay, 1982; Duke, 1985|
|Oil||1 ml/100g gram seed caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within three days and prevented the emergence of F1 generation.||Ali, et al. 1983|
|Constituents||Include azadirachtin. Four toxic
tetranortriterpenoids have been identified in seed kernels from Australia.
Include 1 -cinnamoyi-3-feruloyl-11 - hydroxymeliacarpin. This compound identified in the leaves is very similar to azadirachtin D.
Leaves contain paraisine; fruits azadirine and resin; bark margosine and tannin. Fruit oil consists mainly of glycerides of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and steric acids.
|Morgan and Mandava, 1987
|Toxicity||The drupes of the tree have produced death in humans when ingested; ripe fruits are more poisonous than green ones. Symptoms of poisoning include digestive irritation, dysfunction of the nervous system and kidney malfunction.||Blackwell, 1990; Duke, 1985
|The LD50 for an oral dose of the toxic principles (meliatoxins) for a pig is 6.4 mg/kg.||Morgan and Mandava, 1987|
Cissampelos owariensis Beauv. ex DC.
|Nibe, et al. 1992
|Habitat||India and Asia.||Verma, et al. 1993|
|Uses||Fruit juice and root utilised in traditional medicine.||Daziel, 1937|
|Crude ethanol extracts of leaves and roots||Ten percent (w/v) of extract
applied topically to adult
A. obtectus, S. oryzae and P. truncatus significantly increased mortality.
|Niber, et al. 1992|
|Constituents||Active compounds present in the roots and leaves include bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as chondrodendrine and isochondrodendrine, beberine, deyamitine, cissampareine, cissamine, dehydrodicentrine, dicentrine, cycleanine, insularine.||Oliver-Bever, 1986|
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