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Social and Economic
Forest Resources
Trade in Non-Wood Forest Products
Other Structured Information
Production and Trade of Wood-Based Forest Products

Social and Economic

Macro economic data
Population and employment
Land area and land use

Macro economic data

GDP and GDP Per Capita at market prices (constant 1987 US$) - GDP measures the total output of goods and services for final use occurring within the domestic territory of a given country, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. Gross domestic product at purchaser values (market prices) is the sum of gross value added by all resident and non-resident producers in the economy plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in US$ at constant (1987) prices. Per Capita GDP is simply GDP divided by total population.

GDP figures are converted into US$ from domestic currencies using 1987 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.

GDP growth (annual %) - Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant 1987 local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

GDP deflator (1987 = 100) - GDP deflator is defined as the price index that measures the change in the price level of GDP relative to real output. It is calculated using GDP in current and constant 1987 local currencies.

Total consumption, etc. (constant 1987 US$) - Total consumption is the sum of private and general government consumption. This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Gross domestic investment (constant 1987 US$) - Gross domestic investment consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets cover land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including commercial and industrial buildings, offices, schools, hospitals, and private residential buildings. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Gross domestic fixed investment (constant 1987 US$) - Gross domestic fixed investment comprises all outlays (purchases and own-account production) on additions of new and imported durable goods to the stocks of fixed assets, less the proceeds of net sales (sales less purchases) of similar second-hand and scrapped goods. Outlays by general government on durable goods primarily for military purposes are excluded. According to the SNA, these outlays are treated as current consumption and classified under government consumption. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Gross domestic savings (constant 1987 US$) - Gross domestic savings are the difference between GDP and total consumption. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Merchandise exports (constant 1987 US$) - Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. They are classified using the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), series M, no. 34, revision 2. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Merchandise imports (constant 1987 US$) - Merchandise imports show the c.i.f. value of goods received from the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Merchandise imports arc classified using the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), series M, no. 34, rev. 2. Data are in constant 1987 U.S. dollars.

Population and employment

Total population - The total population usually refers to the present-in-area (de facto) population which includes all persons physically present within the present geographical boundaries of countries at the mid-point of the reference period.

Rural/Urban Population - Usually the urban area is defined and the residual is taken as rural. In practice, the criteria adopted for distinguishing between urban and rural areas vary among countries. However, these criteria can be roughly divided into three major groups: classification of localities of a certain size as urban; classification of administrative centres of minor civil divisions as urban; and classification of centres of minor civil divisions on a chosen criterion which may include type of local government, number of inhabitants or proportion of population engaged in agriculture. Thus, the urban and rural population estimates in this domain are based on the varying national definitions of urban areas.

Agricultural Population - The Agricultural Population is defined as all persons depending for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. This estimate comprises the economically active population and their non-working dependants.

Population density (people per sq. km) - Population density is the midyear resident population divided by the surface area in square kilometres.

Population growth (annual %) - Annual population growth rate.

Labour force, total - Total labour force comprises people who meet the ILO definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labour for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labour force includes the other unpaid caregivers and workers in the information sector.

Labour force in agriculture (%) - Labour force in agriculture is the proportion of the total labour force recorded as working in agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing (ISIC major division 1).

Employees, female (% of economically active population) - The number of female employees as a percentage of the economically active population. Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind.

Employees, male (% of economically active population) - The number of male employees as a percentage of the economically active population. Employees arc people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind.

Land area and land use

Total Area 1000ha - The total area of the country, including area under inland water bodies. Data in this category are obtained mainly from the United Nations Statistical Division, New York. Possible variations in the data may be due to updating and revisions of the country data and not necessarily to any change of area.

Land Area 1000ha - Total area excluding area under inland water bodies. The definition of inland water bodies generally includes major rivers and lakes. Data in this category are obtained mainly from the United Nations Statistical Division, New York. Possible variations in the data may be due to updating and revisions of the country data and not necessarily to any change of area.

Agricultural Area 1000ha - Up to 1994, this element shows total of data under Elements 061 (Arable land and Permanent crops) and 131 (Permanent pastures).

Arable Land 1000ha - Land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (less than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for "Arable land" arc not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable.

Permanent Crops 1000ha - Land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee and rubber; this category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber.

Forests and Woodland 1000ha - Land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. This category includes land from which forests have been cleared but that will be reforested in the foreseeable future, but it excludes woodland or forest used only for recreation purposes. The question of shrub land, savannah, etc. raises the same problem as in the category "Permanent meadows and pastures". In the year 1995 and onward there will be no data for this element.

Forest Resources

Land Area - Total area, excluding inland water.

Forest - Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectare. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest ton-nations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground; or of open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 percent or tree height of 5 m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest.

Includes: forest nurseries and seed orchards that constitute an integral part of the forest; forest roads, cleared tracts, firebreaks and other small open areas within the forest; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of special environmental, scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with an area of more than 0.5 hectare and width of more than 20 m. Rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands are included.

Excludes: land predominantly used for agricultural practices. It is worthwhile pointing out that the definition of forest used in the present study has a minimum vegetation cover requirement and is quite different from a legal definition of forest (i.e. an area proclaimed to be forest under a Forest Act or Ordinance).

Forest is split into plantations and natural forest, and natural forest can be further subdivided into forest undisturbed by man and disturbed by man.

Natural Forest Undisturbed By Man - Forest which shows natural forest dynamics, such as natural tree composition, occurrence of dead wood, natural age structure and natural regeneration processes, the area of which is large enough to maintain its natural characteristics and where there has been no known significant human intervention or where the last significant human intervention was long enough ago to have allowed the natural species composition and processes to have become re-established.

Natural Forest Disturbed By Man - Forest which is neither "forest undisturbed by man" nor "plantation" as defined separately.

Forest Plantation(s) - Forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either: of introduced species (all planted stands), or intensively managed stands of indigenous species which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.

Excludes: Stands which were established as plantations but which have been without intensive management for a significant period of time. These should be considered semi-natural.

Industrial forest plantations - Forest plantations grown mainly for the production of industrial roundwood (sawntimber, veneer, pulp, reconstituted wood). Note that industrial roundwood may also come from non-forest plantations and trees grown outside the forest.

Forest available for wood supply - Forest where any legal, economic or specific environmental restrictions do not have a significant impact on the supply of wood. Includes: areas where, although there are no such restrictions, harvesting is not taking place, for example, areas included in long-term utilization plans or intentions.

Forest not available for wood supply - Forest where legal or economic restrictions prevent any significant supply of wood. Includes: legally protected and inaccessible.

Legally protected - Forest with legal restrictions or restrictions resulting from other political decisions, which totally exclude or severely limit wood supply, inter alia, for reasons of environmental or biodiversity conservation, e.g. protection forest, national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas, such as those of special environmental, scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest.

Inaccessible - Forest with economic restrictions due to environmental, physical or wood quality factors, e.g. environmental regulation on harvesting systems, steep terrain; terrain dominated by swamps and/or rocks interspersed with some commercial trees; deformed growth of individual trees; and fire, insect and/or disease damaged forests. All restrictions other than legal restrictions can be summarized as economic restrictions.

Report area of industrial plantation - The plantation area reported to be present, either by government, industry or some outside source. Normally this refers to the area planted or planned, but does not take into account the area actually stocked.

Net are of industrial plantation - The reported area reduced by a factor to allow for plantation area losses due to failed plantation areas, fire, etc. In the absence of any specific information or opinion a default value of 0.7 reduction has been used.

Growing stock - Living volume of standing trees, above-stump measured overbark to top. Includes all trees with diameter over a reported reference diameter (diameter at breast height, d.b.h.). Excludes: branches.

Commercial growing stock - Part of the growing stock, that consists of species considered as actually or potentially commercial under current (1995) market conditions, at the reported reference diameter (d.b.h.). Can be identical to the growing stock, but can also be much smaller if only very few species are merchantable or greater if the forest available for supply consists of high volume stands only. Includes: species which are currently not exported, but potentially commercial having appropriate technological properties; species provided to the local market are included.

Reference diameter (cm) - Inventory diameter at breath height used for determining the growing stock and commercial growing stock. Volumes can be converted to different reference diameters.

Gross annual increment (mean annual increment) - Average annual volume of increment over the reference period of all trees, measured to a minimum diameter breast height (d.b.h.) of 0 centimetres (cm).

Natural losses - Average annual losses to the growing stock during the given reference period, measured to a minimum diameter of 0 cm (d.b.h.), due to mortality from causes other than cutting by man, e.g. natural mortality, diseases, insect attacks, fire, wind throw or other physical damage.

Net annual increment - Average annual volume over the given reference period of gross increment less that of natural losses on all trees to a minimum diameter of 0 cm (d.b.h.).

Cutting cycle (years) - The silvicultural/harvesting cycle chosen for the sustainable harvest of timber. It is dependent on management objectives for the forest.

Harvesting intensity (m3/ha) - Volume actually removed from the forest within one cutting cycle. This volume may include wood for industrial purposes (e.g. sawlogs, veneer logs, etc.) and for local domestic use (e.g. rural uses for construction). Use of wood for fuelwood will not be included in this category. May show a significant difference for natural and semi-natural forest.

Forest biomass - To convert growing stock (m3/ha) to total forest biomass, the appropriate conversion factor is found using the equation postulated by Brown (1990). This equation is as follows:

Total forest biomass = growing stock (m3/ha) · wood density (t/m3) · biomass expansion factor

where wood density is dependent on the region as shown below:


0.58 (t/m3)

(Latin America):

0.60 (t/m3)


0.57 (t/m3)

and biomass expansion factor is:

e{3.213-0506 · In(growing stock (tm3/ha) · wood density (t/m3)}

where {growing stock*wood density}, 180 t/ha


1.74 where {growing stock*wood density} ³ 190 t/ha

This equation provides the total forest biomass, a number which indicates the entire volume of leaf, branch and stem of all trees and shrubs within the forest ecosystem.

Note: this equation is used by GFSS only for the forest available for wood supply.

Trade in Non-Wood Forest Products

Lac; Natural Gums, Resins, Gum-Resins and Oleoresins (for example, balsams) - Lac is a resinous substance produced on several kinds of tropical trees by an insect belonging to the same family as the cochineal and the kermes. Natural gums, resins, gum-resins and oleoresins are vegetable secretions, which may solidify on contact with air. These terms are often used indiscriminately. These products have the following distinguishing features:

a) True gums are odourless, tasteless and more or less soluble in water, forming sticky substances. They bum without melting and without odour.

b) Resins are insoluble in water, have a slight odour, are poor conductors of electricity and acquire a negative electric charge. They soften and melt more or less completely on the application of heat, and when ignited bum with a smoky flame and characteristic odour.

c) Gum-resins, as the name implies, consist of natural mixtures of gums and resins in variable proportions and are therefore partly soluble in water; they generally have a penetrating and characteristic odour and taste.

d) Oleoresins are exudates consisting mainly of volatile and resinous constituents. Balsams are oleoresins characterized by a high content of benzoic or cinnamic compounds.

Natural Honey - This heading covers honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) or by other insects, centrifuged, or in the comb or containing comb chunks, provided that neither sugar nor any other substance has been added. Such honey may be designated by floral source, origin or colour. The heading excludes artificial honey and mixtures of natural and artificial honey.

Edible Products of Animal Origin (not elsewhere specified or included) - This heading covers products of animal origin suitable for human consumption, not specified or included elsewhere in the Nomenclature. It includes:

(1) Turtles' eggs. These are eggs laid by river or marine turtles; they may be fresh, dried or otherwise preserved. Turtle-egg oil is excluded.

(2) Slanginess' nests ("birds' nests"). These consist of a substance secreted by the bird which solidifies rapidly on exposure to air.

The nests may be presented untreated, or they may have been cleaned to remove feathers, down, dust and other impurities in order to render them suitable for consumption. They are generally in the form of whitish strips or threads.

Slanginess' nests have a high protein content and are used almost exclusively to make soups or other food preparations.

The heading excludes animal blood, edible or not, liquid or dried.

Plaits and similar products of plaiting materials - whether or not assembled into strips; plaiting materials, plaits and similar products of plaiting materials, bound together in parallel strands or woven, in sheet form, whether or not being finished articles (for example, mats, matting, screens).

Ambergris, Castoreum, Civet and Musk; Cantharides; Bile - whether or not dried; glands and other animal products used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products, fresh, chilled, frozen or otherwise provisionally preserved.

Ambergris is a substance secreted by the sperm-whale and is found in the form of rounded masses made up of concentric layers and weighing up to a hundred kilograms. It has a waxy consistency and gives a sweet odour when rubbed. It varies from ash grey to black in colour and its density is less than that of water. Ambergris should not be confused with yellow amber (succinite) which is a mineral resin and falls.

Castoreum is a resinous substance, brown, reddish or yellowish, with a bitter flavour and a pungent smell. It is secreted by beavers and is usually presented in the pouches (generally joined at their ends) in which it is formed. These pouches are often pleated and range in length from 5 to 10 cm.

Civet is produced by the civet cat and is a golden brown or brown resinous substance of pasty and oily consistency, with a very strong odour which closely resembles natural musk.

Musk, secreted by a kind of deer, is normally enclosed in pouches (flat and hairless on one side and convex and covered with whitish hair on the other) in which it is formed. The secretion is dark brown and has a strong smell. The musk in question should not be confused with artificial musk (musk xylene, musk ambrette, etc).

Cantharides are beetles used primarily for their vesicant or counter-irritant properties. They are usually presented in dried or powdered form.

The heading also includes:

(1) Animal glands and other animal organs used in the preparation of organo-therapeutic products and unfit, by reason of their nature or of the manner in which they are put up, for human consumption (pancreas, testes, ovaries, gall bags, thyroid glands, pituitary glands etc), fresh, chilled or frozen, or otherwise provisionally preserved for the purposes of transports or storage (e.g. in glycerol, acetone or alcohol). When dried or in the form of extract, these products are excluded.

(2) Bile whether or not dried (Bile extract is excluded).

The heading also excludes snake or be venom put up in dried flakes in sealed ampoules.

Bamboo - Bamboos, special varieties of grasses, which grow profusely in some regions and particularly in China, Japan and India. Bamboos have a very light, shiny, generally hollow stalk, in some cases with a groove between alternate pairs of nodes. Bamboos (whether of not split, sawn length wise or cut to length, rounded at the ends, bleached, rendered non-inflammable, polished or dyed) are covered by this heading.

Rattans - Rattans are stems of climbing palms usually of the genus Calamus and come mainly from Southern Asia. They are cylindrical, solid and flexible and generally vary between 0.3 cm and 6 cm in diameter and in colour vary from yellow to brown; they may have a dull (matt) or glossy surface. The heading includes rattan cores and the hard outer canes; it also covers the long strips obtained by cutting longitudinally these cores or canes or the whole rattans.

Essential oils (terpeneless or not) - including concretes and absolutes; resinoids; extracted oleoresins; concentrates of essential oils in fats, in fixed oils, in waxes or the like, obtained by enfleurage or maceration; terpenic by-products of the deterpenation of essential oils; aqueous distillates and aqueous solutions of essential oils.

(a) Essential Oils, including concretes and absolutes; resinoids; extracted oleoresins.

Essential oils, which serve as raw materials in the perfumery, food and other industries, are of vegetable origin. They are generally of complex composition and contain alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, esters, ethers and terpenes in varying proportions. These oils remain in the heading whether or not their fragrance has been modified by removal of their terpenes. Most of these oils are volatile, and the stain which they leave on paper usually disappears rapidly.

(b) Concentrates of essential oils in fats, in fixed oils, or in waxes or the like.

(c) Terpenic by-products.

(d) Aqueous distillates and aqueous solutions of essential oils.

Natural Rubber. Balata. Gutta-Percha, Guayule, Chide and Similar Natural Gums - in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip.

This heading includes:

(a) Natural rubber latex (whether or not pre-vulcanised).

Natural rubber in other forms.

(1) Rubber sheets and crepes.
(2) Technically specified natural rubber (TSNR).
(3) Re-agglomerated rubber granules.
(4) Free-flowing powders of natural rubber.
(5) Special types of natural rubber.

(c) Balata

(d) Gutta-percha

(e) Guayule gum

(f) Chicle gum

(g) Similar natural gums, for example, jelutong.

(h) Intermixtures of any of the foregoing products.

Other Structured Information

Pulp and Paper Capacities - Practical maximum capacity is the tonnage of paper, paperboard or pulp of normal commercial quality that could be produced per year with full use of equipment and adequate supplies of raw materials and labour, and assuming full demand. No allowance is made for losses due to unscheduled shut downs, strikes, temporary lack of power, etc., which cause decreases in actual production, but not in production capacity. Capacity of paper machines which produce more than one grade is apportioned in accordance with actual production patterns or plans for future operation. Capacity is reported in metric tons of net finished paper and paperboard, and air-dry (10 per cent moisture content) pulp.

Production and Trade of Wood-Based Forest Products

Roundwood - Wood in the rough. Wood in its natural state as felled, or otherwise harvested, with or without bark, round, split, roughly squared or other forms (e.g. roots, stumps, burls, etc.). It may also be impregnated (e.g. telegraph poles) or roughly shaped or pointed. It comprises all wood obtained from removals, i.e. the quantities removed from forests and from trees outside the forest, including wood recovered from natural, felling and logging losses during the period - calendar year or forest year. Commodities included are sawlogs and veneer logs, pulpwood, other industrial roundwood (including pitprops) and fuelwood. The statistics include recorded volumes, as well as estimated unrecorded volumes as indicated in the notes. Statistics for trade include, as well as roundwood from removals, the estimated roundwood equivalent of chips and particles, wood residues and charcoal.

Fuelwood + Charcoal - The commodities included are fuelwood, coniferous and non-coniferous and the roundwood equivalent of charcoal (using a factor of 6.0 to convert from weight (MT) to solid volume units (CUM).

Fuelwood - Wood in the rough (from trunks, and branches of trees) to be used as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power production.

Charcoal - Wood carbonized by partial combustion or application of heat from an external source. It is used as a fuel or for other uses. Figures are given in weight (MT).

Industrial Roundwood - The commodities included are sawlogs or veneer logs, pulpwood, other industrial roundwood and, in the case of trade, also chips and particles and wood residues.

Sawlogs + Veneer Logs - These commodity aggregates include sawlogs and veneer logs coniferous and non-coniferous. Sawlogs, veneer logs and logs for sleepers. Logs whether or not roughly squared, to be sawn (or chipped) length wise for the manufacture of sawnwood or railway sleepers (ties). Shingle bolts and stave bolts are included. Logs for production of veneer, mainly by peeling or slicing. Match billets are included, as arc special growth (burls, roots, etc.) used for veneers.

Pulpwood + Particles - Pulpwood, chips, particles and wood residues. In production, the commodities included are pulpwood coniferous and non-coniferous. In trade, the aggregate includes, in addition, chips or particles and wood residues.

Chips + Particles - Wood chips and particles. Wood that has been deliberately reduced to small pieces from wood in the rough or from industrial residues, suitable for pulping, for particle board and fibreboard production, for fuelwood or for other purposes.

Wood Residues - Miscellaneous wood residues. Wood residues which have not been reduced to small pieces. They consist principally of industrial residues, e.g. sawmill rejects, slabs, edgings and trimmings, veneer log cores, veneer rejects, sawdust, bark (excluding briquettes), residues from carpentry and joinery production, etc.

Other Industrial Roundwood - Other industrial roundwood. Roundwood used for tanning, distillation, match blocks, gazogenes, poles, piling, posts, pitprops, etc. (Note: "other industrial roundwood" include pitprops.)

Sawnwood + Sleepers - The aggregate includes sawnwood and sleepers, coniferous or non-coniferous. Sawnwood, unplaned, planed, grooved, tongued, etc., sawn length wise, or produced by a profile-chipping process (e.g. planks, beams, joists, boards, rafters, scantlings, laths, boxboards, "lumber", sleepers, etc.) and planed wood which may also be finger jointed, tongued or grooved, chamfered, rabbeted, V-jointed, beaded, etc. Wood flooring is excluded. With few exceptions, sawnwood exceeds 5 mm. in thickness.

Wood-Based Panels - The aggregate includes the following commodities: veneer sheets, plywood, particle board and fibreboard compressed or non-compressed. Starting from 1995 the Fibreboard, Compressed has been disaggregated in Hardboard and Medium density fibreboard (MDF); and the Fibreboard, non-compressed has been re-labelled Insulating board.

Veneer Sheets - Thin sheets of wood of uniform thickness, rotary cut, sliced or sawn, for use in plywood, laminated construction, furniture, veneer containers, etc. In production, the quantity given excludes veneer sheets used for plywood production within the country.

Plywood - Plywood, veneer plywood, core plywood including veneered wood, blockboard, laminboard and battenboard. Other plywood such as cellular board and composite plywood. Veneer plywood is plywood manufactured by bonding together more than two veneer sheets. The grain of alternate veneer sheets is crossed generally at right angles. Core plywood is plywood whose core (i.e. central layer, generally thicker than the other plies) is solid and consists of narrow boards, blocks or strips of wood placed side by side, which may or may not be glued together. (This item includes veneered wood in sheets or panels in which a thin veneer of wood is affixed to a base, usually of inferior wood, by gluing under pressure). Cellular board is a plywood with a core of cellular construction while composite plywood is a plywood with core or certain layers made of material other than solid wood or veneers.

Particle Board - A sheet material manufactured from small pieces of wood or oilier ligno-cellulosic materials (e.g. chips, flakes, splinters, strands, shreds, schives, etc.) agglomerated by use of an organic binder together with one or more of the following agents: heat, pressure, humidity, a catalyst, etc. (Flaxboard is included. Wood wool and other particle boards, with inorganic binders, are excluded).

Fibreboard (fibre building board) - A panel manufactured from fibres of wood or other ligno-cellulosic materials with the primary bond deriving from the felting of the fibres and their inherent adhesive properties. Bonding materials and/or additives may be added. It is usually flat pressed but may also be moulded. (Similar products made from pieces of wood, wood flour or other ligno-cellulosic material with added binders are excluded - as are, for example, boards of gypsum or other mineral material). The aggregate includes fibreboard compressed (Hardboard and Medium Density Fibreboard) and insulating board.

Fibreboard (Compressed) - Fibreboard Compressed includes fibreboards with a density greater than 0.50 g/cm3. This commodity for the time reported (1961-1994) was not disaggregated. Starting from 1995 the Fibreboard compressed has been disaggregated in Hardboard and MDF as defined below.

Hardboard - Hardboard is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.80 g/cm3.

MDF - MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.50 g/cm3 but not exceeding 0.80 g/cm3.

Insulating Board - Insulating Board is a type of fibreboard with a density exceeding 0.35 g/cm3 but not exceeding 0.50 g/cm3. Note: this commodity used to be labelled "fibreboard non-compressed".

Wood Pulp - The following commodities are included in this aggregate: mechanical, semi-chemical, chemical and dissolving wood pulp.

Mechanical Wood Pulp - Wood pulp obtained by grinding or milling: coniferous or non-coniferous rounds, quarters, billets, etc into fibres or through refining coniferous or non-coniferous chips. Also called groundwood pulp and refiner pulp. It may be bleached or unbleached. It excludes exploded and defibrated pulp, and includes chemi-mechanical and thermo-mechanical pulp.

Semi-Chemical Wood Pulp - Wood pulp, chemi-mechanical and semi-chemical Wood pulp obtained by subjecting coniferous or non-coniferous wood to a series of mechanical and chemical treatments, none of which alone is sufficient to make the fibres separate readily. According to the order and importance of the treatment, such pulp is variously named: semi-chemical, chemi-groundwood, chemi-mechanical, etc. It may be bleached or unbleached.

Dissolving Wood Pulp - Wood pulp, dissolving grades chemical pulp (sulphate, soda or sulphite) from coniferous or non-coniferous wood, or special quality, with a very high alpha-cellulose content (usually 90% and over), readily adaptable for uses other than paper making. These pulps are always bleached. They are used principally as a source of cellulose in the manufacture of products such as synthetic fibres, cellulosic plastic materials, lacquers, explosives.

Chemical Wood Pulp - Sulphate (kraft) and soda and sulphite wood pulp except dissolving grades, bleached, semi-bleached and unbleached. Where detail is available, statistics for the following four component pulps (1660, 1661, 1662, 1663) are given:

Other Fibre Pulp - Pulp of fibrous vegetable materials other than wood. Including straw, bamboo, bagasse, esparto, other reeds or grasses, cotton linters, flax, hemp, rags, other textile wastes. Used for the manufacture of paper, paperboard and fibreboard.

Recovered Paper - Waste and scrap of paper or paperboard. This commodity includes paper and paperboard which has been used for its original purpose and residues from paper conversion. This includes waste and scrap collected for re-use as a raw material for the manufacture of paper and related products.

Paper + Paperboard - The following commodities are included in this aggregate: Newsprint, printing and writing paper, other paper and paper- board.

Newsprint - Uncoated paper, unsized (or only slightly sized), containing at least 60% (percentage of fibrous content) mechanical wood pulp, usually weighing not less that 40 g/square m and generally not more than 60 g/square m of the type used mainly for the printing of newspapers.

Other printing and writing paper - Paper, except newsprint, suitable for printing and business purposes, writing, sketching, drawing, etc., made from a variety of pulp blends and with various finishes. Included are such papers as those used for books and magazines, wallpaper base stock, box lining and covering calculator paper, rotonews, duplicating, tablet or block, label, lithograph, banknote, tabulating card stock, bible or imitation bible, stationary, manifold, onionskin, typewriter, poster, etc.

Other Paper + Paperboard - Includes construction paper and paperboard, household and sanitary paper, special thin paper, wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard and other paper and paperboard not elsewhere specified.

Household and sanitary paper; special thin paper - Household and sanitary paper includes absorbent paper, creped or uncreped, sometimes embossed, made from bleached or unbleached chemical wood pulp, sometimes with a mixture of pulp from waste paper and mechanical pulp. Included are towelling, napkin, facial tissue, toilet tissue, wadding disposable tissues.

Wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard - Paper or paperboards included are the following: vegetable parchment, greaseproof and glassine paper. Papers made from pure chemical wood pulp or from mixture of chemical wood pulp, cotton fibre pulp, treated (e.g. highly hydrated or hard beaten) to render the resulting paper resistant to oil, grease and water. They are used primarily for packaging frozen, moist or greasy materials such as butter, margarine, meat or fish, linerboard; paper or paperboard used as facing material on corrugated or solid paper or paperboard boxes and containers. Fluting medium: paper or paperboard used as medium when combining paper and paperboard for conversion into a corrugated board. Sack kraft paper: strong paper made from sulphate pulp and used in the manufacture of single, or multiwall, sacks. Other kraft wrapping paper: all other wrapping and packaging papers made principally from sulphate pulp. Folding boxboard: all types of paperboard used in the manufacture of folding boxes. Other wrapping and packaging paper and paperboard.

Paper + Paperboard Nes - Other paper and paperboard not elsewhere specified. Includes: Kraft papers for waxing, asphalting, water proofing, laminating, impregnating, spinning or twisting, gumming, etc., paper manufactured principally from furnishes other than sulphate pulp not included elsewhere, such as rope and jute paper, folder stock, blotting paper, filter paper, photographic sensitizing paper, etc. and paperboards not included elsewhere such as shoe board, gasket board, transformer board, press textile board, index pressboard, panel board (automotive) trunk and suitcase board, matrix board.

Construction paper and paperboard: Papers, paper felts and paper boards used in the construction of buildings and other structures for insulation, vapour seal, roofing and flooring underlay, etc. They are made from fully refined material such as wood pulp, waste paper, other vegetable pulp and mineral fibre. Low thermal conductivity, moisture resistance, fire resistance permanency, insect and vermin resistance are desirable characteristics of these materials (excluded are papers, felts or boards impregnated, saturated laminated or further manufactured in any way and fibreboard or fibre building board, in the form of insulating board, medium hardboard and hardboard).

Special thin paper: papers made for special purposes, their common characteristics being their relative thinness. They may be made from mechanical or chemical wood pulps, bleached or unbleached, but frequently from pulps containing flax, hemp or cotton fibre. Principal characteristics of some of these papers are: uniformity of surface and calliper, freedom from pinholes, strength close formation, low permeability, chemical purity - all related to special uses. Examples of types of paper included arc: carbonizing tissue, condenser and capacitator paper, cigarette paper, lens tissue, pattern tissue, tea bag paper.

Production - The total production of primary products is reported, even though a portion may immediately be consumed in the production of another commodity (e.g., wood pulp, which may immediately be converted into paper as part of a continues process). An exception is made in the case of veneer production, which excludes veneer sheets used for plywood production within the country.

Imports (Quantity) / (Value) - Products for domestic consumption or processing shipped into the country. "In-transit" shipments are excluded; in certain instances, imports for re-export may be included. Values are normally c.i.f..

Exports (Quantity) / (Value) - All quantities of domestic origin or manufacture shipped out of the country. As indicated above under "Imports", re-exports may be included. "In-transit" shipments are excluded. Values are normally f.o.b..

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