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News of the world

Fundamental science
Silviculture and management
Mensuration, increment, and yield
Economics and statistics
Policy, legislation, and administration

The items appearing here are condensed selections of news thought to be of interest to readers of UNASYLVA. They are grouped alphabetically by countries under headings currently used by the Division of Forestry and Forest Products for reference purposes. The Editor will be glad to receive direct from readers authenticated items of interest and of news value for this part of the review.



· Many of the Bermuda cedars (Juniperus bermudiana) are being destroyed by the juniper scale. All efforts at control of the scale, the presence of which was first discovered in August 1945, have been unsuccessful. Actual count in some sections discloses that more than 60 percent of the trees are dead, and there is every indication that the mortality will increase. Realizing the need to restore the natural beauty of the colony, which is an important tourist attraction, the Bermuda House of Assembly has voted funds to be used by the Bermuda Department of Agriculture in starting the work of reforestation. It is understood that additional funds will be granted when needed. The initial funds will be used to purchase machines for uprooting and removing the dead trees. Seedlings, preferably of some species not likely to be attacked by the scale, will then be planted. The entire project is expected to take several years. As much timber as possible will be salvaged, but the Bermuda Government has indicated that none will be exported. A steady demand for seasoned wood exists in Bermuda, and trees suitable for lumber will be milled into appropriate dimensions by portable sawmills and stored for future use.


· As a profitable market for fuelwood is one of the greatest needs in forestry, a small bulletin (No. 28) recently issued by the Northeastern Wood Utilization Council will be found very useful. This bulletin, entitled How to Burn Wood, considers the following aspects of the subject: comparative fuel values; wood distillation methods; wood heaters, fireplaces, stoves and furnaces; sawdust burners; chipped wood as fuel; sawdust briquettes, charcoal, use of wood ashes; producing fuelwood; and improved woods tools.


· For the first time on record an oratorio in praise of forestry has been written. Dmitri Shostakovitch, one of the greatest living composers, has set to music a poem, "Song of the Forests," by the Soviet poet Evgenia Dolmatovsky, celebrating the project for the creation of forests and shelter belts across the Soviet Union's richest farming areas (See UNASYLVA, III, 2, p. 55). The oratorio is written for choir, soloists, and orchestra.

· The Siberian cedar (Pinus siberica) is valuable both for its wood and for the nutritious nuts that it bears. Actually it is not a cedar but a five-needle pine, similar to the white pines (P. strobus and P. monticola) of eastern and western North America. It grows for the most part on the plains of central and northern Siberia; only small stands are found in the mountains of the South. There are close to 7,000,000 hectares of exploitable cedar forests in the provinces of Tumen, Tomsk, Novo-Sibirsk, Attai, Kemerov, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, the Buryat-Mongolian Republic, and Chita, not including the cedar stands of the Yakut Republic and many areas of young merchantable stands and areas of low productivity. The largest areas of merchantable cedar forests are in the provinces of Tomsk (2,400,000 ha.), Krasnoyarsk (1,220,000 ha.), and Irkutsk (1,150,000 ha.). About 87 percent of the cedar is mature and overmature, and offers opportunities for the development of large timber operations. The wood is of high quality, suitable for making pencils, veneer, furniture, packing boxes, lumber, structural timber, and other industrial products. Until 1923, when the Siberian Timber Trust was created, there was little cutting except for local use. In 1911-13 some cedar cut in the Altai was exported abroad for use by the pencil industry. In 1914, 10,000 cedar logs were cut in the basin of the river Yenisei for export by the Northern Sea route, but they were never exported. The Siberian Timber Trust is now carrying on fairly extensive logging operations in the cedar forests of the Tomsk province and also in the Altai and south of Krasnoyarsk, chiefly for pencil wood.

In developing the cedar timber industry, the Siberian Timber Trust is faced with the problem of developing nut production at the same time. The nuts are richer in oil than hemp, flax, sunflower, and many other oleaginous seeds. Long before cedar was cut for logs the cedar nut (similar to the piñon nut of the southwestern United States) was extensively consumed throughout Russia and provided a substantial income to the local population. Every third year is considered a good seed year; every second year produces a crop; and some seed can be harvested every year. The quantity of nuts produced depends upon the vigor of growth and the age of the stand and upon the geographic location. It ranges for an average seed year from 16 to 68 kilograms per hectare. Considering the large area of good cedar forests, the possibilities for developing a large nut industry exist., The present harvest is insignificant. In the Altai region, for instance, the quantity of nuts collected does not exceed 5,000 tons; in the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk region it is only 3,000 tons - a mere fraction of the possibilities. The problem which faces the Siberian Timber Trust is to reconcile an increase in logging with an expanding nut production. The best timber trees are also the best nut bearers. Some form of selective cutting, therefore, is clearly indicated. As early as 1939 the Government issued instructions to divide all cedar forests into two categories, nut-producing and timber-producing; implementation, however, has met with difficulties, and in the meantime logging is going on in the most accessible localities. If trees that are valuable as nut bearers are not exempted, there will not be enough left to ensure continuous and abundant crops of nuts.

Fundamental science


· That the absence in the soil of some minor chemical elements can hamper the growth of forest stands has been proved by two experiments with borax and copper. 1. A Norway spruce plantation on a degraded sandy podsol with hardpan was not doing well. It seemed to suffer from some nutritional deficiency. In 1934 the heather ground cover was removed, the soil was loosened, and copper slag (1.62% CuO) was applied at a rate of 12 kilograms per 100 square meters. In 1946 the heights of the stands on the treated and untreated plots were respectively 116.8 and 94.4 centimeters; the foliage of the former was green and that of the latter yellow-green. 2. In 1940 a deep, clayey nursery soil, somewhat acid and poor in nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P), was treated with ground limestone alone (2 kg. per 5 m.²) and limestone together with borax (2.87 g. per 5 m.²) The soil thus treated was planted to one-year seedlings of Norway spruce. Both treatments improved development and foliage color of the transplants, the combined limestone and borax treatment giving the better results. In 1943 the fresh weight of the shoots and roots of the treated transplants was considerably greater than that of the untreated.


· A survey of about 14,000 hectares of forest in Poland has shown a definite correlation between the site quality of pine stands and the proportion of particles smaller than 0.25 millimeters contained in the soil. Sandy soils having a uniform water table lower than 2 meters and a proportion of small particles above 40 percent can be expected to support first-quality pine. This criterion was found applicable also over large areas in estimating the quality of the soil in the case of oak and silver fir. Although the proportion of small particles is not the only factor on which the height of the stand depends, it is considered a sufficiently reliable criterion of quality for management purposes. This method, however, is not suitable for determining the quality of soils which are less uniform, which have a high water table or much humus, or which show great variations in the proportion of particles smaller than 0.25 millimeters.


· In agriculture, it has long been known that crop yields are increased by applying small doses of antiseptics such as chlorpicrin, chlorine, carbon disulphide, formalin, and hydrochloric acid, even to uninfected soils. These substances stimulate useful soil microorganisms, increase availability of nutrients, and improve the chemical properties of the soil. In forestry, the high cost of fertilizers restricts their use to nurseries and plantations on comparatively small areas. The only practical measures for improving the soil on large tracts of natural forests are the scattering of slash, without burning, on poor sites and slash-burning on the better ones.

The use of chlorates has been tried in forest nurseries, plantations, and cleared areas, as well as under canopy, in northwestern and southeastern European Russia with the following results:

1. After the toxic chlorate residues had leached out of the soil, planted or natural seedlings of various species showed marked improvement: they had better root system and height growth, more branches, larger leaves, and greater air-dry weight as compared with controls. Deciduous species reacted most strongly. The height growth of oak, ash, elm, maple, and Siberian pea tree (Caragana arborescens) more than doubled the total air-dry weight and the size of the leaves increased even more. Turning of the leaves in the fall began later in the treated plantations, and during the summer drought the leaves remained a healthy green while those on untreated areas turned yellow.

2. Coniferous species, especially pine, reacted less vigorously, but even for pine the chlorate treatment increased height growth by 50 percent and doubled air-dry weight.

3. Mixed spruce and broadleaved plots treated with chlorates at 3 to 5 grams per square meter showed several times as much natural spruce regeneration as the control plots. During the five or six years of observation, these seedlings grew three to four times as fast as the controls, and had longer and darker green needles.

4. Application of small doses (1-3 gm/m²) several days before sowing or planting, or just after sowing, resulted in better growth during the first two, years. The effect of larger doses was observed to last for several years.

5. Doses of 1 to 2 grams of chlorate per square meter of soil caused no injury to, trees or shrubs over two or three years old, provided that the solution did not touch the aerial portions of the plants.

6. The effect of the chlorates is indirect. They hasten decomposition of plant residues, increase microbiological activity, and promote ammonification and nitrification, particularly the latter, the nitrates being the best source of nitrogen for plants.

7. The use of small amounts of chlorate in solution as a spray proved effective in controlling herbaceous vegetation and young root suckers of trees. A spring spraying of weeds in a nursery with 1 to 3 grams of chlorate solution per square meter several days before sowing or transplanting is estimated to save from thirty to fifty man-days of weeding per hectare during the season. A stronger solution of 5 grams per square meter used in the forest destroyed root suckers of aspen and alder. A solution of 3 to 5 grams per square meter is sufficient to destroy Vaccinium myrtillus and ensure its absence for several years. Where perennial herbaceous weeds are present, however, small doses may stimulate their growth instead of killing them.

8. Since potassium chlorate is expensive, the most suitable chlorate for these purposes is probably calcium chlorate.

· To prevent the scattering of research efforts and avoid duplication, the Ministry of Timber and Pulp Industry hag designated the Central Scientific Research Institute of Mechanization and Energetics of the Timber Industry as the main planning organization for all research in the field of mechanization, organization, and economics of lumbering. It is to co-ordinate the work of all research institutions and outline the problems upon which each research unit is to work. Other institutions are the Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Forest Management and Forest Exploitation, the scientific research sectors of the Leningrad Technological Forestry Academy, and several other technical forestry schools of university standing.

Silviculture and management


· There is considerable interest in many countries in hybrid larches, some of which provide remarkable examples of heterosis. The Director of the Forestry Research Station of Groenendaal recently published the result of studies on the best known of these hybrids, Larix eurolepis, resulting from the cross pollination of L. kaempferi by L. decidua. This spontaneous-growth hybrid was first noticed in Scotland at Dunkeld (Perthshire) in 1885. Belgium has plantations of it, one of which was established in 1910 before the hybrid had even received its official name. Its rapid growth is noteworthy. In Scotland, it sometimes grows to a height of 80 to 100 centimeters in the first three years and to a height of 16 meters at 16 years of age. In Belgium, the best-known examples reached a height of 12.50 to 15 meters at the age of 21 years and a circumference of from 72 to 96 centimeters at 1.50 meters from the ground. Unfortunately, the study of this hybrid presents great difficulties because of the instability of its characteristics, beginning with the first (F1) generation; so marked is this instability that the hypothesis has been advanced that a segregation of the hybrid occurs beginning with the first generation, with a return in part to the parental types. The study of these characteristics is also complicated by the fact that some of the seedlings are greatly affected by soils and by environment and site conditions, particularly with respect to their wood texture. Finally, a differentiation between seedlings of the same age occurs as these grow older, bringing forth certain characteristics which were not in evidence when they were young. One-year-old seedlings of both the first (F1) and the second (F2) generations are practically identical, but they begin to differ at the age of two or three years. However in Belgium at least, the trees of the first generation are of the kaempferi type. Consequently it may be that the apparently dominant kaempferi characteristics are only temporarily masked in some of the trees. The trees of the L. decidua type of the first generation appear to be somewhat superior to the others. These studies will have to be continued, particularly with a view to accurate identification of the Belgian stands of so-called Japanese larch. This could be done: (a) by checking the seedlings issued from seed harvested from Japanese larch planted close to European larches and also from recognized hybrid larches; (b) by intensified production of hybrids through the creation of seed-tree stands, or larch "orchards"; and (c) finally, by employing grafting methods, already widely utilized in Denmark.


· The Forest Biology Department of L'Institut du Pin in France recently announced the success of experiments initiated some time ago on the propagation of Pinus pinaster by cuttings. Although in America propagation by cuttings of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) had failed to achieve the desired results, research workers of the Institut observed that in no case were sear excrescences formed at the cut end of the branches after they had been placed in the earth. Consequently, they tried to obtain the formation of such an excrescence before severing the shoots, by making a ring-shaped cut from one to three centimeters in width in the bark at the base of one-year-old shoots, cutting away the outer and inner bark tissues. The unbarked ring was then spread with a lanolin-base paste containing indol-acetic acid, and covered with a piece of cloth bound with raffia. Towards the end of the growing season, shoots which had been treated in this manner, and on which a large sear excrescence had appeared, were much larger in diameter at the end than below the ringed cut. They were severed at the place where the ringed cut had been made and heeled-in in wet sand, which was watered regularly every 40 minutes and maintained at a temperature of 12° C. during the night and 15° to 25° C. during the day. Throughout the night they were kept under artificial light from sunray lamps. The following spring, some of the cuttings had one or two roots, varying in length from a few millimeters to 22 centimeters, and of comparatively greater thickness than the roots of young saplings of the same age. The following autumn, one slip already had secondary roots near the ring cut where the excrescence had appeared.


· Only in recent years has it seemed important to improve forest trees by the genetic methods effective in agriculture. In view of the work in forest genetics accomplished in Europe and the United States of America (covering climatic races, influence of the mother-tree on its offspring, hybrids, mutations, vegetative propagation, and growth substances), and the need for forest genetics work in Indonesia, discussions are now under way concerning the addition of a new branch to the Forestry Research Institute at Buitenzorg and the most productive lines of initial research in this field.


· Lebanon is making a determined effort to preserve its few remaining cedar trees, once famous as a building material. Once the mountain ranges of Lebanon were covered with the great, spreading trees. Now these slopes, gradually denuded with the passing of centuries, are nearly bare. Only a few groves remain. To: protect them, Lebanon has forbidden further cutting without special government permission, and the person who cuts down one tree must plant fifty trees. A twenty-year reforestation program, to begin next fall, includes plans to set out thousands of young cedars on the cool slopes, where they grow best.


· Transjordan has initiated a forestry program as a result of a study made by one of its officials in Cyprus. King Abdullah is patron of a newly established Arbor Day. Two tree nurseries have been started, and a soil conservation program has begun. Demonstration plots planted near the main highways call attention to the efforts being made to combat erosion.


· The Zoological Laboratory of the All-Union Institute for Plant Protection has developed a new zoocide for the protection of tree seed against rodents. It contains two active ingredients: phosphide of zinc (the poison) and ammonium chloride (a repelling substance). It is prepared by making a thin paste of flour and water, adding ammonium chloride (250 gm. to 1 liter of the heated paste), and stirring the mixture until the ammonium chloride is fully dissolved. This mixture is poured over the seed and allowed to thicken. Then a powder of phosphide of zinc and fine chalk (in equal parts by volume) is sprinkled over the seed until they are uniformly covered by it. After that the seeds are spread out to dry. The chalk is used to prevent the phosphide of zinc from decomposing in the soil, and the flour paste serves as a binder. Tests have shown that the coating remains intact on the seed in moist soil for a month and more. The tests, have also shown that the coating does not lower or even delay germination. As a matter of fact, in a number of cases the application of the zoocide acts as a fertilizer at the early stages of the development of the seedlings. The treated seed produced better developed seedlings than the untreated. The zoocide is poisonous to man and animals and should there, fore be handled with proper precautions.

· To expedite the big forest-planting project now under way, the Soviet Union is mass-producing a standard planting machine, known as the PC-2. The machine is claimed to be extremely efficient and of a design so simple that no difficulties will be experienced with repairs. It plants either cuttings or seedlings. A number of the machines can be used coupled together and pulled by a large caterpillar tractor. Another more complicated machine, called the PN-5, is designed for setting out seedlings.

From tests recently made of several cultivators, the tractor known as KLTC-6 was judged the-most successful for the cultivation of newly planted trees. Another special tractor is in production that is designed to move between rows without damaging the tops of young trees, while the tractor "STZ-NATI" has an attachment for digging planting holes.

· A new method of establishing protective strips around cultivated fields is being advocated, the so-called "nest" planting. Instead of setting out nursery-grown seedlings in rows, which is the usual way, the seeds of the trees that are to make up the bulk of the forest strips are sown at the same time as the seed of the agricultural crops, and not in rows but in small clumps or "nests." The principal species of the forest strips on the heavier soils is oak; on the lighter sandy soils, pine.

This is the procedure that is followed: On a field thoroughly prepared for sowing agricultural crops, the strip set aside to grow trees is marked by longitudinal lines 5 meters apart and by crosslines 3 meters apart. Where the two sets of lines cross, from 35 to 40 acorns of good germinating quality are planted within an area of one square meter; thus on one hectare there will be 667 such nests. In the fall, after the agricultural crop is harvested, the ground between the longitudinal lines is disced and sown to rye. With the rye, three lines of Caragana seed mixed with seed of some other shrubs are also sown. These rows are located centrally between the lines containing the acorns. The following spring, half way between the acorn nests on the crosslines, a single nest of maple (Acer platanoides) is sown. Thus in the second year after the acorns are planted, the picture will be as follows: Groups of oak seedlings entering upon their second year of life 3 x 5 meters apart in the row; within the same row, 1.5 meters from the oak seedlings, recently planted nests of maple; between the oak rows, three longitudinal rows of seedlings of Caragana and other shrubs. The sowing of rye is to continue until the oak seedlings are four years old and the seedlings of Caragana and maple three years old. After that the forest strip is expected to suppress weeds by its own shade without further sowing of agricultural crops. The advantages of establishing forest strips by the nest method, it is claimed, lie in preventing the invasion of aggressive prairie weeds-the foe of both cultivated crops and young forest plantations-and in increasing the chances of survival of the oak seedlings as the principal tree in the forest strip. The method is being tried out on a large scale and, if successful, may become the standard method of planting.

Mensuration, increment, and yield


· A draft standard specification for coniferous sawn timber intended for further conversion has been prepared by the Timber Products Sectional Committee of the Indian Standards Institution to cover the various requirements of the trade and, in particular, those of the purchasing departments of the Central, Provincial, and State Governments. All aspects of coniferous timber have been classified into four grades. In addition to defining a number of terms used in the trade, the draft standard specifies in detail the requirements of the first three grades in regard to species of timber, dimensions, permissible defects, and estimated percentage of recovery of useful material. It is being circulated among timber interests for comment.



· Forestry officers in South Australia are finding mistletoe a destructive and costly pest, and they are using flame-throwers to destroy it. In various parts of the State there are ten or twelve species of the parasite, two of them confined to eucalypts and one attacking orange and olive trees. The most harmful are those species which live on eucalypts and acacias. In South Australia they are killing tens of thousands of valuable timber trees.


· In its final report for 1948-49, the Israeli Department of Forests indicates that "since the establishment of the State practically all goats in the country have disappeared, while the illicit cutting of trees and burning of charcoal have been completely checked. Thus the work of protection has been greatly facilitated and... improvement (is expected) in the growth of the natural 'forests'." Considerable progress has been made also in establishing and improving forest plantations and demarking and surveying for new plantations. The present area of forest reserves under government control is 28,700 hectares.


· Several damaging fires in the National Forests of Montana, Idaho, and California have been reported by the U.S. Forest Service. The details of losses and costs will not be known for some time. In Montana and Idaho the fires were caused by lightning. In Montana, thirteen young parachute jumpers lost their lives in July in attempting to outrun a fire which suddenly blew up; the crew leader and other members of the crew saved themselves by burning out a spot ahead of the main fire and staying in it. Two or three firefighters lost their lives in California fires.

Such tragic events re-emphasize that suppressing forest fires is a hazardous business when fires suddenly misbehave - as they sometimes do. Fire leadership must often take calculated risks, but should always seek to have an emergency way out.


· Experiments in combatting the ravages caused by the larvae of the June bug (Amphimallon solstitialis) and related species by dusting the roots of pine seedlings with 5 percent DDT and 6 percent hexachloran were conducted in 1948 in two forests of the Kharkov and Pskov provinces. The roots were dusted just as the seedlings were planted in soils heavily infested with the larvae of several species of beetles that feed upon pine roots. The workers who did the dusting and planting protected their noses and mouths with gauze and cotton bandages and were cautioned not to rub their eyes. No bad effects upon the skin were observed from either DDT or hexachloran. Hexachloran, however, affected the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract to some extent, but these effects disappeared as soon as the work stopped. The results as presented in detailed tables may be generalized as follows:

1. Dusting the roots of pine seedlings with DDT or hexachloran protects them from damage by June bugs during the first year after planting. The significant point is that the presence of these two poisons in the soil does not affect the normal development or the number of the larvae. No dead larvae were found in the soil. The poisons apparently only repel or "frighten" the larvae from attacking the roots.

2. Pine seedlings dusted with hexachloran showed a slower growth than the untreated seedlings in the control plots. No such effect was observed in the case of seedlings dusted with DDT.

3. The roots of the seedlings which were dusted with the poisons had a slightly lower resistance to climatic effects than the undusted seedlings, and the mortality: among them from such causes was therefore greater. But this loss was more than compensated by the large number of healthy seedlings not injured by the larvae.

4. On soils heavily infested with larvae of the June bug, dusting with 5 percent DDT or 6 percent hexachloran can be recommended.

5. The amount of poison to be used per hectare depends on the number of pine seedlings planted. If the planting is at the rate of 10,000 per hectare, 15 to 17 kilograms should be used. If the rate is 20,000 seedlings per hectare, the amount must be doubled. These amounts, however, are tentative, needing further narrowing down.



· The results of a field service test carried out to determine the natural durability of different timbers in a temperate country are given in Forest Products Research Record No. 30, published by the U.K. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The report considers that it is unjustifiable to go beyond a classification of the timbers into a number of broad groups, according to relative durability. The results apply specifically to durability against fungal decay and are not necessarily applicable where other destructive agencies, such as termites, marine borers (Terredo navalis), mechanical wear, or weathering are involved. In most industrialized countries, antiseptically treated wood is now replacing naturally durable timbers for use in structures which are subject to decay. Where preservative treatment is possible, there is generally no point in using a naturally durable timber solely to avoid decay, since much better service can usually be obtained from a treated timber which has been selected for its ability to take preservative treatment well. For instance, pressure-creosoted redwood poles have given more than seventy years' service without failure, and there is every reason to believe that they are capable of even longer service. This is well beyond the capabilities of most structural timbers in their natural state. The chief function of data on natural durability is to indicate when a timber can safely be used in its natural state, and when it requires protection by preservative treatment. The nature of the service conditions under which it will be used must, of course, be clearly established.


· There are now some forty types of Russian power saws. Some are already factory-produced; others are coming up for production or are still in the experimental stage. They combine chain saws with or without H. F. motors, disc saws, and bow saws. The types with H. F. motors are regarded as the most promising. Saws operated with H. F. current (200 cycles) are less than half as heavy as those run on normal current. Until special generators are mass-produced in the U.S.S.R., it will be necessary to adapt existing equipment to supply H. F. current by the use, for instance, of special transformers for converting ordinary (50-cycle) A.C. to the requisite frequency.



· Apparently the chief pulpwood used in papermaking in the Soviet Union is spruce. Pine is used, but only for the production of sulphate pulp. Its use in the production of sulphite pulp is limited because of its high resin content, varying according to region and age between 3 and 8 percent. The resin content of spruce pulpwood, on the other hand, ranges between 1 and 1.25 percent. A number of experiments have been carried on in an attempt to eliminate the technical difficulties in paper and cardboard making arising from the presence of resin. These difficulties result from the interaction between the chemical components of the resin and the carbonate salts of the water (the hardness of the water). There are two solutions: one is to solidify the components of the resin so that it can spread uniformly over the wood fibers. This can be accomplished by treating the groundwood mass with a mixture of lime and caustic soda or of lime and ordinary salt (sodium chloride). The other is either to avoid the use of water containing carbonates or, if no other water is available, to use chemicals to neutralize the hardness of the water.

The accumulation of resin as measured on ground steel or bronze plates (200 mm. by 150 mm. in size) inserted in the rollers amounted, in the course of the first 24 hours, to 8.5-11 grams per square meter when the cellulose was not treated by a mixture of lime and salts; it decreased to 1-3 grams when so treated. In summer the deposit of resin on the plates reached 22.5 grams per square meter for untreated cellulose. The experiments conducted at three different paper mills led to the conclusion that the technical difficulties caused by the high content of resin in pine pulpwood can be overcome and that the treatment does not affect the quality and color of the paper. The dosages recommended are 1 percent of calcium oxide (CaO) and 0.6 percent of salt (NaCl) in relation to the weight of the cellulose mass. Another point to keep in mind is that the flow of the lime solution should be uninterrupted and of a constant concentration (10-15 gm. per liter).

Economics and statistics


· According to a plan prepared by the Austrian timber industry, the sum to be reserved from ERP funds for modernization of the industrial plants amounts to 21 million schillings (equivalent to about 2.1 million U.S. dollars) during the period 1 July 1949 to 30 June 1950. The Austrian sawmill industry would get a total of 6 million schillings to enable it to compete with foreign markets. The plywood industry, which would have to bring its equipment up to date, would have 10 million schillings at its disposal. It is estimated that modernization would enable the industry to export plywood at an annual value of 40 million schillings. The fiberboard and furniture manufacturing industries would each have an allocation of 2 million schillings. The extension of the furniture industry would make it possible to meet the demand for inexpensive furniture and, in addition, to export furniture. Finally, investments in the minor woodworking industries would amount to 1 million schillings.


· The timber industry in Burma is suffering severely from the unsettled political conditions, and is operating at considerably below the prewar level. Teak and other hardwoods are in short supply in Rangoon and sawmills are working at about half capacity, substantially reducing the amount of timber available for export. The demand for teak continues strong, and prices have been maintained or increased to offset losses and higher costs. Other hardwood prices, however, have dropped in many markets as a result of cheaper supplies from other exporting countries. It is increasingly difficult, therefore, for Burma to sell in the export market at prices sufficient to cover costs.


· Canadian exports of wood, wood products, and paper for the six months January-June 1949 were valued at Can$408,186,000. Exports for the corresponding period of 1948 were valued at $453,334,000, and of 1938 at $94,640,000.


· The Kwangtung Provincial Paper Mill near Canton, the largest newsprint mill in prewar China, had been returned from Japan and, before recent political developments, was expected to begin operations by the end of 1949. This plant first began operations in July 1938 but was seized in October 1938 by the Japanese and later shipped to Hokkaido, where it operated during the war years. Before the war, the plant had a daily capacity of 50 metric tons of newsprint. The mill could probably now produce no more than 42 tons per day. The reconstruction of this plant would be a major element in the over-all rehabilitation of the paper industry in China, particularly if domes tic production of adequate supplies of newsprint is to be assured. Three other small mills have been operating in Kwangtung. Their combined capacity is 13 tons per day.


· In the twelve months ended 15 April 1949, log and timber production in the Philippines reached the record figure of more than 2.25 million cubic meters. This exceeds somewhat the quantity cut in 1938. Most of the output was retained for the domestic market, the value of timber exports being estimated at approximately 4 million pesos (US$2 million). Prewar exports of lumber and timber averaged 6-7 million pesos.


· The State Forest Service of Poland estimates that 400,000 hectares of forest were clear-cut and 600,000 hectares heavily overcut during World War II, the total drain being close to 100 million cubic meters. In 1948 wood production amounted to 10.5 million cubic meters. Forest planting has been carried out on 88,000 hectares.


· The first shipment of teak logs from Trinidad was made in 1947, and consisted of 150 cubic feet (4 m³) exported to Jamaica. Now areas of teak have been planted during recent years at the rate of 500 acres (200 ha.) annually. At the end of 1947 the area planted amounted to 6,926 acres (2,803 ha.), and it is planned to have a total of 27,000 acres (11,000 ha.) under cultivation during the next 40 years. Teak planting, which began in 1913 with seed from Burma, is combined with the growing of hill rice, maize, and other food crops. Trinidad has supplied teak seed to the Caribbean islands, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia during the past ten years. Jamaica and Puerto Rico have been the largest importers of seed.


· The second report of the Colonial Primary Products Committee gives the following details on the possible extent of colonial hardwood exports:

Average -1936-38

Estimated - 1952-53

1,000 cu. ft.

1,000 m³(r)

1,000 cu. ft.

1,000 m³(r)

Gold Coast




















British Guiana





British Honduras





British Borneo









The report emphasizes that any program to intensify colonial timber production must be carefully related to a program of protection and regeneration on a similar scale. The forests are among the most important of the capital assets of colonial peoples, and it is obviously a principle of the first importance that these assets should be used to the best advantage. While it will be a very long time before softwood production can be developed on a large scale, the hardwood exports of British colonial territories are capable of very substantial expansion, but the prerequisites are a great improvement in the supply of machinery, the improvement of communications, and increased staff. For these reasons, the maximum production cannot be obtained for some years. There is much room for research both in silviculture and conservation and, more particularly, on utilization. Maximum production also depends on full use of all timber with a commercial value. This includes the development of veneer and plywood manufacture in the colonies and the increased conversion of logs (particularly secondary timber) in the country of origin, to economize on freight by transporting the timber in a semi processed form.

As regards the possibility of pulp supplies, the report concludes that while there are a number of lines of inquiry which can be profitably pursued, particularly on eucalyptus and wattle (Acacia spp.), there is at present no project which can be confidently recommended as a practical proposition. Wattle is considered likely to prove by far the best source of vegetable tanning materials in colonial territories, and its cultivation should be given every encouragement, particularly on the highlands of East and Central Africa, where it can be grown without encroaching upon local food production.

Policy, legislation, and administration


· Under the provisions of a Presidential Decree of January 1949, a Nicaraguan Department of Forestry has been created as a branch of the Ministry of Agriculture and Labor. The new department will have control over all forest conservation measures, reforestation of all suitable lands, and enforcement of existing forest laws. It is planned to establish nurseries of forest trees in various areas of the country, which will supply planting stock for the reforestation program. The new department is also preparing a forest map of Nicaragua.


· By a decree of April 1948 a new independent Ministry of Forestry was created in Rumania, where previously all forest affairs had been handled by the Ministry of Agriculture. The new Ministry began a sweeping reorganization of the entire forest administration. Beginning with 1949, some 11,000 personnel of all categories, including forest rangers, forest guards, and other forest workers will be recruited into the Forest Service. The increase in personnel will make it possible to reduce the forest units under the supervision of one trained forester to only several hundred hectares, while in the past, in some regions, tens and even hundreds of thousands of hectares were supervised by one single forester. Forest research under this reorganization is to receive a new impetus. In the prewar days the forests were owned by religious bodies, the royal house, and other private owners. Now, with practically all the forests under public ownership, facilities for practical implementation of research findings and for increased productivity both of the forests and of forest labor are readily available. At present, the conifer forests of the eastern Carpathians are considerably devastated. In the prewar period the annual cut of conifers exceeded the normal annual growth by two to two and a half times. The oak forests were treated in much the same way. Because of the great demand for firewood and the high price it brought, high-grade beech timber was cut into cordwood.

The entire forest area is divided into twenty-eight regional units, responsible to the central administration. Each unit has complete control over timber cutting, transportation facilities, sawmills, and all forestry equipment and installations within its administrative boundaries. They are similar in character to the Soviet Union's "Timber Trusts."


· In a small booklet, "The Exodus from the Forest Areas," the Swedish Institute for Industrial, Economic, and Social Research deals with a serious problem of the timber industry. The investigation upon which the report is based was conducted in the valley of Klaralven, in the province of Varmland, and was confined primarily to three rural communities.

From the results of the survey it is clear that a remedy for the exodus of forest workers is difficult to find. The tendency to leave is stronger among them than in other occupations. In the three communities, more than 60 percent of the forest workers questioned want to move because they are dissatisfied with their work, as compared with 30 percent of the workers in other occupations. Whereas formerly forest workers were willing to travel long distances from their homes for winter work in the forests, nowadays they will accept work only near their villages so that they can be home by night. Employment is unsteady. One-third of the forest workers in the three localities work less than fifteen days a month in the forest. Daily income varies considerably, reflecting the importance of aptitude and skill in this type of work. Drivers - that is, farmers owning their own horses - are easily found, but there is a serious shortage of loggers, their number having decreased by approximately 50 percent between 1938 and 1946.

Suggested remedies include the finding of year-round employment for forest workers; the establishment of local industries to provide income supplementary to that derived from the small farms, which are below subsistence level in this region; greater concentration of population in larger villages, or else the establishment of small communities closer to lumbering sites. However, each of these solutions has disadvantages as well as advantages, and much thought and effort will be needed before satisfactory solutions can be found.


· It is reported that 90 percent of the manufacturers of chipboards have combined to form a British Chipboard Manufacturers' Association which will stimulate general co-operation among producers, establish minimum standards, promote the use of bonded fiberboards, and present the co-ordinated views and policies of members to Government departments and other bodies.


· The Government of India has appointed Mr. M. D. Chaturvedi, formerly Chief Conservator of Forests United Provinces, as Inspector-General of Forests, Ministry of Agriculture. He replaces Mr. A. P. F. Hamilton, who has retired after long and distinguished service in India.

· Mr. B. Clarke has recently joined the staff of FAO's Forestry and Forest Products Division from Australia. After graduating from the Australian Forestry School at Canberra in 1936, Mr. Clarke took up duties with the New South Wales Forestry Commission, and prior to joining FAO he was Senior Forester responsible for reforestation and research projects in the Coffs Harbour Forestry District of New South Wales. The reforestation projects included the establishment of exotic coniferous plantations on marginal land and the natural regeneration of the eucalypt forest. The major research problem was the determination of the best silvicultural treatment for the subtropical forests of this region. Mr. Clarke also served as the Forestry member of the Clarence Regional Development Committee, which was one of the committees set up by the Government to advise the State and Federal authorities on the development of resources and the control and use of land.


· The first Brazilian Conference on Forestry and Forest Products was held in Rio de Janeiro from 21 June to 2 July 1949. Mr. Pimentel Gomes, Director of Forests of Brazil, organized the meetings, and Dr. Luciano Pereira da Silva, President of the Federal Forestry Council, served as chairman. The findings of the Teresopolis Conference and of the first session of FAO's Latin-American Forestry and Forest Products Commission formed in part the basis for discussion, out of which a series of recommendations were passed and immediately transmitted for study and action to the Federal Council on Forests and to the Commission for the Development of the Amazon Valley.

The following were among the more important actions recommended: (1) creation by the Federal Council of a permanent Forestry Commission and the establishment of a close liaison between the Federal Forest Service and the, Services of the individual states; (2) creation of a "Forest Fund" for financing silvicultural operations and industrial wood-processing operations; (4) undertaking of studies recommended by the FAO Latin-American Forestry and Forest Products Commission, with a view to: (a) rationalizing and modernizing existing industries and building new integrated industries based on the application of modern techniques, (b) improving trade and marketing conditions by diversifying production, improving quality, standardizing products, etc.; (4) expansion of the Institute of Technology; (5) creation of a competent Federal agency for the compilation and publication of statistics on forestry and forest products. Resolutions were also passed concerning the protection and development of forest resources, the organization of the Forest Services, legislation, education, inventories and, above all, improvement in the living standard of forest workers.

Further subjects - namely, the creation of national parks in Santa Catarina and the establishment of colonization centers in the Territory of Aquiri and the Amazon Valley - were studied in detail, and a report is to be submitted to the Federal Council. The next meeting of the Conference will take place in 1950.

· A National Emergency Conservation Conference was convened in Washington by the Public Affairs Institute from 12 to 14 May 1949. It proposed a plan to encourage the progress of forestry and other natural resource activities in the United States, and set up machinery to press for adoption of an energetic action program. On the opening day a specific proposal, "An Action Program for the Redwood Forests," was placed before the Conference. It received approval as an initial project in the more general program which the Public Affairs Institute has in view.

· The Society of American Foresters met from 10 to 15 October 1949 at Seattle, Washington. Subject division meetings were held pertaining to private forestry, forest economics, forest recreation, forest products, forestry education, forest wildlife management, range management, silviculture, and public relations. Dedication of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest-formerly the Columbia National Forest, which was renamed by a Presidential proclamation of June 1949 - followed the meeting. Gifford Pinchot was the first president of the Society of American Foresters, which was organized in 1900. The Society now has a membership of 6,500 technically trained foresters in the United States and Canada, with headquarters in Washington, D. C. The Journal of Forestry, a professional monthly magazine devoted to all branches of forestry, is its official publication.

· An International Conference on Wallboards was held on 16 September 1949 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., by the Northeastern Wood Utilization Council in co-operation with Harvard University. Specialists from Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States reported on both the dry and the wet process of manufacturing wallboards from wood and wood waste. The production of hardboards was stressed. The program included papers by six manufacturers of wallboard products who have been operating on a commercial scale with proven results. New developments in resins were discussed by the Monsanto Chemical Company, and equipment developments by the Lake Erie Engineering Corporation.


Trees. The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1949. United States Department of Agriculture. Pp. xiv + 944, illus. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 1949. $2.00.

The United States Department of Agriculture has dedicated its 1949 Yearbook to forestry. This volume, entitled Trees, first considers the tree as a unit, a living thing; next, the tree as a member of a small group - in cities and around homes; finally, trees growing together in wood lots, groves, and forests, large and small. The main section ends with chapters on specific problems and values. Charts, tables, a glossary of unusual terms, and references for reading are given for those who wish to pursue the subject further. For the first time in the Yearbook series, the world situation is reviewed in relation to that of the United States. The many articles gathered together in the volume were written by competent experts. But the book is addressed to the intelligent layman, rather than to the specialist; each article, though technically sound, is written in the language of everyday usage. The edition of 300,000 copies is distributed largely to laymen in the hope of bringing about better public understanding of the importance of trees in individual and community life and increased knowledge of the proper management and use of forests.

Home Timber Production 1939-1945. Russell Meiggs. Pp. 277. Crosby Lockwood and Son, Ltd. London. 1949. 15/-.

Before World War II the forests and woodlands of the United Kingdom yielded little more than 4 percent of the country's total timber consumption. Few people would have believed then that these same forests and woodlands, during six years of war, could supply nearly two-thirds of the timber required for war needs, some 18.5 million tons. But this is what actually was achieved by real cooperation, with the home timber trade and forestry services bearing the major share of the burden, at the price of cutting 46 percent of the timber standing at the outbreak of war, most of it on the estates of private landowners.

An Oxford University fellow who became Chief Labor Officer of the Home Timber Production Department of the Ministry of Supply describes in this book how it was done, and it makes a very interesting story. As, Sir Gerald Lenanton, wartime Director of Home Timber Production, says in a foreword: "This book is more than the tale of a great achievement. It is a text book which will be invaluable should the forests of England, Scotland and Wales ever again be called upon to supply, even for a short period, the bulk of our needs."

The inevitable slaughter of immature stands destroyed the balance of woodland economy and left the future prospect considerably poorer. Not until the large-scale plantings of the interwar period come to maturity can a sound balance be restored. The Forestry Commission is making use of the expensive lessons of two wars and will be there to remind the Government of them.

The Forestry Directory. Compiled by Tom Gill, and Ellen C. Dowling. Pp. 420. American Tree Association, Washington, D. C., U. S. A. 1949. $3.00.

The 1949 edition of the Forestry Directory is the sixth of a series which was begun in 1927, and is the first one to be published since the 1943 edition. It answers a multitude of questions such as what is being done in international forestry and what organizations are active in this field; what forestry on schools offer professional training in forestry; what organizations are interested in conservation and to whom to write to find out more about their work; how the different parts of the U. S. Government practice forestry and conservation; when Arbor day is celebrated in the different parts of the United States; and what makes up a good reading list of forestry books. In the foreword, Randolph G. Pack, President of the American Tree Association, points out the considerable progress in forest conservation in the United States during the past six years. Special note is made of the recognition achieved by forestry on a world basis through the establishment of the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as well as the tremendously increased financial support for conservation work by government, private industry, and private organizations interested in conservation. He concludes that "It is an impressive record, and an encouraging sign of widespread acceptance of the basic importance of forests in our economy. "

United States International Timber Trade in the Pacific Area. Ivan M. Elchibegoff. Pp. 302. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, U. S. A. 1949. $7.50.

The author has undertaken a task even wider than that indicated by the title. Not only has he presented considerable general and statistical information on timber production and trade, but he has also devoted almost one-third of the book to chapters on land utilization and forest resources of the Pacific countries - that is, all the countries of Asia, the Soviet Union, Oceania, North, Central, and South America, facing on the Pacific Ocean. Political and economic factors affecting timber supplies and trade are also covered.

The author is to be commended for the great care he has taken to reveal the sources of his information. In some fields additional information has become available since his work was completed. Much more remains to be collected, particularly on needs and requirements in the Pacific area. As a source book, however, gathering together in one volume a variety of detail, this volume should be of particular interest to students and businessmen. Readers will not always agree with the author's personal expressions of opinion, but none will deny the industry with which he has assembled his material.

Die Vegetation Osteuropas. (Vegetation of Eastern Europe.) Heinrich Walter. Pp. 180, with 19 text illustrations, 8 tables, and 1 colored vegetation map. Berlin: Paul Parey. Second revised edition, 1943. RM 7.40.

This is a study of the relationship of climate to forest vegetation zones and soil types. Eastern Europe, which includes practically all of European Russia, offers an ideal ground for such a study. European Russia is an enormous stretch of land, extending from the North Sea over 25 degrees of latitude (45° to 70°) and for nearly 2,500 kilometers in an east-west direction. It is a low-lying plain, mountains occurring only on its rim - the Urals on its eastern borders and the Caucasus in the south. No high elevations affect the natural distribution of the forest vegetation, which for this reason becomes the direct expression of the climate prevailing in the different parts of the plain. The soil types in the plain of European Russia are less affected by the geology of the underlying rock than by the climate and the forest cover. Consequently the forest vegetation becomes the expression not only of the climate, but also of the soil characteristics. As the natural vegetation is the integrated effect of climate and soil, it is therefore also indicative of the possibilities of the land for agriculture, pasture, or any other economic use. The most striking and obvious correlation between climate and zonal distribution of the vegetation is presented by the tundra, forest belt, steppes (prairie), and semideserts or deserts. The author analyzes these broad vegetation belts in great detail, emphasizing the close relation of type of vegetation and land use to climate and soil. The tundra belt is divided into the treeless tundra and the forested tundra (with or without Siberian larch). The greatest attention is, of course, given to the forest belt because it occupies the largest part of the plain and also because of its present and future economic values. The forest belt is divided into a pure conifer forest without admixture of broadleaf species, a mixed forest of conifers and broadleaf species, and a pure broadleaf forest. Similarly the author defines nine different types of steppes and five types of desert and semidesert vegetation. A colored map brings out clearly all these distinctions. The study is not only useful as a contribution to ecology, but is of practical significance as an aid to understanding the economic potentialities of this vast region.

Morphology and Structure of Wood Fibres. Hans Bucher and Louis Pierre Widerkehr-Scherb. Research Laboratories of the Cellulosefabrik Attisholz AG. Attisholz, Solothurn, Switzerland. 1948.

This publication surveys research work on the morphology and structure of wood fibers begun in 1943 at the laboratories of the pulp plant at Attisholz, Solothurn (Switzerland). Systematic microscopic studies of pulp fibers were carried out by the authors, with the aim of establishing photographic documentation of the different kinds and qualities. One author studied wood structure and wood digestion, the structure of the cell wall, and discontinuity in fiber structure; the other studied the changes of pulp fibers during manufacture - that is to say, the effects of beating and formation of sheets. Further investigations dealt particularly with the structure of bordered pits and the swelling and dissolving of pulp fibers in cuprammonium hydroxide. The publication contains an extensive bibliography on the subject and 153 excellent photographic reproductions.

Boden und Wald. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des nordeuropäischen Waldbaus. (Soil and Forest. With special reference to the forestry of northern Europe.) V. T. Aaltonen. Pp. 457, with 124 illustrations. Berlin and Hamburg: Paul Parey. 1948. DM 24.

This book is a German translation, revised and enlarged, of the Finnish textbook Metsämaa (Forest Soil) by V. T. Aaltonen, professor of forest soils at the Forest Research Institute in Helsinki, Finland. It deals only with soils of mineral origin. Organic soils, such as peat, which widely predominate in northern countries, are omitted because studies of their properties and utilization have been carried on by many other investigators. The book is regional in scope; it deals with soil-forest relations as they exist in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Nevertheless the findings in a large measure hold true for the northern latitudes of America and Asia. Unlike many other writings on forest soils, the approach is not that of a geologist or soil scientist but primarily of a forester who has taught the subject of forest soils for nearly 20 years at the Forest Research Institute. The subject matter divides itself into four main parts. Part 1 is in the nature of a background - a survey of the geology and climate of the region and a description of the soil-building processes, soil types, and forest types. These types are described in great detail and are an elaboration of Cajander's types based on the characteristic ground vegetation of the forest floor as a truer criterion of the potentialities of the soil than the composition of the forest stand itself. Part 2, which forms the bulk of the book, is devoted to an analysis of the effects of the forest upon the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil; its effects upon the water regime of the soil; its enrichment of the soil with chemical elements resulting from the decomposition of dead leaves and needles; the formation of humus and its role in soil building. Part 3, entitled "The Fertility of the Forest Soil," discusses the different physical properties of the soil; the effect of its mineral and microbiological content upon the growth and the development of the forest, and the deterioration of the soil as a result of erosion, forest fires, and land clearing. Part 4 traces the effect of interaction between forest and soil upon the internal changes that go on within the forest as a result of the struggle between the individual trees for growing space and light, and also the effect of different methods of forest management upon the maintenance of soil fertility. The author has succeeded in bringing together in one volume all the available up-to-date knowledge on the relation between soil and forest in a scholarly, painstaking, and factual manner. The work should prove a useful handbook for all students of forest soils.

Forsteinrichtungslehre. (The Theory of Forest Regulation.) Wilhelm Mantel. Pp. xii + 228. Hamburg: Verlag Neuman-Neudamm. 1949 reprint of 1942 edition. DM 12.

Forsteinrichtung als nachhaltige Betriebsführung und Netriebsplanung. (Forest Regulation - the Basis of Sustained Management and Planning.) Gustav Baader. Pp. viii + 337. Frankfurt am Main: J. D. Sauerländer. 1945. DM 15.

These two textbooks on forest management in theory and as the basis for sustained-yield management are written in the classical tradition of the German concept of forestry. Mantel's textbook is a reprint of an earlier edition (1942), and Baader's book is dated 1945; but it is evident that both were planned before World War II. Although the subject matter of the two works is very similar - taking of forest inventories, regulation of the cut, growth, orderly arrangement in space, etc.-arrangement and approach differ. Baader, as a professor of forestry, deals principally with the underlying theory and basic principles; where - as Mantel, as an Oberforstmeister, views the problems more concretely from the standpoint of a forest administrator for whom sustained yield is only a part of the entire plan of forest management.

The Nations accepting this Constitution, being determined to promote the common welfare by furthering separate and collective action on their part for the purposes of

raisin levels of nutrition and standards of living of the peoples under their respective jurisdictions,

securing improvements in the efficiency of the production and distribution of all food and agricultural products,

bettering the condition of rural populations,

and thus contributing toward an expanding world economy,

hereby establish the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations... through which the Members will report to one another on the measures taken and the progress achieved in the fields of action set forth above.

Preamble to the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FAO Member Nations


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