· The Argentine Forestry Association organized last year a Symposium on Eucalyptus, the first meeting to be held in Argentina to deal especially with this genus. The conference was sponsored also by the Federal Forest Service (Administración Nacional de Bosques), private industry, and by all the state forest services and related government and private organizations. Prominent experts from Italy, Brazil and Uruguay were invited to join in the discussions.
About half a million hectares of eucalypts plantations have been created in Latin America, with Brazil having the largest area. There are reported to be about 65,000 hectares in Uruguay, 50,000 in Chile, 35,000 in Argentina, and lesser areas in other countries. Plantations have been established over a wide range of climatic and ecological conditions, from the extreme of Patagonia to humid and dry tropical areas. They offer an excellent opportunity to study the behavior of eucalypts as introduced species under the moat varied circumstances.
Thirty-two technical papers were submitted to the conference and the discussions centered on four topics:
1. introduction and acclimatization of Eucalyptus;
2. raising and planting out;
3. pests and diseases;
4. industrial utilization.
Follow-up action was decided on many of the recommendations of the FAO World Eucalyptus Conference (1956). The State of Buenos Aires was asked to reserve the park and arboretum of Pereyra Iraola for experimental research. Propositions were also made in regard to the insurance of forest plantations, the trade in Eucalyptus seed, the increased production of essential oils, the extension of plantations in rural areas, and the use of Eucalyptus in arid zones.
· In response to an inquiry about tree species to be tried out on the high Andean plateaus of Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, a member of the United States Forest Service comments as follows:
" Paramos are treeless because the climate is unsuited for the growth of the native trees, which have small but broad evergreen leaves. Apparently the low temperature throughout the year is the limiting factor, though the freezing temperatures that may occur at any time of the year may also limit by killing tender new growth. There is no period of warm temperatures sufficiently long for the native trees to grow. However, it may be noted that scattered small trees of Polylepis, Cynoxis, and Escallonia do grow in protected places up to 4,000 meters (13,100 feet) elevation. In many places the paramos have been heavily used and damaged by overgrazing and fire until the vegetation has greatly deteriorated. Also, in many areas the paramos and timber lines have moved downward as much as 300 meters (1,000 feet) following cutting of trees, clearing and cultivation, fire, etc.
Obviously, trees will grow better, larger, and faster at elevations slightly below the natural timber line than in the colder paramos. Also it seems probable that large areas of the paramos will not grow trees of sawtimber size. Thus greater success would result from tree plantations at the lower elevations, which are more extensive. Also, large areas of forested mountain slopes remain to be utilized and placed under forest management.
If I were working on the problem of afforestation of the paramos, I would try four main groups of tree species. First, the native trees growing at and near the timber line, such as Polylepis, Cynoxis, and Escallonia, and any good timber trees of the high mountains. Many tree species will grow in plantations slightly beyond their natural ranges if given some care. As an example, small groves of Sitka spruce were planted as early as 1806 by Russians at Unalaska, near the eastern end of the treeless Aleutian Islands of Alaska and far outside the tree limits. These trees are still growing and have produced cones, but younger trees are absent, perhaps because of grazing.
Then I would try three groups of conifers. Conifers seem promising because they are the common timber line trees in North America and
Eurasia. Their growth form of narrow, needle or scale, evergreen leaves apparently is efficient for growth at low temperatures slightly above freezing, while new growth of broadleaved trees is more subject to damage by freezing weather. Also, conifers and other plants with their growth form are almost absent in the Andes and thus were not present originally to develop into successful timber line tree species along with the uplift of the mountains.
One group of conifers includes those native in the Andes. The only native conifers in the northern Andes are species of Podocarpus, several of which are large trees with good lumber, and a few of which almost reach the timber line. In the southern Andes, particularly Chile, are other native genera of conifers, including Araucaria, which merit testing.
Next there are the timber line conifers of North America and Eurasia. Probably the highest timber lines in the western hemisphere are on the mountains of Mexico, where Pinus hartwegii; or a related species forms forests up to about 4,300 meters (14,000 feet) elevation. I would try this and other conifers of high mountains in Mexico and Central America, including Pinus, Abies religiosa and other species, Cupressus, Podocarpus, etc. Among other conifers of high elevations and high latitudes in the United States and Canada which might be tested are Pinus banksiana, Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziensii (P. taxifolia), Abies, Picea, etc. Additional species occur in Eurasia.
The third and possibly one of the most promising groups of conifers is from uniformly cool moist regions, such as along the Pacific coast from California to Alaska, where the climate in some ways approaches that of the paramos. Monterey pine and Monterey cypress are from this region. I would try among others Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata, Sequoia sempervirens, and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis.
Several species of Pinus and other conifers from warm or almost subtropical climates may prove to be successful, such as Picea rubens and Abies fraseri from the highest Southern Appalachians. These species are worthy of tests, but I believe some of the conifers in the three groups listed above are better adapted to the climate of the paramo. "
· The heaviest teak stands are to be found in the monsoon regions of Burma, Thailand, Indonesia and India. Burma and Thailand have always accounted for the major volume of exported teak.
At one time substantial supplies were available from Laos, from the headwaters of the Mekong adjoining the Shan States. But these supplies have dwindled and are no longer of importance to the world market.
East Pakistan has a small production, of which only minor quantities can be spared for export to West Pakistan.
Outside the Far East and India, teak plantations have been created in various parts of Africa and in Trinidad. But these plantations are of insufficient extent to make any serious impact on world supply.
An official report on Burma's teakwood trade by an FAO officer, Mr. M. N. Gallant, deals with possible overseas markets for Burma teak. In regard to Europe, the report indicates that the teakwood market has still to reach its zenith. More teakwood is now being used in Scandinavian countries for external building members, including doors and windows, in face of the high cost of clear softwood and the extra expenditure needed for the preservation of softwood by periodic painting. Also, there has been a phenomenal development in the use of teakwood furniture in Scandinavia. Exports to the United States from Scandinavia of teakwood furniture are on the increase. The call is for black-stripe teak veneer logs, squares and flitches along with planks, boards and scantlings for base stock and furniture supports. Furniture color is so much a matter of fashion that uncertainty is expressed by buyers as to the long-term prospects of furniture manufacture in Europe based on teakwood. But there is yet no sign of a waning interest in the timber. Light yellow-brown colors have for some time past, even before the war, gradually been gaining ground over the reds in the furniture trade, while teakwood has the added advantage that it needs little more than an oil finish as compared with the more expensive polish finishes required by other woods. The heaviest importers of teakwood in continental Europe are at present Denmark, Scandinavia, West Germany and the Netherlands, in that order.
· A report, Chile: Potential Pulp and Paper Exporter, of the FAO/ECLA/UNTAA Pulp and Paper Advisory Group for Latin America (FAO/Economic Commission for Latin America/United Nations Technical Assistance Administration) brings up to date an earlier edition, bearing a similar title, published in 1956. The report concludes that conditions in Chile are favorable for the creation of an industry for the export of pulp and paper, which would represent for the country a revenue in foreign currency of about U.S.$70 million a year.
The plantations of Pinus radiata in the south central part of Chile, which constitute one of the most important raw material resources for the production of pulp and paper in Latin America, provide the potential source for this new industry. The bulk of raw material which these artificial pine forests are capable of producing in the future is large enough to support a considerably greater industrial capacity than is foreseen in Chile during the next ten years. The study only takes into consideration those plantations, which are found in the seven provinces of Maule, Linares, Nuble, Bio-Bio, Concepcion, Arauco and Malleco. Estimates made in 1966 indicate that the extent of these plantations well exceeds 200,000 hectares, and that most of them are near or have already exceeded the age corresponding to the maximum economic yield. The average annual production is estimated at a minimum of 2.8 million cubic meters per year for the period 1966/1969 - a quantity which would be sufficient for the production of some 600,000 tone of pulp or about 860,000 tons of newsprint a year.
In 1955, consumption of newsprint in Chile was slightly over 26,000 tone a year, and that of other papers and boards 42,000 tons, which corresponds to a per caput consumption of 3.8 and 6.2 kilograms per year respectively. Future demand for newsprint is estimated to rise to 39,000 tons and 60,000 tons respectively in 1960 and 1965, and to 61,000 and 77,000 tons respectively for other papers and boards. Expansion plans for the industry include three mills at present under construction or recently in operation - a newsprint mill with a rated capacity of about 60,000 tons, a Kraft pulp mill with an annual capacity of about 60,000 tons, a Kraft pulp mill with an annual capacity of some 70,000 tons and a small sulphate pulp mill with an estimated annual production of some 7,000 tons. In addition there is a project under serious consideration for a pulp mill with an annual capacity of some 70,000 to 90,000 tons.
The major obstacle for a large-scale development of pulp and paper is Chile's transport situation, both in regard to raw materials as well as for the shipment of finished goods.
An adequate transportation system must be developed. From the location point of view the report recommends the port of Talcahuanco, near Concepcion, as being the most suitable harbor for pulp and paper export. Plans to improve this port are under way and will probably be carried out in the next few years, thus solving the shipping problem. The situation as regards electric power, however, is far from satisfactory, demand greatly exceeding existing supply possibilities. For this reason the report advises that new mill projects should take into account the possibility of developing their own electricity supply sources.
Estimates of investment and production costs are given for 16 mill projects of different capacities Pulp and paper projects require large capita: investments. For the development program outlined in the report, which would include the annual production of some 300,000 tons of newsprint, 100,000 tons of Kraft papers, 200,000 tone of unbleached pulp and 60,000 tons of bleached pulp, some $170 million would be needed of which about $50 million would be in local currency. Chile would have to rely on foreign financing to implement a program of the recommended size in a reasonably short time.
It is clear that Chile offers great possibilities for industrial development based on its Insignis pine plantations. Conservation, and especially fire prevention and control, are essential elements in such a development.
· The steps which have been taken by the Cyprus Government to reduce damage to forests from unrestricted goat grazing fall into two categories:;
1. the elimination of grazing rights in the State forests;
2. the reduction of free range goal grazing on private land.
The first was achieved by the following means:
(a) granting compensation to graziers;
(b) legal undertakings by graziers and their families not to take up grazing again once they have been compensated;
(c) provision of alternative employment for graziers;
(d) in certain exceptional cases, the acceptance of sheep grazing instead of goat grazing
Free range goat grazing has been eliminated from much private land by means of the Goat Law which was enacted in 1913. The main features of this law are:
(a) At the instance of the villagers or of a District Commissioner, a ballot may be held to decide whether or not free ranging goats should be excluded from the village land.
(b) If the ballot shows the majority of property owners to be in favor of the exclusion of free ranging goats, the Commissioner may declare such a village a prescribed village.
(c) As from 12 months after the publication of the order declaring a village to be a prescribed village, it is unlawful for any person to acquire, keep or suffer any goat to graze within the village lands; provided that each household may be allowed to keep and graze not more than five goats (excluding kids produced by these and under the age of 16 months), and that such goats and kids be kept tethered and under proper supervision.
(d) The penalty for disobeying this law is a monetary fine and confiscation of all animals kept in contravention of the law.
The problem of goat grazing has not been tackled by the Forest Department alone. The Agricultural and Forest Departments have constantly worked in co-operation and with the full support of the Government. The progress achieved would have been impossible without a considerable degree of support from the general public.
The elimination of grazing rights in the forest has tended to concentrate grazing on land outside the forest. The abandonment of agricultural fallows in favor of simple rotations incorporating leguminous crops is reducing the use of fallow land for grazing, while the conversion of unproductive land into arable is reducing the area of the former available for grazing. This has caused landowners, in their own interests, to bring pressure to bear upon graziers to reduce or dispense with their flocks of goats.
The Agricultural Department aims at the replacement of free ranging goats by tethered goats and by sheep. To this end improved varieties of goats are being imported; the growing of fodder crops is encouraged and steps are being taken to produce improved pastures by seeding. The new poultry broiler industry and other livestock developments are also increasing alternative meat supplies. The removal of free ranging goats from the forest does not therefore result in benefit to the forest at the expense of other interests. The measures taken will ultimately lead to the elimination of an uneconomic form of production and eventually benefit the whole of the rural community.
· On 20 January 1968 the President promulgated a forest law which forms a practical basis for the functions of the recently established Forest Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests.
Although Ecuador has abundant forest resources, these are concentrated in certain parts of the country, and other areas where there is a high density of population require afforesting for protection purposes and to yield local supplies of wood. Wherever afforestation is necessary, the Government can insist upon the necessary operations being carried out by an owner, or else can carry out the work itself. Expropriation is authorized as a last resort.
The forest law allows government intervention to safeguard privately-owned forests which substantially contribute to the "conservation of the soil, watercourses, forest life or of any other natural resource or public work." The exploitation of forests declared to be "protection forests" are subject to regulations made by the Forest Department. Commercial cutting of all other forests also requires authorization from the Department.
Substantial benefits are granted to owners whose forests are declared "protective" or to those who, at the request of the Forest Department or else on their own initiative, plant up uncultivated land. These include exemption from taxes, financial help, loans, and technical assistance. The creation of co-operatives is encouraged.
The law also provides for a forestry fund, to be financed on the one hand from budget allocations and, on the other, from income from cutting licences or permits, flees, penalties, and inspection charges.
· Number 8 of Rivières et Forêts, the review devoted to conserving France's natural heritage, published by the Société de publicité pour la France et l'étranger, has appeared recently. It contains a preface by Georges Duhamel and the entire issue is dedicated to the nature reserves and parks of France. There are some excellent studies on the reserves of Chambord, Camargue, etc., and a large-scale enquiry among a wide cross-section of people on the need of twentieth century man for parks where the fresh air and peaceful surroundings can help him to recover his spiritual equilibrium. The issue also contains some articles on the renaissance of the village.
· Each year Greece imports forest products to the value of U.S.$31 million while at the same time, losing a considerable number of workers by emigration. If forestry development were accelerated by afforestation and reforestation with fast-growing species, the quantity of forest products at present imported could probably be raised within the country and increased possibilities for local employment would occur.
The great obstacles to forest development are uncontrolled grazing and the cutting of fuelwood by the mountain populations, a situation not restricted to Greece. A report to FAO lists the measures required to correct the position as follows:
1. Make a land-use survey and classification to establish a balance between agriculture, forestry and grazing needs.
2. Free the forest from overgrazing, by improvement of grazing lands and sound range management, including replacing the free-ranging type of herd by breeds which are more productive and profitable.
3. Increase the amount of state capital invested in forestry to a sum double that provided today, for planting with quick-growing species, beginning with the most favorable areas, and for large-scale afforestation of catchment basins of torrents and erodible areas.
4. Finance co-operatives, either of forest owners or of poor communities, to enable them to plant quick-growing species to supply local fuelwood and other needs and to yield timber and resin for industry.
5. Establish pulp and board factories financed by the State to use low-quality wood and material at present not utilized.
INDIA: The development of offshore fisheries forms a major feature of the technical assistance provided to India by FAO. A boat construction expert working on the Malabar coast has reported to the Fisheries Division on the construction of a 25 ft. (7.62 in.) Pablo type fishing boat. Eight carpenters from the district were trained in the now boatbuilding methods needed for this mechanized boat, instruction being given in the local language. The building proceeded somewhat slowly because the local carpenters, although experienced builders of country craft, needed time to assimilate the methods.
Keel, stem and stem were finally made and erected, templets lined up and planking of the hull done. Trials with heat-bending of local woods Terminalia tomentosa and Artocarpus hirsute, were made, but then timbers were not found suitable for the bent frames and it was finally decided to use Largerstroemia lanceolata. This timber is known an a good oil- or steam-bending wood, cheap and in good supply as Mangalore.
As building of the boat proceeded, it became evident that the supply of materials in Mangalore, which was sufficient for country-craft building, was not adequate for the construction of mechanized boats; the required sizes of timber, nails, screw, rivets washers, etc., and certain tools were simply not available. Nails and rivets had to be made on the spot. Other steady sources ham had to be sought to provide the new boatbuilding yard with the necessary materials.
· A shifting cultivation control scheme was started in the First Five-Year Plan period in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Tripura. It is contemplated to extend this scheme during the Second Five-Year Plan period at an estimated cost of 30 million rubles. It is expected that about 27,000 tribal families will be resettled and 208 demonstration centers get lip.
· The FAO forestry team in Iran has been concentrating on developing a demonstration forest area at Lowe in northern Iran. Mr. H. A.M. Gläser, who is in charge of the project, has sent photographs of a forest access road, the earth work for which has been completed.
The dam and pits for the foundation of a bridge have been made and a great part of the 100 cubic meters of stone needed for the piles of the bridge have been prepared in a nearby quarry. The bridge project was the main activity of one of the two Italian forest rangers provided by FAO. He also constructed an improved access road to the gravel layers in the river bed and a solid river crossing for the gravel transport.
The two rangers also completed the measurement of the 20 compartments into which the demonstration forest has been subdivided and finished the map of the forest, which has since been reproduced for the preparation of the forest inventory and the working plan.
One of Mr. Gläser's main activities has been to supervise the training of forest workers, who had never before seen a saw or a file, in all phases of tree felling and logging work. They were at first trained in handling axes, crosscut and bow-saws and in the proper filing of raker toothed saws and other tool maintenance. Felling of trees was the next step, which was followed by the correct conversion of the felled trees into various assortments such as saw and veneer logs, railway sleepers, boxwood, fuel- and charcoal-wood, round and split. This training was difficult since the workers had never before had to, out timber for more than one kind of end-use at a time.
Near the headquarters for the project, a tree nursery has been prepared and fenced, and stables for horses and mules have been built.
· Elsewhere in the Caspian Sea region the Forest Service has, with the financial help of the United States technical assistance program, established on several private properties demonstration areas to show farmers the advantage of well-managed pastures and forests. One of these areas the Hassan Abed demonstration on the northern slopes of the Elburz mountains, consists of 600 hectares of which 10 hectares am poor range land and 590 hectares badly exploited conifer forest (Cupressus sempervirens) with large gaps. The range has been reseeded with valuable fodder grasses, and gaps in the lower part of the forest have been planted with Pinus eldarica and walnut. The whole area is fenced to foster natural regeneration of the Cupressus. Fencing, reseeding of the range and planting of Anus and walnut are paid for by the Forest Service. The owner has nothing to pay. Practical demonstration areas of this kind convince the farmers much better than any amount of talk.
Mr. P. Bedard is now the I.C.A, forester in Iran.
· On the occasion of last year's meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Dublin, members of the Forestry Section made a number of excursions to State forests and places of arboricultural interest in the county of Wicklow. One such visit was to the Glenealy Forest near the coast, where the striking trees are the Eucalypts. A number of small trial plots of various species were established here between 1934 and 1937. The best species is Eucalyptus johnstoni but E. urnigera, E. dalrympleana, E. gigantea and E. radiata have all done well. None of these suffered seriously in the exceptional winter 1939-40, although a number of other species did. Growth has been most impressive, and groups dominating all the trees around them have survived some very severe winds.
On another forest, E. viminalis and E. muelleri had been planted at wide spacing between "Anderson" groups of oak, ash, etc., in oak coppice. The eucalypts are now about 80 feet (20.6 m.) in height, very much larger than the hardwoods in the planted groups.
· In semiarid and arid areas, experience has shown that both survival and early growth after settings are greatly enhanced by using balled nursery stock for afforestation. The question, however, arises as to the most suitable raw material, type and size of containers. Experiments on these problems, sponsored by FAO and the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), have been entrusted to the Forest Research Institute, Ilanoth.
It is now possible to report the preliminary results of tests with the production of balled eucalypt stock. The choice of eucalypts is justified by the world-wide importance for afforestation of trees of this genus. Further tests including both conifers and hardwoods are under way. It is hoped that full results can be published within the next three years.
Receptacles of different types, both locally made and received from abroad, have been included in the tests, provided sufficient quantities (at least several hundreds) were available.
The containers were laid out in randomized blocks with two replicates, in rows one meter wide. The soil used for filling-in was a red loamy sand of pH 6.5. Overhead irrigation was applied by stationary nozzle lines, 0.9 meter above the ground, parallel to the rows of receptacles; the amounts of water applied were measured by water-meters attached to the oscillating motor at the head of the line, and occasional checks of efficiency and distribution pattern were carried out with spray gauge cane.
The transplanting of the eucalypt seedlings, about 5 weeks old, took place in mid-June; beating-up of failures was carried out with the same seedlings within three weeks after transplanting. Irrigation water was applied according to need, the total amount during the sex months trial ranging from 12,000 to 13,000 cubic meters per hectare. In addition to weeding by hand, combined top and root prunings were carried out at least once (usually three to four times) whenever root growth into the soil underneath the containers had taken place and the tops of the saplings outgrew a mobile wooden frame, 38 centimeters high.
The peak of the planting season in Israel being in mid-December, the saplings were grown in the nursery until 15 December. Then, saplings for laboratory analysis were sampled at random by using Fisher and Yates' tables of random numbers. Transplants growing single in pots or tubes were sampled by random selection of 4 x 25 plants from each type of container and replication. In case of several transplants grown together in large receptacles, a double sampling technique was evolved; after random selection of a sufficient number of receptacles from each replication, 4 x 25 transplants for analysis were sampled at random. In addition, the rates of survival of the transplants were noted.
In the laboratory, the roots of the saplings were washed carefully in order to remove soil fragments; then, the transplants were dried at 65° C during 24 hours. The tops (including leaves) and roots of each sub-sample of 25 plants were weighed separately and the top root-ratio was calculated. The weights and top root-ratios were used as criteria for determining the quality of the transplants and respectively the suitability of the receptacles.
The best results have so far been obtained when nursery stock of E. camaldulensis wee raised in earthenware or concrete pots. The size (weight) of the transplants appears to be related to the volume of soil available for root growth.
Development of transplants raised in large receptacles is poor owing to overcrowding and root competition, although the volume of soil per transplant is by no means negligible.
Although good results were also obtained by raising saplings in large-sized black polythene (Fitocelle, Catania) bags, the volume of soil contained in these bags is considered excessive; trials are now under way with smaller-sized Fitocelle bags. Tests with locally produced polythene bags show that the thickness of the material should exceed 0.025 millimeters. Plants in tar paper tubes were of poor quality, and it is believed that mineral tar an inhibiting effect on root growth.
IRAN - Forest workers leans to use a cross-cut saw to fell an oak.
IRAN - Construction of the forest road to the Lowe demonstration forest described earlier.
Provided both top and root pruning are carried out properly, the weights of the top (T) and root (R) as well as the top/root ratios (T/R) are suitable for assessing the quality of transplants raised in various containers. Transplants with high T values have thick, sturdy and well-hardened stems and are most suitable for planting.
No final conclusion can be drawn from the investigations carried out so far, as additional evidence is required for assessing conclusively the quality of transplants as well as the suitability of various receptacles. In addition to silvicultural characteristics, data are required with regard to the expenses involved in using various containers, i.e., cost price, costs of handling in the nursery, transport costs and service life.
· Expanded reforestation is a new forest policy to be followed in Japan which, in addition to the reforestation on cut-over and denuded land, aims at changing the uneconomic natural broadleaved forests with low rate of growth into more valuable plantations of coniferous and other species with higher annual increment.
· Two newspaper clippings received from Malaya are of interest. The first reports that a prefabricated classroom of pressure impregnated timber, designed by the Forest Department, has given such useful service since its first appearance two years ago that 136 are now in use all over the Federation. A spokesman for the Education Department said that these classrooms had more than proved their worth. They were light, cool, comfortable and only about two thirds of the cost of a brick classroom of the same size. Perhaps their greatest advantage is the fact that their sectional construction facilitates very quick erection and demolition. They have a floor space of 22 by 30 feet, asbestos roofs, softboard ceilings and large areas of windows. They are designed to last for 26 years.
On the other hand, the failure of the "people's house", designed as a cheep timber dwelling by the Forest Department three years ago, is apparently due to the fact that the people it was designed for and the building societies who could have helped them buy it, had outdated ideas about timber.
The traditional Chinese of the new villages, for whom the house was primarily designed, objected to it on religious grounds because it did not possess the usual symmetrical front door flanked by a window on either side, and because they claimed that good luck would fly out of the house. But the majority of people were biased because of their conviction that timber buildings were prone to termite attacks and doomed to a short life. They could not be convinced that the pressure impregnated timber used in the construction of the "people's house" was designed to withstand these attacks and to last for at least 60 years.
Building societies were equally reluctant to consider the advantages of the dwelling on the same grounds, and they also claimed that the fire risk in timber houses was too great. Consequently, even those prospective buyers who might have been interested in acquiring the house failed to obtain a loan from a building society. A spokesman for the Federation fire services said that them was no mom risk of fire in a timber dwelling than in a brick one. It depended entirely on the attitude of the house-owner.
· In East Pakistan, the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with a total area of about 5,500 square miles (14,245 km²), form the catchment areas of all the rivers flowing through the plains district of Chittagong. About 1,000 square miles am reserved forests and the rest mostly "unclassed state forests" subject to uncontrolled shifting cultivation by local tribes. Owing to the very friable nature of the soil and the torrential rainfall during the rainy season, this "jhum" area (shifting cultivation is known locally as "jhumming ") is subject to sheet erosion both before and after the sowing of the crops; the crop cover is too sparse to offer any substantial barrier to the water run-off.
Even 15 years ago the average yield of paddy per acre amounted to 15 maunds (1,383 kg. per ha.), but as a result of increased population pressure on lands already seriously reduced in area by land slips on steep hills, the yield has decreased to about 8 maunds per acre (738 kg. per ha.). Cultivation on short rotations of 3 to 6 years has insulted in the retrogression of the evergreen forest, sometimes into a savanna type land covered with Imperata grass, Eupatorium odoratum, inferior quality bamboos (Melocanna bambusoides) and wild plantain. This ecological retrogression is a considerable factor in the soil erosion and uncontrolled run-off from the unclassed state forest. The Imperata grass makes the whole area subject to fire, set accidentally or intentionally to get a new flush of leaves for the cattle.
Some years ago, a first measure to discourage the movements of the tribal people was to establish a village jurisdiction, and get the people to remain within the fixed area of this "mouza". Members of one "mouza" were not prevented from practising shifting cultivation in the jurisdiction of another "mouza", but they had to pay tax at a fixed rate per household to the headmen of both "mouzas". This double taxation tended to induce them to remain within one "mouza" only. Beyond that, the uniform rate of taxation, on a household basis, irrespective of the area of land cultivated, encouraged the cultivation of larger single areas every year instead of scattered plots, thus lengthening the period of fallow between clearings.
An FAO officer reports that the Soil Erosion Board set up for the district of the Chittagong Hill Tracts proposes to regulate shifting cultivation by confining the practice to compact blocks of forest on a prescribed rotation, with a minimum of 10 years, and insisting on precautions against the spread of fire when the plots am burned in the hot weather season.
Cultivation of river banks and steep slopes would be forbidden. Strips of forest should be maintained along both banks of rivers.
It has been suggested that the lower hills be terraced by means of tractors, and that the tribesmen (some 260,000 people) should be instructed to cultivate this land with the plow.
· The Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation are reported to have appointed a Vancouver firm as advisers on the development of one million acres in the Sunderbans area of East Pakistan. They are to assess the amount and type of timber in the area and to provide means of extraction, using the rivers to carry the timber to the pulp and paper mill which is to be built at Khulna. To assist in this work, an aerosurvey company has just completed its study of the area. Photography was carried out at two scales, 1/30,000 and 1/16,000, using two cameras simultaneously, one with a 6-inch and one with a 12-inch lens. The smeller scale photography will be used for topographical mapping and the larger scale for photographic interpretation and the preparation of a forest inventory.
· The reduction of the forest in Poland came about originally by the increase in the population, agricultural expansion on the lowlands, and extension of grazing in the mountainous regions. At the end of the 18th century the forest area was reduced to about 37 percent of the country. Throughout the 19th and the early 20th century deforestation continued, chiefly on privately-owned holdings due to clear felling, neglect of subsequent regeneration and conservation practices, fragmentation of forests in liquidating servitudes, and the building of summer resort dwellings. In the western parts of the country the ratio of the forest cover was reduced from 21.5 percent in the 19th century to 20.7 percent at the beginning of the 20th century; in the southern parts the figures declined from 28.7 percent to 25.4 percent; and in the central and eastern parts from 30.4 percent to 19.2 percent. For the country as a whole (boundaries prior to 1939) the figure of forest cover ratio decreased from 28 percent to 22.2 percent respectively. As the result largely of extensive afforestation, the percentage had increased by 1955 to 23.8 percent. However, at the same time an adverse process was at work owing to the large-scale development of the mining industry.
A report to FAO describes the actual area of land tender forest and tree cover as insufficient. A program for increasing the forested ratio up to 26.6 percent (by 1975 up to 25.5 percent) is under way. The entire program on public land will be financed by the State and on private land will be carried out at the cost of the owner with State assistance in seed, planting stock and competent technical assistance.
· The last annual report of the Southern Rhodesia Forestry Commission records with some pride exploitation from the Stapleford Forest Reserve in the Eastern Districts.
In 1956/57, 202 acres (82 ha.) of pines were clear-felled yielding 993, 300 cubic feet (28,130 m³) over bark of timber, the bulk of which was in the form of sawlogs. Extraction from thinned areas yielded 407,100 cubic feet (11,630 m³) over bark of timber, three-quarters of which was saw timber and most of the remainder pulpwood billets. The total volume extracted of 1,400,400 cubic feet (39,660 m³) when compared with the 800,000 cubic feet (22,666 m³) extracted during the previous year, gives an indication of the increasing scale of exploitation on the Reserve.
Felling in clear-felling areas was largely done very successfully with power chain saws operated by trained Africans. Wherever possible extraction from clear-felled areas was done by tractors but Wyssen cables or tractor winches were used to bunch logs in difficult country. Tractors were also used to haul logs from stump to roadside in areas of third thinnings, whilst smaller thinnings were dealt with by a combination of light tracked tractors and oxen. Loading at roadside was done on an increasing scale by winches but hand labor was used to augment these.
The direct labor cost of extraction from clear-felled areas fell from 0.9d. to 0.47d. per cubic foot and the output per man/day unit rose from 46.2 to 118.5 cubic feet. (1.36 to 3.33 m³.) In thinned areas equivalent costs fell from 1.18d. to 0.91d. per cubic foot, and output per unit increased from 31 to 51 cubic feet (0.87 to 0.44 m³).
The direct labor cost of loading loge from clear-felled areas dropped from 0.32d. to 0.24d. per cubic foot and the output per unit rose from 136 to 242 cubic feet (3.84 to 6.84 m³) The direct labor cost of loading from thinned areas remained unchanged, but output per unit rose from 146.7 cubic feet to 180.2 cubic feet (4.14 to 5.14 m³).
Whereas the Stapleford Forest exploitation account for the previous year showed a deficit of £6,700 there was a profit of £5,800 on the 1956/57 working, after allocation of overhead expenses.
· A report to FAO on the land-use situation in the Sudan divides the country into regions as shown in the following Table.
The woodland savanna, the report says, may be divided into two zones - a dry savanna and a wet savanna. In the dry savanna the rainfall varies between 300 to 900 millimeters. The soil is of two major types - sandy soils west of the White Nile and clay soils east of it. Agricultural development on the clay soil is extensive in this area. Pump schemes extend along the Blue Nile on both banks as far south as latitude 12° 30'. On the White Nile, pump schemes are extended further south. On the areas where the rainfall is between 600 to 700 millimeters extensive mechanized grain production dependent only on rainfall has been embarked on, and the area is being gradually extended. American cotton is also grown in certain parts of this area on rain only. Rice cultivation wee recently introduced in areas along the banks of the White Nile, but there is no organized production on a large scale.
Shifting cultivation is more intensive on the clay than on the sandy soils. On the clay, in addition to grain, large quantities of sesame are produced. On the sandy soils, ground nuts are extensively grown, together with grain and sesame.
The major difficulty in using these extensive areas of clay and sandy soils where the rainfall is sufficient for crop production, is the domestic water supply at the time of ripening and harvesting the crop. This difficulty has in part been overcome by making surface reservoirs (haffirs) for storing water. Through such haffirs, large areas which were formerly closed to grazing owing to the lack of water, are now utilized.
The forests of this region may be divided as follows:
(a) Acacia mellifera. This species is found where the rainfall does not exceed 600 millimeters on clay soils. Some areas have been reserved for charcoal and firewood production.
(b) Acacia arabica. These forests reach their southernmost limit in this region, i.e., south of latitude 12° N. Along the Blue Nile, Dinder and Rahad rivers, most of them have been reserved, but only those of the Blue Nile have been put under planed management for sawn timber production (for sleepers). Many of the forests on the Dinder and Rahad have been exploited for this purpose and have been regenerated after felling.
(c) Acacia seyal. This species is by far the commonest on clay soils in this region. It yields a valuable gum which is inferior to gum arable. The wood is usually used for charcoal production. It is not valued as pole because it is very susceptible to insects (borers). Large areas of this type have been reserved.
(d) Acacia senegal. This is limited to small groups and sporadic trees scattered in the above zone, but where the rainfall is between 600 to 700 millimeters.
(e) Combretum, Terminalia, Anogeissus, Albizzia sericocephala. This forest is confined to the sandy soils where the rainfall is over 460 millimeters. A new railway has been extended west-wards in this region and planned, large scale, mechanized crop production is being considered. Not much forest reservation has been carried out, but plans are under way. This is also an important grazing area.
SUDAN: LAND-USE SITUATION ACCORDING TO REGION
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11 829 775
In the wet savanna, the rainfall varies between 900 and 1,000 millimeters. Clay soils with Acacia seyal are not uncommon in the northern parts of this zone. Combretum, Terminalia, Anogeissus, etc., are found on the lighter soils. On the iron-stone soils which are found further south, Isoberlinia dominates, with Khaya senegalensis in certain areas. In the southernmost region with the highest rainfall, closed savanna occurs, recently derived from rain forests through the agency of fires. Valuable species such as Chlorophera excelsa, Khaya grandifolia, Daniellia oliveri, Maesopsis eminii are found.
Forestry activities in this region are fairly extensive. There are three groups of sawmills. The logs utilized do not necessarily come from reserved forests, but forest reservation is going on rapidly. Formation on exotic plantations, mainly with teak on plain and valley soils, is taking place.
Grazing in this area is fairly extensive. The southwestern corner of the country is excluded, due to the prevalence of sleeping sickness.
Shifting cultivation is practiced throughout the region. The main crops are groundouts and grain. Tobacco and rice are also cultivated. Coffee occurs naturally in some of the forests, but fairly large plantations have been successfully established. Tea plantations are being considered and experiments are being carried out.
There are two important zones of montane vegetation. In the southeastern Sudan there are the mountain masses of the Imatonga rising to over 10,000 feet (3,000 meters), the Didinga and the Dongotona hills. The main land use activity in this area is forestry. Conifers are planted. Coflea arabica as opposed to C. robusta which is planted in the western parts, is successfully established. Tea plantations are also being considered. Shifting cultivation is practiced on gentle slopes and valleys.
In the western Sudan there is Gebel Marra, rising to over 10,000 feet, (3,000 meters). There are perennial streams and fertile volcanic soils. Terraced, irrigated cultivation on the hill slopes is practiced. The people grow wheat, red pepper and other grains. The growing of citrus trees is becoming common in this area. Large-scale forestry activities and organized irrigation with reservoirs, etc., is under consideration.
United States of America
· A report (Technical Bulletin No. 1139) of the Department of Agriculture deals with the biological control of insect pests in the United States, primarily the pests of agricultural crops but also the pests of forest and ornamental trees.
Most of the pests are of foreign origin. The first intentional importation of an insect enemy of a crop pest was in 1884, but real biological control work began four years later. Since that time the search for natural enemies of pests has covered the entire world, and successfully introduced, effective parasites, now numbering 95, have come from western Europe, Australia, southeast Asia and South Africa, with a few from South America. In addition, various native predators which originally were blocked by various barriers from spreading have now been successfully introduced in some parts of the United States.
With the introduction of new insects, acme complex problems have arisen about the effects of insecticides not only on the pests but also on the predators. There is no general or simple answer to this relation.
As to forest trees, success has been attained in relation to the gypsy moth, brown-tail moth and satin moth, all of which are introduced and all of which have caused great damage to forest and shade trees in the eastern United States. In all these cases, the level of control by the predator is by no means complete but is sufficient to be very much worthwhile.
The publication includes not only a very comprehensive bibliography but a full summary of knowledge to date on the established parasites and predators which may have applicability elsewhere.
· After many years as a valueless weed tree with limited industrial use, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) has recently come into greater use for poles, pulp and lumber, particularly in the four Rocky Mountain States of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado, which contain 80 percent of the total volume of the species. A recent study of lodgepole pine for sawn lumber shows that commercial production has risen from insignificant figures to about 200 million board feet per year, but this is still only one fifth of the allowable cut. Even so, the competitive position of lodgepole pine against other western species is improving and in one sample the average price of lodgepole was nearly 10 percent below that of competitive species.
TURKEY: To commemorate the centenary of forestry teaching in Turkey, a special series of stamps was issued by a joint collaboration between the Ministry of Communications and the Ministry of Agriculture in November 1957. Only 600,000 sets were released in the two designs shown heve.
Four banderoles, attached to the stamps read as follows: "Forests are indispensable gifts and invaluable ornaments of the earth." "A country without forest is not a motherland. Ataturk." "Forests are an insurance for agriculture." "Forests and water are the sources of life."
The position can be improved by reducing manufacturing costs, especially by using small sawmills particularly designed for handling small logs, by increasing the lumber recovery and possibly by gluing up narrow boards to make wider stock which carry a higher price in the markets. In total, the once-despised species has now fully established itself
· Wood for Marine Use and its Protection from Marine Organisms, (ASTM Special Technical Bulletin No. 200, The American Society for Testing Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia 3, Pa., 62 pp.) contains papers presented at a technical session of the Second Pacific Area National Meeting held in Los Angeles, California, on 17 September 1956. Four individual papers deal with: the distribution and importance of marine wood borers in the United States; marine exposure tests of wood treated with various preservatives; performance tests of heavy metal compounds; and the relationship between limnoria species and service life of creosoted piling. A bibliography is included, designed to make available to engineers a cross-indexed list of the important and more recent comprehensive papers dealing with biologic and ecologic aspects of marine borers and to illustrate the variety in the kinds of known boring organisms and the diversity of the substances into which they penetrate. The bibliography has been divided into three parts: first, an annotated list of references by authors; second, a general systematic index to the organisms; and third, an index of the major kinds of substances which have been attacked by borers.
Together, the papers are intended to present a picture of marine borer problems and the difficulties encountered, the results of some special research studies on the nature and distribution of certain organisms, the most susceptible zone of attack and the effectiveness of certain specific protection procedures.
· One of a series of technical assistance missions carried out recently in Yugoslavia concerned forest inventory methods.
The specialist engaged by FAO considered that a country-wide forest inventory would not be very costly. In Sweden, the complete national forest survey costs less than two diners (5 cents) per year per hectare. This very reasonable figure is partly explained by the fact that the Swedish terrain is fairly even and the forest areas are very concentrated. A Yugoslav national forest inventory would be somewhat more costly, varying from perhaps 6 to 10 diners per hectare per year due to the special difficulties created by the steep terrain and the scattered forest areas. The costs of the working plans on which present inventories are based, amount to about 500 to 1,500 diners (U.S.$1.20 to $3.75) per hectare.
Including the changes to be envisaged in planning methods, the total costs of instruments to be bought and aerial photographs to be taken, it is safe to assume that considerable savings would be possible once new methods had been applied for one or two years and the work was thoroughly organized. Costa are considerably influenced by the way field work is organized. Every effort should, therefore, be made to reduce field work costs to a minimum without sacrificing the degree of precision required by the survey. In this connexion, the demonstration inventory is of considerable importance. The costs of a demonstration inventory should be regarded as a necessary research expense and as an investment that will eventually yield good dividends.